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List of military units of Clark Air Base: Map


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For a detailed chronological history, see the article History of Clark Air Base.
Military units of Clark Air Basemarker consisted primarily of United States Army and United States Air Force organizations.

Major commands

Clark Air Base was assigned to the following major commands:
  • War Dept, 1903
  • Philippine Dept, 1917
  • The Adjutant General of the Army, Dept of the Philippines, 1919
  • Air Forces, United States Army Forces in the Far East, August 4, 1941
  • Philippines Dept Air Force, September 20, 1941
Redesignated: Far East Air Force, December 20, 1941*
Redesignated: Pacific Air Command, USA, December 6, 1945
Redesignated: Far East Air Force, January 1, 1947
Redesignated: Pacific Air Forces, July 1, 1957 – December 16, 1991
Note: *Clark Field was occupied by the Imperial Japanese Army between December 20, 1941 – February 10, 1945.

Major Units Assigned

Pre World War II (1919–1940)

Redesignated 3d Squadron*, May 14, 1921 – January 25, 1923
Redesignated 3d Pursuit Squadron*, January 25, 1923 – June 16, 1938
28th Bombardment Squadron*, June 16, 1938 – December 24, 1941

World War II (1941)

  • Philippine Department Air Force (September – October 1941)
    Redesignated Far East Air Force (October 28 – December 24, 1941)
    • V Bomber Command, November 14 – December 24, 1941
    • 20th Pursuit Squadron, July – December 1941 (P-40B)
    • 14th Bombardment Squadron September 16, 1941 – January 1, 1942 (B-17)
    • 24th Pursuit Group, October 1 – December 20, 1941 (P-40B)
    • 19th Bombardment Group, October 26 – December 24, 1941 (B-17)
    • 30th Bombardment Squadron October 23 – December 20, 1941 (B-17)
    • 93d Bombardment Squadron October 23 – December 20, 1941 (B-17)

World War II (1945)

  • Advance Echelon, Headquarters, Fifth Air Force*, February 10 – April 1, 1945
: Redesignated Fifth Air Force April 1 – June 30, 1945
:: V Bomber Command, March – August 4, 1945
:: V Fighter Command, March – August 4, 1945
Headquarters, 13th Air Force, January 1 – May 20, 1946
475th Fighter Group, February 28 – April 20, 1945 (P-38)
22d Bombardment Group, March 12 – August 4, 1945 (B-24)
43d Bombardment Group, March 16 – July 26, 1945 (B-24)
317th Troop Carrier Group, March 17 – August 24, 1945
91st Reconnaissance Wing, March 24 – July 30, 1945
421st Night Fighter Squadron, April 26 – August 5, 1945
433d Troop Carrier Group, May 31 – September 11, 1945
35th Fighter Group, April 19 – June 28, 1945 (P-51D)
421st Night Fighter Squadron, April 26, 1945 – July 16, 1945 (P-61)
312th Bombardment Group, May–August 1945 (B-32)
6th Reconnaissance Group, May 1 – July 31, 1945
345th Bombardment Group, May 12 – July 25, 1945
54th Troop Carrier Wing, June–September 1945 (C-47)
419th Night Fighter Squadron January 10, 1946 – May 7, 1946 (P-61)

US Navy Fleet Air Wing Seventeen, February 26 – December 31, 1945
(Disestablished in Japan, January 2, 1945)
: Patrol Bombing Squadron VPB-104 (PB4Y-1 Liberators), March 1 – October 25, 1945
: Patrol Bombing Squadron VPB-119 (PB4Y-2 Privateers), March 2 – October 30, 1945
: ACORN-34 : CBMU 606 / CASU 57 / CASU 9.1
310th Bombardment Wing, August 23 – October 21, 1945

Postwar Years (1946–1949)

  • 29th Air Service Group*, February 16, 1946 – January 1, 1947
  • 358th Air Service Group*, January 1, 1947 – July 1, 1949
    • 18th Fighter Wing September 16, 1947 – December 1, 1950 (P/F-47, P/F-51, RB-17G, RB-29 (F-2))
    • Headquarters, 13th Air Force, May 1, 1949 – December 2, 1991
  • 24th Air Depot Wing*, July 1, 1949 – December 1, 1950
    • 6204th Photo Mapping Squadron, September 16, 1949 – June 1, 1953
    • 6208th Depot Wing December 17, 1949 – September 1, 1952

