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List of human evolution fossils: Map

  
  

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The following charts give a brief overview of several notable primate fossil finds relating to human evolution. As there are thousands of fossils, this overview is not meant to be complete, but does show some of the most important finds. The fossils are arranged by approximate age as determined by radiometric dating and/or incremental dating. The species name represents current consensus, when there is no clear scientific consensus the other possible classifications are indicated; deprecated classifications may be found on the fossil's page. Most of the fossils shown are not considered direct ancestors to Homo sapiens but are closely related to direct ancestors and are therefore important to the study of the lineage.

More than 6 million years old

Image Name Age Species Date

discovered
Place Discovered by

Eosimias sinensis image 45 Ma Eosimias sinensis 1985 Chinamarker Lin Yipu
Aegyptopithecus zeuxis

image at

Skulls Unlimited
DPC 2803 >31 Ma Aegyptopithecus zeuxis 1941 Egyptmarker Elwyn Simons
Proconsul africanus

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Skulls Unlimited
KNM RU 7290 18 Ma Proconsul africanus 1948 Kenyamarker Mary Leakey
Image KNM WK 16999 16-18 Ma Afropithecus turkanensis 1986 Kenyamarker Richard Leakey
Image KNM WK 16950 16-18 Ma Turkanapithecus kalakolensis 1986 Kenyamarker Richard Leakey
GSP 15000 10.5-12.5 Ma Sivapithecus indicus 1979 Pakistanmarker D. Pilbeam and S. M. Ibrahim Shah
IGF 11778 8 Ma Oreopithecus bambolii 1872 Italymarker Paul Gervais
Image IVPP PA644 8 Ma Lufengpithecus lufengensis 1978 Chinamarker
Sahelanthropus tchadensis

image at

talkorigins.org
TM 266 7 Ma Sahelanthropus tchadensis 2001 Chadmarker Alain Beauvilain, Fanone Gongdibe, Mahamat Adoum and Ahounta Djimdoumalbaye
BAR 1000'00 6 Ma Orrorin tugenensis 2000 Kenyamarker Martin Pickford, Kiptalam Cheboi, Dominique Gommery, Pierre Mein, Brigitte Senut,


4 million - 6 million years old

Name Age Species Date

discovered
Place Discovered by
Sketch of Ardipithecus ramidus Ardi 4.4 Ma Ardipithecus ramidus 1992 Middle Awashmarker, Ethiopiamarker Tim White


3 million - 4 million years old

Name Age Species Date

discovered
Place Discovered by
Laetoli footprint

image at

Modern Human

Origins
Laetoli Footprints 3.7 Ma Bipedal hominid 1976 Tanzania Mary Leakey
LH 4

image at

Modern Human

Origins
LH 4 3.6 - 3.8 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1974 Tanzania Mary Leakey
KNM-WT 40000

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Modern Human

Origins
KNM WT 40000 3.5 Ma Kenyanthropus platyops 1999 Kenyamarker Justus Erus
Stw 573 3.3 Ma Australopithecus ? 1994 South Africa Ronald J. Clarke
DIK-1 3.3 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 2000 Ethiopiamarker Zeresenay Alemseged
AL 200-1 3 - 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1975 Ethiopiamarker Donald Johanson
AL 129-1 3 - 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis November 1973 Ethiopiamarker Donald Johanson
K 12 Australopithecus bahrelghazali 1995 Chadmarker Michel Brunet
AL 288-1 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis November 30, 1974 Ethiopiamarker Donald Johanson
AL444-2

image at

Modern Human

Origins
AL 444-2 3 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1991 Ethiopiamarker Bill Kimbel


2 million - 3 million years old

Name Age Species Date

discovered
Place Discovered by
STS 5

2.6 - 2.8 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom
STS 14

image at Modern

Human Origins
STS 14 2.6-2.8 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom
STS 52

image at Modern

Human Origins
STS 52 Australopithecus africanus
STS 71 2.5 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom
Taung 1

2.5 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1924 South Africa Raymond Dart
KNM WT 17000

2.5 Ma Paranthropus aethiopicus 1985 Kenyamarker Alan Walker
Wushan Man

image
Wushan Man 2-2.04 Ma Homo erectus 1986 Chinamarker
TM 1517 2 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1938 South Africa Gert Terblanche


