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List of countries' copyright length: Map

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This is a list of different countries and the length of their standard copyright in years. Most countries now have copyright terms that are based on the death dates of the individual authors. Laws regarding anonymous works, corporate-authored works, non-literary works, unpublished works, or posthumous works vary per country. It is not intended to be used as a legal guideline since it cannot reflect the complexity of the copyright laws in effect at any one time and since copyright laws are changing continuously. It is intended only as an overview of the portions of the world which are under any particular style of copyright. See the "see also" and "external links" at the end of this article for more details.

Although they are not countries, the list also includes entries for the European Union, Berne Convention, and the Universal Copyright Convention, which set minimum terms for their member nations or signatories. The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), though not included, requires a copyright length of at least 50 years after death.

Legend

  • ibid. = ibidem, "in the same place"
  • 0, no copyright = not copyrighted
  • xx years after death = copyrighted for authors' lifetime plus xx years after their deaths
  • xx years after publication, creation, etc. = copyrighted for xx years since publication, creation, etc., of works
  • Until year end = copyrighted until the end of a calendar year, i.e. December 31


Table

Countries and areas Terms of copyright protection References
Afghanistan 0, no copyright The first copyright law has yet to be passed.
Albania Life + 70 years until year end Arts. 17 and 21, Law no. 7564 of 19 April 1992, as modified by Law no. 7923 of 19 May 1995
Algeria Life + 50 years until year end (except posthumous work) Art. 54, Ordonnance n° 03-05 du 19 Joumada El Oula 1424 correspondant au 19 juillet 2003 relative aux droits d’auteur et aux droits voisins
Andorra Life + 70 years until year end
Art. 18(1), (4), (8), Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 1999
Angola Life + 50 years until year end
Life + 25 years until year end (photographic works or applied arts)
Art. 20(1), Copyright Law n° 4/90, March 1990
ibid.
Anguillamarker unknown
Antigua and Barbuda Life + 50 years until year end s. 10(1), Copyright Act, 2002
Argentina Life + 70 years until year end Art. 5, Ley 11.723 del 28 de septiembre de 1933, as modified by Ley 24.870 del 11 de septiembre de 1997
Armenia Life + 50 years until year end (except posthumous work first published within 50 years after the author's death) Art. 26, 1st paragraph, Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights of 12 January 2000
Arubamarker unknown
Australia (including external territories) Life + 70 years until year end
Life + 50 years until year end (death before 1955)
s. 33, Copyright Act 1968
Australian Copyright Council Information Sheets G023 (Duration)
Austria Life + 70 years until year end § 60, 62, 64, Urheberrechtsgesetz;

§ 1(2), Urheberrechtsgesetznovelle 1972 (Nr. 492, 1972-12-16)
Azerbaijan Life + 50 years until year end (except posthumous work published at first time during 30 years) Art. 25(1), (2), Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 5 June 1996
Bahamas Berne
Bahrain Life + 50 calendar years (except posthumous work) Art. 31(1), Legislative Decree no. 10 of 1993
Bangladesh Life + 50 years
Barbados Life + 50 calendar years s. 10(1), Copyright, Act, 05/03/1998, No. 4
Belarus Life + 50 years until year end Art. 22(1), (4), Law 194-3 of 11 August 1998
Belgium Life + 70 years Wet betreffende het auteursrecht en de naburige rechten van 30 juni 1994. (Hoofdstuk 1, afdeling 1, Art. 2)/Loi relative au droit d’auteur et aux droits voisins du 30 juin 1994.
Belize Life + 50 years s. 10, Copyright Act Ch. 252
Benin Life + 50 years
Bermudamarker unknown
Berne Convention signatories Life + 50 years
Until year end

Signatories may grant longer terms.
Art. 7(1)
Art.

7(5)

Art.

