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The following is a comprehensive list of kings of Persia, which includes all of the empires ruling over geographical Iranmarker and their rulers.

Early realms in Iran

Elamite Kingdom, c. 3000–519 BC

The Elamites were a people located in Susamarker, in what is now Khuzestanmarker province. Their language was neither Semitic nor Indo-European, and they were the geographic precursors of the Persian/Median empire that later appeared. Some have offered evidence for a linguistic kinship between Elamite and the modern Dravidian languages of Southern Indiamarker (see "Elamo-Dravidian languages") but this is not universally accepted. The proto-Elamites lived far back as 7,500 years ago in Iranmarker. See remains heremarker.

Early Elamite Kings (c. 2700- c. 2600 BC)

Awan Dynasty (c. 2600-2078 BC)

Hamazi Dynasty (c. 2530- c. 2030 BC)

Simashki Dynasty (c. 2100- c. 1928 BC)

Anshan Dynasty (c. 2350- c. 1970 BC)

Eparti Dynasty (c. 1970- c. 1500 BC)

Kidinuid Dynasty (c. 1500- c. 1400 BC)

Igehalkid Dynasty (c. 1400 – c. 1210 BC)

Shutrukid Dynasty (c. 1210 – c. 970 BC)

Humban-Tahrid (Neo-Elamite) Dynasty (c. 830–521 BC)

Empires of Iran

Median Empire, 728–550 BC

The Medes were an Iranian people. The Persians, a closely related and subject people, revolted against the Median empire during the 6th century BC.

Achaemenid Empire, 550–330 BC پادشاهان هخامنشی

Line of Cyrus Line of Ariaramnes

The epigraphic evidence for ancestors of Darius I the Great is highly suspect and might have been invented by that king.

Macedonian rulers

Argead Dynasty, 330–310 BC

Seleucid dynasty, 305–164 BC

The Seleucid Dynasty gradually lost control of Persia. In 253, the Arsacid Dynasty established itself in Parthia. The Parthians gradually expanded their control, until by the mid 2nd century BC, the Seleucids had completely lost control of Persia. There were more Seleucid rulers of Syria and, for a time, Babylonia, after Antiochus IV, but none had any effective power in Persia).

Iranian Empires of Iran

Parthian Empire (Arsacid Empire.), 247 BC – AD 228

There were various regional client dynasties, often with significant autonomy. Like the Elymaismarker client Kingdom that occupied the area of ancient Elammarker, and kingdoms of Mesene in Lower Mesopotamia and Persismarker (Fars) in Central Iran, as well as Adiabene in Northern Mesopotamia..

Sassanid Empire, AD 224–651

Arab caliphs rule

All Persian provinces served under The Arabic Caliphate from 661 to 867.

divided, 867–1029

post-Islamic Persian rulers

Tahirids in Khorasan, 821–872

Alavids, 864–928

  • Hasan ebne Zeid Hasani, Emir 864–884
  • Mohammad ebne Zeid, 884–900
  • Hasan ebne Ali Hoseini, 913–916
  • Hasan ebne Ghasem Hasani, 916–928

Ziyarids, 928–1043

Buyyids, 932–1056 آل بویه

Diylamids of Fars دیلمیان

Diylamids of Khuzestan and Kerman

Diylamids of Rey, Isfahan, and Hamedan

Saffarids in Seistan and beyond, 861–1002, صفاریان

Samanids (Proto-Tajiks), 892–998 سامانیان

Ghaznavids, 997–1186 غزنویان

  • Yameen o-dowleh AbolQasem Mahmud ebne Saboktekeen, Sultan 997–1030
  • Jalal o-dowleh Abu Ahmad Mohammad ebne Mahmud, 1030–1030
  • Shahab o-dowleh Abu Sa'd Masud ebne Mahmud, 1030–1040
  • Shahab o-dowleh Abolfath Modud ebne Masud, 1040–1049
  • Baha o-dowleh Abol Hasan Ali ebne Masud, 1049–1049
  • Azad o-dowleh Abu Mansur Abdol Rashid ebne Mahmud ebne Saboktekeen, 1049–1052
  • Jamal o-dowleh Abolfazl Farrokhzaad ebne Masud ebne Mahmud, 1052–1059
  • Zaheer o-dowleh Abol Mozaffar Ebrahim, 1059–1098
  • Ala o-dowleh Abu Saeed Masud ebne Ebrahim, 1098–1115
  • Soltan o-dowleh Abol-fath Arsalan Shah, 1115–1117
  • Yameen o-dowleh Abol Mozaffar Baharm Shah ebne Masud, 1117–1153
  • Taj o-dowleh Abol Shoja Khosro Shah ebne Bahram Shah, 1153–1160
  • Saraj o-dowleh Abolmolook Khosrow Malek ebne Khosro Shah, 1160–1186