Cold War (1950–1991)

  • 6200th Air Base Wing*, December 1, 1950 – February 1, 1953
    Redesignated 6200th Air Base Group, February 1, 1953 – April 10, 1959
    • 581st Air Resupply and Communications Wing July 18, 1952 – September 7, 1953
    • 24th Air Depot Wing, September 1, 1952 – February 16, 1954
    • 6424th Air Depot Wing February 16 – November 25, 1954
    • 26th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron November 11, 1954 – April 9, 1959
    • 509th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron April 9, 1959 – July 24, 1960
  • 405th Fighter Wing*, April 10, 1959 – September 16, 1974
    • 69th Military Airlift Support Group July 8, 1966 – January 1, 1972
  • 463d Tactical Airlift Wing July 15, 1968 – December 31, 1971
    • 29th Tactical Airlift Squadron (C-130B, Tail Code: QB)
    • 772d Tactical Airlift Squadron (C-130B, Tail Code: QF)
    • 773d Tactical Airlift Squadron (C-130B, Tail Code: QG)
    • 774th Tactical Airlift Squadron (C-130B, Tail Code: QW)
      Most aircraft deployed on rotating basis to Tan Son Nhut Air Basemarker, South Vietnam
  • 374th Tactical Airlift Wing (C-130) November 15, 1973 – June 30, 1989
    • 20th Aeromedical Airlift Squadron (C-9)
    • 21st Tactical Airlift Squadron (C-130E)
    • 776th Tactical Airlift Squadron (C-130E) (closed 1975)
  • 624th Airlift Wing/624th Tactical Airlift Wing (C-130) July 1, 1989 - December 19 1991
    • 8th Mobile Aerial Port Squadron (C-130)
    • 624th Aerial Port Squadron (C-130/C-141)
  • 3d Tactical Fighter Wing*, September 16, 1974 – December 19, 1991

.* Performed Host Unit Mission

Military units before WWII

Clark Air Base was originally established as Fort Stotsenburg in Sapang Batomarker, Angeles in 1903 under control of the U.S. Army. Officers' quarters and water system constructed 1910–1911 and a flying school was created in 1912. Construction of steel hangars and a dirt air strip 1917–1918; a portion of Ft Stotsenburg officially set aside for the Aviation Section of the Signal Corps and named Clark Fld, September 1919.

The 3d Aero Squadron was assigned to Clark Field in December 1919 and for the next decade functioned as an observer training unit flying a wide variety of mono and biplanes.

In 1922, the 28th Squadron (Bomb) was assigned as a defense force for the Philippines.

Clark served as a landing field for medium bombers and accommodated half of the heavy bombers stationed in the Philippines during the 1930s. In the late summer and fall of 1941, many aircraft were sent to Clark in anticipation of war with Imperial Japanmarker. Six B-17Cs and 29 B-17Ds were serving with the 19th Bombardment Group based at Clark The 14th Bomb Squadron of the 19th Bombardment Group had been transferred to the Philippines in September 1941 in a spectacular trans-Pacific flight to Clark Field, and two more squadrons had flown to Clark in October.

Military units during WWII

Clark and its subordinate airfield at Del Montemarker were the only airfields in the Philippines capable of heavy bomber operations at the outbreak of World War II.

News of the Pearl Harbor attackmarker was received at about 3 am on December 8 in the Philippines. According to the previously-agreed upon plan, if hostilities were to break out, an attack on Japanese bases in Formosamarker was to be immediately carried out by the 19th Bombardment Group's Fortresses. On December 8, there were 35 USAAC B-17s in the Philippines, with two squadrons at Clark Field on Luzonmarker with a total of 19 planes, and two squadrons at Del Monte on Mindanaomarker 500 miles to the south with the other 16 B-17s.

For reasons which are still unclear even today, the planned raid on Formosa was delayed. Instead, in order to prevent them from being destroyed on the ground by a Japanese air attack, all flyable B-17s based at Clark Field had been ordered into the air and to patrol the waters around Luzonmarker. In the meantime, General Lewis H. Brereton, General MacArthur's air commander, finally got approval to carry out the strike against Japanese bases on Formosa, and the B-17s were recalled to Clark. When the Fortresses returned to Clark, three of them were equipped with cameras for reconnaissance and the remainder were loaded up with 100-lb and 300-lb bombs in preparation for the planned mission to Formosa.