1 million - 2 million years old

Name Age Species Date

discovered
Place Discovered by
KNM ER 1813 1.9 Ma Homo habilis 1973 Kenyamarker Kamoya Kimeu
KNM ER 1470 1.9 Ma Homo rudolfensis 1972 Kenyamarker Bernard Ngeneo
SK 48 1.8 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1948 South Africa Robert Broom
OH 24

1.8 Ma Homo habilis 1968 Tanzania Peter Nzube
OH 8 Image

of foot at

Modern Human

Origins
OH 8 1.8 Ma Homo habilis 1960 Tanzania
OH 5

1.8 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1959 Tanzania Mary Leakey
D 2700 1.8 Ma Homo georgicus 2001 Georgiamarker
OH 7 1.75 Ma Homo habilis 1960 Tanzania Jonathan Leakey
KNM ER 3733 1.75 Ma Homo ergaster 1975 Kenya Bernard Ngeneo
KNM ER 1805 1.74 Ma Homo habilis Koobi Fora, Kenyamarker
STW 53

image at

Modern Human

Origins
StW 53 1.5 - 2 Ma Homo habilis sensu Lato

or

unclassified

see Grine et al. 1996
1976 South Africa A. R. Hughes
SK 847

image at

Modern Human

Origins
SK 847 1.5 - 2 Ma Homo habilis sensu Lato

or

unclassified

see Grine et al. 1996
1949 South Africa
DNH 7

image at

Modern Human

Origins
DNH 7

1.5 - 2 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1994 South Africa André Keyser
SK 46 1.5-2 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1949 South Africa Robert Broom
OH 13 1.7 Ma Homo habilis 1963 Tanzania N. Mbuika
KNM ER 406 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1969 Kenyamarker Richard Leakey
KNM ER 732 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1970 Kenyamarker Richard Leakey
KNM ER 23000
KNM WT 17400 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei Kenyamarker
KNM WT 15000

1.6 Ma Homo erectus

or

Homo ergaster
1984 Kenyamarker Kamoya Kimeu
KNM ER 3883 1.4 - 1.6 Ma Homo erectus Kenyamarker Richard Leakey
Peninj Mandible 1.5 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1964 Tanzania Richard Leakey
Chellean OH 9

Image at

Modern Human

Origins
OH 9

1.5 Ma Homo erectus 1960 Tanzania Louis Leakey
KNM ER 992 1.5 Ma Homo ergaster 1971 Kenyamarker Richard Leakey
KGA 10-525 1.4 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1993 Ethiopiamarker A. Amzaye


100,000 - 1 million years old

Name Age Species Date

discovered
Place Discovered by
Sangiran 4 1 Ma Homo erectus 1939 Indonesiamarker G.H.R. von Koenigswald
Sangiran 2

image at

Modern Human

Origins
Sangiran 2 0.7-1.6 Ma Homo erectus 1937 Indonesiamarker G.H.R. von Koenigswald
Trinil 2

Pithecanthropus-1

or

Java Man
.7 - 1 Ma Homo erectus 1891 Indonesiamarker Eugène Dubois
780 - 858k Homo antecessor

or

Homo erectus
1994 Atapuercamarker, Spainmarker Bermúdez & Arsuaga
Peking Manmarker 680 - 780k Homo erectus 1921 Chinamarker Davidson Black
Ternifine 2-3 700k Homo erectus 1954 Algeriamarker C. Arambourg
Sangiran 17

image at

Modern Human

Origins
Sangiran 17 700k Homo erectus 1969 Indonesiamarker S. Sartono
Hexian PA830

image at

Modern Human

Origins
Hexian 400 - 500k Homo erectus 1980 Chinamarker
Skull 5 400k Homo heidelbergensis 1992 Atapuercamarker, Spainmarker Bermúdez, Arsuaga & Carbonell
Altamura Man 400k Homo heidelbergensis Altamuramarker, Italymarker
Bodo

image at

Modern Human

Origins
Bodo 600k Homo heidelbergensis

or

Homo erectus
1976 Ethiopiamarker A. Asfaw
Mauer 1

500k Homo heidelbergensis 1907 Germanymarker Daniel Hartmann
Ndutu
Sale
Saldanha man Saldanha man 500k Homo heidelbergensis 1953 South Africa
Arago XXI