7(6)
Bhutan Life + 50 years s. 18, Copyright Act of the Kingdom of Bhutan, 2001
Bolivia Life + 50 years Art. 18, Ley No 1322 de 13 de abril de 1992
Bosnia and Herzegovina Life + 70 years Art. 84, Law on Copyright and Related Rights (7/02)
Botswana Berne, TRIPS, WCT Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act, Act No. 8 of 2000
Brazil Life + 70 years Art. 41, Law no 9610 of 19 February 1998
British Indian Ocean Territorymarker unknown
British Virgin Islandsmarker unknown
Brunei Life + 50 years s. 14, Emergency (Copyright) Order 1999
Bulgaria Life + 70 years (EU) Art. 27, Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights, last changed in 2007
Burkina Faso Life + 70 years Art. 34, Loi N°032-99AN portant protection de la propriété littéraire et artistique
Burundi Life + 50 years
Cambodia Life + 50 years Art. 30, Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 2003
Cameroon Life + 50 years Art. 37, Loi no 2000/011 du 19 décembre 2000
Canada Life + 50 years s. 6, Copyright Act ( R.S., 1985, c. C-42 );

s. 7, S.C. 1997, c. 24
Cape Verde Life + 50 years Art. 19, Lei no. 101/III/90 de 29 de dezembro de 1990
Cayman Islandsmarker unknown
Central African Republic Berne, TRIPS
Chad Berne, TRIPS
Chile Life + 70 years Art. 3, Law 19914 implementing free trade agreement with the US (2003)
China, People's Republic of (Mainland only) Life + 50 years until year end (citizens' works) Art. 21, first paragraph, Copyright Law of the People's Republic of China
Colombia Life + 80 years
Until year end
Art. 21, Ley 23 de 1982
Art.

28, ibid.
Comoros Berne
Congo (Democratic Republic) Berne, TRIPS
Congo (Republic) Berne, TRIPS
Costa Rica Life + 70 years Art. 58, Ley de Derechos de Autor y Derechos Conexos modified by the Ley 7979 del 6 del enero del 2000
Cote d'Ivoire Life + 99 years until year end Art. 45(1), Loi no. 96-564 du 25 juillet 1996
Croatia Life + 70 years Art. 99, Copyright and Related Rights Act 197/2003
Cuba Life + 50 years
Cyprus Life + 50 years

(EU, WCT)
s. 4, Copyright Law 1976
Czech Republic Life + 70 years
Until year end
Art. 27(1), Law No. 121/2000 Coll.
Art.

27(7), ibid.
Denmark Life + 70 years s. 63, Consolidated Act on Copyright 2006
Djibouti Life + 25 years (Berne, TRIPS)
Until year end
Art. 59, Loi n°114/AN/96/3e L relatif à la protection du droit d'auteur
Art.

65, ibid.
Dominica Life + 70 years s. 11, Copyright Act 2003
Dominican Republic Life + 50 years Art. 21, Ley sobre Derecho de Autor del 24 de julio de 2000
Ecuador Life + 70 years Art. 80, Ley No 83 de Propiedad Intelectual (1998)
Egypt Life + 50 years Art. 160, Law on the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights
El Salvador Life + 50 years Art. 86, Decreto Legislativo No. 604 del 15 de julio de 1993
Equatorial Guinea Berne
Eritrea unknown
Estonia Life + 70 years (EU);
Counting starts from the beginning of the year following the author's death
§ 38, Edition of the Copyright Act effective since 01.01.2009 ; First enacted on 11.11.1992
Ethiopia Life of creator Title XI of the 1960 Civil Code
European Union members Life + 70 years
Until year end
Art. 1 (1), Directive 2006/116/EC
Art.

8, ibid.
Fiji Life + 50 years Copyright Act 1999
Finland Life + 70 years Art. 43, Law No. 404/1961, as amended by Law No. 1654/1995
France Life + 70 years until year end
+ 6 years 152 days for musical work published through 1920

+ 8 years and 120 days for musical work published through 1947

+ 30 years if the author died on active service
Art. L123-1, Code de la propriété intellectuelle
Art.