Seljuks, 1029–1194 سلجوقیان

divided, 1194–1256

Khwarazmid, 1096–1230 خوارزمشاهیان

An empire built from Azerbaidjan, covering part of Iran and neighbouring Central Asia.
  • Ghotb-al-Din Muhammad I of Khwarazm ebne Anushtekeen Gharajeh, Shah (1096–1128)
  • Ala-al-Din Abol Mozaffar Aziz ebne Ghotb-al-Din ebne Mohammad (1128–1156)
  • Taj-al-Din Abolfath IlIl-Arslan (1156–1171)
  • Jalal-al-Din Mahmud Soltanshah ebne Il Arsalan (1171–1172)
  • Muhammad II of Khwarezm (Ala-al-Din Takesh ebne Il Arsalan) (1172–1199)
  • Soltan Jalal-al-Din Mohammad ebne Aladdin Takesh (1199–1220)
  • Jalal-al-Din Mingburnu ebne Ala-al-Din Mohammad (1220–1230)
Permanently destroyed by Mongol empire.

Ilkhans, 1256–1380 ایلخانان

The preceding era of disunity, also called 'First era of fragmentation, was ended through conquest by the Ilkhans, a Mongol khanate, nominally subject to the Great Khan. (Ilkhan means governor of an il, i.e. province).

The 'Second era of fragmentation begins in 1343, as remnants of the Hordes competed with local dynasts for authority. This era ends with the conquests by Timur, around 1380

Muzaffarid Dynasty, 1314–1393 مظفریان

  • Mubariz ad-Din Muhammad ibn al-Muzaffar, Emir 1314–1358
  • Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz), 1335–1364 with...
  • Qutb Al-Din Shah Mahmud (at Isfahan) ( d. 1375), 1358–1366
  • Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz), 1366–1384
  • Mujahid ad-Din Zain Al-Abidin 'Ali, 1384–1387

In 1387 Timur captured Isfahanmarker.
  • Imad ad-Din Sultan Ahmad (at Kerman), 1387–1391 with...
  • Mubariz ad-Din Shah Yahya (at Shiraz), 1387–1391 and...
  • Sultan Abu Ishaq (in Sirajan), 1387–1391
  • Shah Mansur (at Isfahan), 1391–1393

Timurid dynasty, 1380–1507

The third era of fragmentation follows, as Timur's Empire loses cohesion and local rulers strive against each other.

In 1410 the Turcoman horde Kara Koyunlu (Black Sheep) captured Baghdad and their leaders ruled the western parts of the Timurid realm. In the East however, Shah Rukh was able to secure his rule in Transoxiana and Fars.

Rulers in Transoxiana:

Rulers in Khurasan:

Abu Sa'id, agreed to divide Iran with the Black Sheep Turcomans under Jahan Shah, but the White Sheep Turcomans under Uzun Hassan defeated and killed first Jahan Shah and then Abu Sa'id.

After Abu Sa'id's death a 'fourth era of fragmentation follows. While the White Sheep Turcomans dominated in the western parts until the ascent of the Safavid dynasty, the Timurides could maintain their rule in Samarkandmarker and Heratmarker.

Rulers in Samarkand:

conquered by the Uzbeks

Rulers in Herat:

conquered by the Uzbeks, later recaptured by the Safavids

Shahs of modern Iran

The modern Iranian monarchy was established in 1502 after the Safavid Dynasty came to power under Shah Ismail I, and ended the so-called "fourth era" of political fragmentation.

Safavid dynasty, 1502–1736 صفویه

:Safavi Line
:Marashi-Safavi Line
:Safavi Line
:Marashi-Safavi Line
:Sultani-Safavi Line
:Unknown House
:Sultani-Safavi Line
:Unknown-Sultani-Safavi Line
  • Mohammad Shah 1786 He married the daughter of Ismail III and was installed by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar Quyunlu. From his descendants come the Beys of Tunisia (through his daughter).

Hotaki dynasty (Afghan rulers), 1722-1729

Afsharid dynasty, 1736–1797 دودمان افشار

Zand dynasty, 1750–1794 دودمان زند

Here begins the modern history of the nation-state Iran. After the fall of the Afsharids, the eastern lands of Persia were lost to Pashtun tribes who created their own independent kingdom, which later became known as Afghanistanmarker, however still a great portion of Afghanistan was a part of Persiamarker, which was separated from Persiamarker at the time of Qajars. For more information, see History of Afghanistan. The Zand kings never styled himself as "shah" or king, and instead used the title President (Vakil ar-Ra'aayaa وکیل الرعایا).

Qajar dynasty, 1794–1925 دودمان قاجار

Pahlavi dynasty, 1925–1979 دودمان پهلوی

In 1979 a revolution led by Ayatollah Khomeini forced Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi into exile, and established an Islamic Republic on 1 April 1979.


See also

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