image at

Modern Human

Origins
Arago 21

400k Homo heidelbergensis

or

Homo erectus
1971 Francemarker Henry de Lumley
Steinheim Skullmarker 350k Homo heidelbergensis

or

Homo neanderthalensis
1933 Germanymarker
Petralona 1

image at

Modern Human

Origins
Petralona 1 250 - 500k Homo erectus

or

Homo rhodesiensis
1960 Greecemarker
Swanscombe Manmarker 250k Homo heidelbergensis

or

Homo neanderthalensis
1935 Englandmarker Alvan T Marston
Ngandong 7 250k Homo heidelbergensis

or

Homo erectus
1931 Indonesiamarker C. ter Haar and G. H. R. von Koenigswald
Broken Hill 1

125 - 300k Homo rhodesiensis

or

Homo heidelbergensis
1921 Zambiamarker Tom Zwiglaar
Dali

image at

Modern Human

Origins
Dali 209k Homo heidelbergensis

or

Homo sapiens
1978 Chinamarker Shuntang Liu
LH 18 Homo sapiens 1976 Tanzania Mary Leakey
Omo 1

Image at

Modern Human

Origins
Omo 1marker 190k Homo sapiens 1967-1974 Ethiopiamarker Richard Leakey
Omo II

Image at

Modern Human

Origins
Omo 2marker ? Homo rhodesiensis

or

Homo sapiens
? Ethiopiamarker Richard Leakey
Herto skull

images at

ABC Science
Herto remains 160k Homo sapiens idaltu 1997 - 2003 Middle Awashmarker Ethiopiamarker Tim White
Jebel Irhoud 1marker 160k Homo sapiens circa 1991 Jebel Irhoudmarker, Moroccomarker
Jebel Irhoud 2marker 160k Homo sapiens circa 1991 Jebel Irhoudmarker, Moroccomarker
Jebel Irhoud 3

Mandible

Image at

PhysOrg.com
Jebel Irhoud 3marker 160k Homo sapiens circa 1991 Jebel Irhoudmarker, Moroccomarker
Jebel Irhoud 4marker 160k Homo sapiens after 1991 Jebel Irhoudmarker, Moroccomarker
Tabun 1

Image at

Modern Human

Origins
Tabun C1marker 120k Homo neanderthalensis 1967-1972 Israelmarker Arthur Jelinek


50,000 - 100,000 years old

Name Age Species Date

discovered
Place Discovered by
Klasies

Images at

Modern Human

Origins
Klasies River Cavesmarker 125 - 75k Homo sapiens 1960 onwards South Africa Ray Inskeep, Robin Singer, John Wymer, Hilary Deacon
Krapina C

Images at

Modern Human

Origins
Krapinamarker 100k Homo neanderthalensis 1899 Croatiamarker Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger
Skhul V 90 - 100k Homo sapiens 1933 Es Skhulmarker, Mount Carmelmarker, Israelmarker T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Qafzeh IXmarker 90 - 100k Homo sapiens[345256] 1933 Qafzehmarker, Israelmarker T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Skhul IXmarker Homo sapiens ? Es Skhulmarker, Mount Carmelmarker, Israelmarker
Qafzeh VI

Image at

Modern Human

Origins
Qafzehmarker VI 90 - 100k Homo sapiens 1933 Nazarethmarker, Israelmarker T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
La Ferrassie 1 70k Homo neanderthalensis September 17, 1909 Francemarker R. Capitan and D. Peyrony
La Quina 5 40-55k Homo neanderthalensis Francemarker
La Quina 18 40-55k Homo neanderthalensis Francemarker
Mount Circeo 1

Image at

Modern Human

Origins
Mt. Circeo 1 40 - 60k Homo neanderthalensis 1939 Italymarker Prof. Blanc
Saccopastore 1

Image at

Modern Human

Origins
Saccopastore 1 60k Homo neanderthalensis Italymarker
Gibraltar 1

Image at

Modern Human

Origins
Gibraltar 1 Homo neanderthalensis 1848 Gibraltarmarker Lieutenant Flint
Shanidar 1 60 - 80k Homo neanderthalensis 1961 Iraqmarker Ralph Solecki
Amud 1

Image at

Modern Human

Origins
Amud 1 Homo neanderthalensis Israelmarker
Amud 7

Image at

Modern Human

Origins
Amud 7 Homo neanderthalensis Israelmarker
La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1marker 60k Homo neanderthalensis August 3, 1908 Francemarker A. and J. Bouyssonie and L. Bardon