L123-8, ibid.

Art.

L123-9, ibid.

Art.

L123-10, ibid.
Gabon Berne, TRIPS, WCT
Gambia Life + 50 years Copyright Act 1956 (p)
Georgia Life + 70 years Art. 31, Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights of 22 June 1999
Germany Life + 70 years § 64, Urheberrechtsgesetz, as amended by the Law of 23 June 1995
Ghana Life + 70 years Art. 12, Copyright Act, 2005
Greece Life + 70 years
Life + 70 years (audiovisual works)

Until year end
Art. 29, Law 2121/1993
Art.

31(3), ibid.

All previous references
Grenada Berne, TRIPS Copyright Act, dated 3 February 1989
Guatemala Life + 75 years Art. 43, Decreto No. 33-98, as modified by Art. 13, Decreto No. 56-2000
Guinea TRIPS, WCT
Guinea-Bissau Berne, TRIPS
Guyana Life + 50 years Copyright Act 1956
Haiti Berne, TRIPS Decree of January 9, 1968, relating to Copyright in Literary, Scientific and Artistic Works
Honduras Life + 75 years Art. 44, Law on Copyright and Related Rights
Hong Kong Life + 50 years (literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works with known authorship)
Life + 50 years (films)

Until year end
s. 17(2), Copyright Ordinance (Cap. 528)
s.

19, ibid.

All previous references
Hungary Life + 70 years Art. 31, Act No. LXXVI of 1999
Iceland Life + 70 years Art. 43, Act No. 73/1972, as amended by Art. 4, Act No. 145/1996
India Life + 60 years until year end (literary, dramatic, musical, and non-photograph artistic works) s. 22, Copyright Act, 1957
Indonesia Life + 50 years Art. 29, Law No. 19 of 2002
Iran Life + 30 years Art. 12, Copyright Law of 12 January 1970
Iraq Life + 50 years s. 2(11), Coalition Provisional Authority Order No. 2004/83
Ireland Life + 70 years s. 24, Copyright and Related Rights Act, 2000
Israel Life + 70 years
Until year end
Art. 5(4), Copyright Ordinance 1924
Art.

5(3), ibid.
Italy Life + 70 years

[Life + 50 years]
Art. 25, Law No. 633 of 22 April 1941, as amended by Art. 17, Law No. 52 of 6 February 1996
Jamaica Life + 50 years s. 10, Copyright Act 1993
Japan Life + 50 years
Until year end
Art. 51(2), Law No. 48 of 6 May 1970, as amended in 2006
Art.

57, ibid.
Jordan Life + 50 years Art. 30, Law No. 22 of 1992, as amended
Kazakhstan Life + 50 years Art. 28, Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights of 1996
Kenya Life + 50 years until year end (literary, musical or artistic work other than photographs) s. 23(2)1, Copyright Act, 2001
Kiribati Life + 50 years Copyright Act 1956 (p)
Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Berne
Korea, Republic of Life + 50 years
Until year end
Art. 36, Copyright Act of 30 December 1989
Art.

40, ibid.
Kuwait TRIPS Decree Law No. 64 of 1999 concerning Intellectual Property Rights
Kyrgyzstan Life + 50 years Art. 27, Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 16 December 1997
Laosmarker 0, no copyright The first copyright law has yet to be passed.[82960]
Latvia Life + 70 years

[Life + 50 years]
Art. 36, Copyright Law of 6 April 2000

Art. 28, Law on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights of 11 May 1993
Lebanon Life + 50 years Art. 49, Loi sur la protection de la propriété littéraire et artistique (no. 75 du 3 avril 1999)
Lesotho Life + 50 years Copyright Act 1956 (p)
Libya Life + 25 years with 50-year minimum (as of 1968; may have changed since)
Liechtenstein Life + 70 years

