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This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent, sometimes referred to as transcontinental states. The definitions of what continent(s) a particular country covers may vary according to which criteria are used (whether purely geographical or geological or, on the other hand, political, economic or cultural criteria). An example is Russiamarker, which has its historical core as well as most of its population (72%), economic activity and political institutions (such as its capital citymarker) in Europe, yet geographically most of the territory (71%) is actually in Asia.

The article borders of the continents describes the details and disputes of continental boundaries, which are reflected in this list.

Separately listed below are 1.) countries whose contiguous continental territory or where nearby islands lie in two (or more) different continents, and 2.) distant non-contiguous parts lie on a different continent than the rest of the country.

Contiguous boundary

Africa and Asia

Green – Asia, pink – African part of Egypt, grey – rest of Africa


See Borders of the continents for more details about the geographical border between Africa and Asia.
The border between Asia and Africa is considered to go along the Isthmus of Suez and the Suez Canalmarker in Egyptmarker. The border continues through the Gulf of Suezmarker, Red Seamarker and Gulf of Adenmarker. Yemenmarker controls Hanish Islandsmarker in the Red Sea which lie beyond this border, as well as Socotramarker, so it has non-contiguous island territory in Africa, but is not considered a transcontinental country.

Egypt

Two of 29 governorates of Egyptmarker lie entirely on the Asian Sinai Peninsulamarker and two are transcontinental: Ismailia Governoratemarker is nearly equally divided by the Suez Canalmarker, and Suez Governoratemarker, which is coterminous with the transcontinental city of Suezmarker, has a small portion east of the Canal.

Asia and Europe

See Borders of the continents for more details about the geographical border between Europe and Asia.
See also Geographic criteria for EU membership.


Europe according to the UN


Western sources, such as the National Geographic Society, usually state that the Europe-Asia boundary follows the watershed of the Ural Mountainsmarker to the source of the Ural River, then follows that river to the Caspian Seamarker. The border then follows the watershed of the Caucasus Mountains from the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea. This is the definition illustrated in this section, although variations exist.

  • Azerbaijanmarker - situated in Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
  • Georgiamarker - situated in Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
  • Kazakhstanmarker - situated in Central Asia and Eastern Europe.
  • Russiamarker - situated in Northern Asia and Eastern Europe.
  • Turkeymarker - situated in Western Asia and Eastern Europe.


Azerbaijan

The northeastern Azerbaijan district borders run mostly along the main Caucasusmarker watershed. Five districts are entirely within Europe, and the transcontinental Khizi district is almost equally divided on the two sides of the watershed. Azerbaijan is a member of the Council of Europe.

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan's provincial borders do not follow the Ural River, although some of its western district borders do so. Two of the provinces are transcontinental, Atyrau Provincemarker and West Kazakhstan Provincemarker. The capital of the former, Atyraumarker, is split by the mouth of the Ural and is a transcontinental city. Almost all of it is in Asia with a small portion in Europe. Two of Atyrau Province's districts are entirely in Europe, three of its districts are entirely in Asia, and its Inderskiy and Makhambetskiy districts are transcontinental. Five of West Kazakhstan's districts and the province's capital city of Oralmarker are entirely in Europe, five of its districts are entirely in Asia, and its Akzhaikskiy district is transcontinental.

Russia

Russian regions' borders follow the Ural Mountainsmarker and Ural River closely enough. There is a very small area (less than 300 km²) of Russian territory south of the main Caucasusmarker watershed in Asia. Orenburgmarker on the Ural River is a transcontinental city. More detail on the political divisions through which the intercontinental boundary runs can be found here. Russia is a member of the Council of Europe.

Turkey

Three of Turkeymarker's provinces are entirely in Europe while Çanakkalemarker and Istanbulmarker are transcontinental provinces. Three of Çanakkale's districts are entirely in Europe and its other nine districts are entirely in Asia. Nineteen of Istanbul's districts are entirely in Europe and its other twelve districts (forming Anatoliamarker) are entirely in Asia.

North and South America

green - South America, pink/grey - North America
See Borders of the continents and South America pages for more details about the geographical border between the two Americas.


Panama

Most authorities and most Panamanians consider Panamamarker to be North America's southernmost nation, entirely within both Central America and North America. An alternative view is that the man-made Panama Canalmarker, being a concrete line to demarcate the Isthmus of Panama, divides the continents. That would place Darién Provincemarker and four comarcas indígenas entirely in South America. Panamá Provincemarker and Colón Provincemarker would both be transcontinental, with Colón nearly equally divided between both Americas and Panamá Province unequally divided, with nearly a 1:4 ratio in South America's favour. A map of the locations of the districts of these two provinces and their area and population numbers is needed. The Pearl Islandsmarker and Taboga Islandmarker in the Gulf of Panamamarker are part of Panamá Province and would be associated with South America and North America, respectively. Six other provinces and the comarca indígena of Ngöbe-Buglé would be entirely in North America.

Non-contiguous

Africa and Europe

See Borders of the continents for more details about the geographical border between Africa and Europe.




Asia and Africa



Asia and Oceania







  • Japan: All of Japanmarker consists of Asian islands except for the remote and uninhabited Minami Torishimamarker, which is an Oceanian island and administratively part of the city of Tokyomarker and the subdivision of Ogasawara Villagemarker, along with other outlying Japanese islands to the south and southeast of the city.






North America and Oceania



North and South America


North American Caribbean islands belonging to South American countries:
Isla Avesmarker [128347]

South American Caribbean islands:


  • Arubamarker: Lies on the continental shelf of South America, and is thus considered to lie entirely in South America, but all Caribbean islands are often labelled as North American, and the language and cultural links are not to South America.
  • Colombia: Mainland Colombiamarker is in northwestern South America and Malpelo Islandmarker in the Pacific Oceanmarker is also associated with South America, but the nation also controls the San Andrés and Providencia archipelago, 400 miles WNW of Colombia's Caribbean coast, near the Caribbean coast of Nicaraguamarker. This archipelago is coterminous with the department of the same name.
  • Netherlands Antillesmarker: Bonairemarker and Curaçaomarker lie entirely in South America because of the position of the continental shelf, while Sabamarker, Sint Eustatiusmarker, and Sint Maartenmarker lie entirely in North America. Similarly to Aruba, its historical connections are with the other Caribbean islands that are often labelled as North American, and the language and cultural links are not to South America but increasingly because of tourism and the financial industry to other English speaking Caribbean nations.
  • Trinidad and Tobagomarker: Lies on the continental shelf of South America, and is thus considered to lie entirely in South America, but all Caribbean islands are often labelled as North American, and the language and cultural links are not to South America but to the rest of the English speaking Caribbean nations.


Other examples



These examples have integral parts associated with other continents. Francemarker, Norwaymarker, South Africa, and the United Kingdommarker may also be considered transcontinental by virtue of distant island possessions associated with a continent other than where the country is based.

Antarctica: claims

A number of nations claim ownership over portions of the continent of Antarcticamarker. Some, including Argentinamarker and Chilemarker, consider the Antarctic land they claim to be integral parts of their national territory. Some nations also have sub-Antarctic island possessions north of 60°S latitude and thus recognized by international law under the Antarctic Treaty System, which holds in abeyance land claims south of 60°S latitude.

See also



References

External links




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