Less than 50,000 years old

Name Age Species Date

discovered
Place Discovered by
Mungo Man 60 - 40k Homo sapiens 1974 Australia
Le Moustiermarker 45k Homo neanderthalensis 1909 Francemarker
Neanderthal 1

images at

Modern Human

Origins
Neanderthal 1 40k Homo neanderthalensis 1856 Germanymarker Johann Carl Fuhlrott
Qafzeh VI

images at

Modern Human

Origins
Jebel Qafzeh 6 92 - 115k or 30 - 55k Homo sapiens 1930's Israelmarker R. Neuville M Stekelis
NG 6 27 - 53k Homo erectus 1931 Indonesiamarker C. ter Haar and GHR von Koenigswald
Hofmeyr Skullmarker 36k Homo sapiens 1952 South Africa
Images of Peştera cu Oase Peştera cu Oasemarker 36k Homo sapiens 2002 Romaniamarker
Yamashita-Cho Man 32k Homo sapiens 1962/1968 Naha, Okinawa, Japan
Cro-Magnon 1 30k Homo sapiens 1868 Francemarker Louis Lartet
Combe Capellemarker 30 - 35k Homo sapiens 1909 Francemarker O. Hauser
Predmosti 3

images at

Modern Human

Origins
Predmost 3 26k Homo sapiens 1894 Czechoslovakiamarker K.J. Maska
LB 1 18k Homo floresiensis

or

Homo erectus

or ?
2003 Indonesiamarker Peter Brown
Minatogawa 1

images at

Modern Human

Origins
Minatogawa 1 16 - 18k Homo sapiens 1970 Japanmarker
Tandou 15k Homo sapiens 1967 Australia Duncan Merrilees
Wadi Kubbaniya 8 - 20k Homo sapiens 1982 Egyptmarker Fred Wendorf
Kow Swamp 1

images at

Modern Human

Origins
Kow Swamp 1 9k - 13k Homo sapiens 1968 Australia A.G. Thorne
Afalou 13 8k - 12k Homo sapiens 1920's Algeriamarker C. Arambourg
Wadi Halfa 25 6k - 12k Homo sapiens 1963 Sudanmarker G. Armelagos, E. Ewing, D. Greene
Wadjak 1 10 - 12k Homo sapiens 1888 Indonesiamarker Eugene Dubois
Tepexpan Man 11k Homo sapiens 1947 Mexicomarker H. de Terra
Cerro Sota 2 11k Homo sapiens 1936 Chilemarker Junius Bird
SDM 16704 4.9k - 11.8k Homo sapiens 1929 United Statesmarker M.J. Rogers
Lo 4b 6k - 9k Homo sapiens 1965-1975 H. Robbins B.M. Lynch
Ötzi the Iceman 5.3k Homo sapiens 1991 Ötztal Alpsmarker (between Austria and Italy) Helmut and Erika Simon
Kerma 27 3.5k Homo sapiens 1913-1916 Sudanmarker G.A. Reisner
Five Knolls 18 1.5k - 3.5k Homo sapiens 1925-1929 Englandmarker
Humboldt Sinkmarker <1500 years=""></1500> Homo sapiens United Statesmarker
SCDG K102 300 - 400 years Homo sapiens 1982 United Statesmarker C.S. Larsen


Abbreviations used in fossil catalog name

  • AL - Afar Locality, Ethiopia
  • ARA-VP - Aramis Vertebrate Paleontology, Ethiopia
  • BOU-VP - Bouri Vertebrate Paleontology, Ethiopia
  • ER - East (Lake) Rudolf, Kenya
  • KGA - Konso-Gardula, Ethiopia
  • KNM - Kenya National Museum
  • KP - Kanapoi, Kenya
  • OH - Olduvai Hominid, Tanzania
  • SK - Swartkrans, South Africa
  • Sts,Stw - Sterkfontein, South Africa
  • TM - Transvaal Museum, South Africa
  • TM - Toros-Menalla, Chad
  • WT - West (Lake) Turkana, Kenya


See also



References

  • Grine, F.E, Jungers, W.L, Schultz, J. (1996) Phenetic Affinities Among Early Homo Crania from East and South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 30 pp. 189–225



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