[Life + 50 years]
Art. 32, Law of 19 May 1999

[Art. 36, [http://www.wipo.int/clea/docs_new/fr/li/li001fr.html Law of 26 October 1928]
Lithuania Life + 70 years

[Life + 50 years]
Art. 34, Law No. IX-1355 (2003)

[Art. 536, Civil Code as modified by [http://www3.lrs.lt/pls/inter3/dokpaieska.showdoc_l?p_id=24740 Law No. I-459 (1994)]
Luxembourg Life + 70 years

[Life + 50 years]
Art. 9, Law of 18 April 2001

[Art. 2, Law of 29 March 1972]
Macau(b) Life + 50 years
Until year end
Art. 21(1), Decree-Law 43/99/M of August 16, 1999
Art.

21(3), ibid.
Macedonia Life + 70 years Art. 44, Law on Copyright and Related Rights No. 47/96 as amended
Madagascar Life + 70 years Art. 52, Loi no. 94-036 portant sur la propriété littéraire et artistique
Malawi Life + 50 years s. 13, Copyright Act, 1989
Malaysia Life + 50 years s. 17, Copyright Act 1987
Maldives TRIPS
Mali Life + 50 years Art. 90, Loi No. 8426/AN-RM
Malta Life + 70 years s. 4(2), Copyright Act, 2000
Marshall Islandsmarker 0, no copyright Copyright legislation is not known to exist.
Mauritania Berne, TRIPS
Mauritius Life + 50 years s. 12, Copyright Act 1997
Mexico Life + 100 years (effective 23 July 2003 non-retroactively)
Life + 75 years (before the law change on 23 July 2003, applicable for deaths before 23 July 1928)
Art. 29, Ley Federal del Derecho de Autor (2003)
Art.

29, Ley Federal del Derecho de Autor (1996)
Micronesia Life + 50 years § 113, Federated States of Micronesia Code, Title 35
Moldova Life + 50 years Art. 17, Law No. 293-XIII of 23 November 1994
Monaco WCT
Mongolia Life + 50 years Art. 17, Law on Copyright of 1993
Montenegro Life + 70 years Art. 100, Law on Copyright and Related Rights
Morocco Life + 50 years Art. 25, Loi no. 2-00 relative aux droits d’auteur et droits voisins
Mozambique Life + 70 years Art. 22, Law No. 4/2001
Myanmar TRIPS
Namibia Life + 50 years s. 3, Copyright Act 98 of 1978, as amended by s. 3, Act 52 of 1984, s. 3, Act 125 of 1992 and by s. 52, Act 38 of 1997
Nauru unknown
Nepal Life + 50 years Pustun Pradhan (2004). " Nepal's New Law on Copyright: Some Reflections", UNESCOmarker e-Copyright Bulletin, January–March 2004.
Netherlands Life + 70 years Art. 37, Copyright Act, 1912, as amended by the Acts of 21 December 1995
New Zealand Life + 50 years until year end (literary, dramatic, musical, or artistic work) s. 22(1), Copyright Act 1994
Nicaragua Life + 70 years Art. 27, Ley de Derecho de Autor y Derechos Conexos (No. 312)
Niger Life + 50 years Art. 22, Ordinance 93-027 of 30 March 1993 on copyright, related rights and expressions of folklore
Nigeria Life + 70 years until year end (literary, musical or artistic works other than photographs) Schedule I, Copyright Act (Cap. 68) 1990
Norway Life + 70 years s. 40, Act No. 2 of 12 May 1961
Oman Life + 50 years Art. 7, Royal Decree 37-2000
Pakistanmarker Life + 50 years s. 18, Copyright Ordinance, 1962
Palau Life + 50 years s. 16, Republic of Palau Copyright Act of 2003
Panama Life + 50 years Art. 42, Ley No. 15 de 8 de agosto de 1994
Papua New Guinea Life + 50 years s. 17, Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act 2000
Paraguay Life + 70 years Art. 47, Ley No. 1328/98 de Derecho de Autor y Derechos Conexos
Peru Life + 70 years Art. 52, Decreto legislativo 822 del 23 de abril de 1996
Philippines Life + 50 years
Until year end
s. 213.1, Intellectual Property Code
s.

214, ibid.
Poland Life + 70 years Art. 36, Law of February 4, 1994, on Copyright and Neighbouring Rights, as amended by the Law of 22 July 2000
Portugal Life + 70 years

[Life + 50 years]
Art. 31, Code of Copyright and Related Rights, as amended by Decree Law No. 334/97 of 27 November 1997
Qatar Life + 50 years s. 15, Law No. 7 of 2002
Romania Life + 70 years Art. 27, Law No. 8 of March 14, 1996
Russia Life + 70 years starting July 28, 2004 ( Source); Life + 50 years (death before 1953) Art. 2, Law 72-FZ, 2004
Rwanda Berne, TRIPS
St. Kitts and Nevis Life + 50 years Copyright Act 1956 (p)
St. Lucia Life + 50 years s. 10, Copyright Act, 1995
St. Vincent and the Grenadines Life + 75 years until year end (literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work) s. 8(1), Copyright Act, 2003
Samoa Berne
San Marino unknown
São Tomé and Príncipe unknown
Saudi Arabia Life + 50 years Royal Decree No: M/41 2nd Rajab 1424 H August 30, 2003
Senegal Berne, TRIPS
Serbia Life + 70 years

See Serbian copyright law
Art. 100, Law on Copyright and Related Rights
Seychelles Life + 25 years until year end s. 9(1)(i), Copyright Act, revised edition 1991
Singapore Life + 70 years or if published after death 70 years after publication (literary, dramatic or musical work, or in an artistic work other than a photograph) s. 28(2), (3), Copyright Act
Slovakia Life + 70 years § 21, Law on Copyright and Rights Related to Copyright (Copyright Act) No. 618/2003
Slovenia Life + 70 years Art. 59, Copyright and Related Rights Act of 30 March 1995
Solomon Islands Life + 50 years s. 3, Copyright Act (Ch. 138)
Somalia unknown
South Africa Life + 50 years until year end (literary or musical works or artistic works, other than photographs) s. 3(2)(a), Copyright Act, 1978
Spain Life + 70 years
[Life + 80 years(1879 - 1987), Life + 60 years(1987 - 1994)]
Art. 23, Real Decreto 1/1996
Sri Lanka Life + 50 years
Until year end
s. 19(1), Code of Intellectual Property Act No. 52 of 1979
s.

19(6), ibid.
Sudan Life + 50 years s. 13(2), Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Protection Act 1996
Suriname Berne, TRIPS
Swaziland Life + 50 years Copyright Act No. 36 of 1912
Sweden Life + 70 years Art. 43, Act 1960:729, as modified by Act 1995:1273
Switzerland Life + 70 years effective 1 July 1993 non-retroactively, but Life + 50 years for computer programs
Until year end

Life + 50 years (before the law change on 1 July 1993, applicable for deaths through 1942)
Art. 29 Urheberrechtgesetz/ Loi sur le droit d’auteur par. 2
Art.

32, ibid.

BGE 124 III 266
Syria Life + 50 years Art. 22, Law No. 12/2001
Taiwan, Republic of China Life + 50 years
Until year end
Art. 30, Copyright Act
Art.

35, ibid.
Tajikistan Berne
Tanzania Life + 50 years s. 14, Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act, 1999
Thailand Life + 50 years s. 19, Copyright Act, B.E. 2537 (1994)
Timor Leste Life + 50 years Art. 29, Law No. 19 of 2002
Togo Life + 50 years Art. 36, Loi no. 91-12 portant protection du droit d'auteur, du folklore et des droits voisins
Tonga Life + 50 years s. 13, Copyright Act (Cap. 121)
Trinidad and Tobago Life + 50 years s. 19, Copyright Act, 1997
Tunisia Life + 50 years Art. 18, Loi no. 94-36
Turkey Life + 70 years Art. 27, Law No. 5846 of 5 December 1951
Turkmenistan unknown
Tuvalu Life + 50 years Copyright Act 1956 (p)
Uganda TRIPS
Ukraine Life + 70 years

[Life + 50 years]
Art. 28, Law on Copyright and Related Rights of 2001

 
United Arab Emirates Life + 50 years s. 20, Federal Law No. 7 of 2002
United Kingdom Life + 70 years until year end s. 12, Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, as amended by s. 5, Duration of Copyright and Rights in Performances Regulations 1995
United States Life + 70 years until year end (works published since 1978 or unpublished works) (a) and
Universal Copyright Convention minimum terms Life + 25 years (general works) Article IV 2(a)
Uruguay Life + 50 years Art. 14, Law on Copyright No. 9.739 of 17 December 1937
Uzbekistan Life + 50 years Art. 38, Law No. 272-I of 30 August 1996
Vanuatu unknown
Vatican City Life + 70 years N. XII. Legge sil diritto di autore
Venezuela Life + 60 years until year end Art. 25, Ley sobre el Dercho de Autor as modified by the Decreto del 14 de agosto de 1993
Vietnam Berne
Yemen Life + 30 years
Zambia Life + 50 years s. 12, Copyright and Performance Rights Act, 1994
Zimbabwe Life + 50 years until year end (literary, dramatic, and musical works; non-photograph artistic works) s. 5(3), 6(3)(a), Copyright Act (Chapter 26:1)


Table notes

Terms of protection were taken from a variety of sources, including WIPO, UNESCOmarker and the University of Pennsylvaniamarker (see External links). Where no more specific information is available for a country, an indication of its probable minimum copyright term can be gained from its status as:
  • a signatory of the Berne Convention ("Berne"); minimum term of life + 50 years, except for photographs.
  • a member of the WTO ("TRIPS"); minimum term of life + 50 years.
  • a candidate for membership of the European Union ("EU"); term must be life + 70 years before accession.


Notes

  1. http://www.goodwinprocter.com/~/media/A5C66A80AB93408C857813C59512C1BA.ashx
  2. An audiovisual work is copyrighted in Andorra for the same term, computed from the last of the following persons to survive: the principal director, the author of the scenario, the author of the dialogue and the composer of music specifically created for the audiovisual work.
  3. Literary, dramatic, musical or copyright artistic work.
  4. A cinematographic work is copyrighted in Austria for the same term, computed from the last surviving person among the following: the principal director of the film and the authors of the screenplay, the dialogues and the musical work specially created for the cinematographic work.
  5. Literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work.
  6. The Federal Republic of Germany is the successor state to the German Democratic Republic and to the German Empire
  7. Computed from the last of the following persons to survive: the principal director, the author of the screenplay, the author of the dialogue and the composer of the music specifically created for use in the audiovisual work.
  8. The Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau have their own status, distinct from that of the rest of China, under international copyright and trade law
  9. Computed from the last of the following persons with known identity to survive: (a) the principal director; (b) the author of the screenplay; (c) the author of the dialogue; or (d) the composer of music specially created for and used in the film.
  10. See also Copyright in India.
  11. UNESCO Culture Sector
  12. Montenegro is assumed to have succeeded to the copyright obligations of Serbia and Montenegro. See Serbia also.
  13. Including the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba: although Dutch adhesion to the Berne convention only applies to the Kingdom in Europe, membership of the WTO includes the overseas territories
  14. Serbia is deemed to be a successor state of Serbia and Montenegro, which itself was a successor state to Yugoslavia for international copyright treaties, notably the Berne Convention, effective 17 June 1930
  15. See also the Intellectual Property Office of Singapore.
  16. See also Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States by Peter B. Hirtle.


See also



External links




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