The three reconnaissance B-17s were taxiing out for the initial photographic mission to Formosa when about 200 Japanese aircraft struck. Unfortunately, all the P-40 fighters had been recalled for refuelling and were on the ground. . At the end of the day's action it was apparent that the Japanese had won a major victory. The effective striking power of Far East AF had been destroyed, the fighter strength had been seriously reduced, most B-17 maintenance facilities were demolished, and about 80 men were killed. The sole surviving B-17 had not taken off on the morning alert, and had been taken up in the air while the rest were being prepared for the Formosa raid. The Fortresses at Del Monte 500 miles to the south were out of range of the Zeros from Formosa and were left untouched.

At Clark Field, three or four of the damaged B-17s were put back into service. They were joined by the B-17s from Del Monte. By December 9, reconnaissance missions were being undertaken by the 19th Bombardment Group in search of the Japanese fleet. Also, the 17th Pursuit Squadron (Interceptor), 24th Pursuit Group (Interceptor), based at Nichols Field were transferred to Clark with P-40's.

On December 10, a Japanese convoy was spotted, and five B-17s were dispatched. This was the first American bombardment mission of World War II. No fighter opposition was encountered, and some hits were recorded on the transports.

That same day, a B-17C piloted by Captain Colin P. Kelly dropped bombs from high altitude on what the crew thought to be a Japanese battleship. Hits were recorded, and a tremendous explosion was observed. Kelly's plane was immediately pounced upon by Zeros, one of which was flown by Saburo Sakai, who was later to become a famous ace. Kelly guided his heavily-damaged plane back towards Clark Field. He ordered the crew to parachute to safety, but before Kelly himself could leave, the aircraft exploded and Kelly was killed.

When the surviving crew was questioned, the report was flashed out that they had sunk the Japanese battleship Haruna, and the mission was hailed as a great victory. Captain Kelly was posthumously awarded the Distinguished Service Cross by President Franklin Roosevelt for his heroism, and was written up in glowing press reports. However, information revealed in the immediate postwar years revealed that the Haruna was nowhere near the area at that time and that the ship most likely struck was the cruiser Ashigari, and it was only fairly lightly damaged by the attack.

On December 12, about 100 Japanese aircraft again hit Clark. The airfield is severely damaged and plans were made to evacuate the facility. On the 19th, the air echelon of the 93d Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 19th Bombardment Group (Heavy) were transferred from Clark to Batchelor Field near Darwinmarker, Northern Territorymarker, Australia with B-17's. The ground echelon is attached to the 5th Interceptor Command (Provisional) and sent to fight as infantry on Luzon and Mindanao Islands. On Christmas Eve, HQ 19th Bombardment Group (Heavy) and the air echelon of the 28th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy) were transferred from Clark to Batchelor Field with B-17's. The ground echelon of the 28th were dispatched to fight as infantry on Luzon and Mindanao.

The remaining aircraft and personnel at Clark were evacuated to Australia by December 31, 1941. The base was overrun by Japanesemarker forces less than a week later in early January 1942.

Japanese occupation

Boeing B-17D Fortress 40-3095 formerly of 11th Bomb Group, 61st Bomb Squadron after being captured at Clark Field, Philippines and being repaired by Japanese.
Eventual fate of this aircraft is unknown
During the period of Japanese occupation, Clark was known as Mabalacat Airfield, and several auxiliary airfields constructed and used. Lilly Hill, located near the center of the base, was excavated to allow tunnels to be built into its sides for the storage of fuel and munitions in an attempt to protect them from air raids.

The airfield was fortified with several Type 88 75 mm AA Guns. Several USAAF B-24 Liberator bombers flying over Clark were shot down by these weapons.

With the surrender of Bataan and the infamous Bataan Death March in April 1942, American and Filipino prisoners were marched past the main gate of the airfield.

In late 1944, with the tide of the war turning against the Japanese, Vice Admiral Takijirō Ōnishi decided to form a suicide attack force, the Special Attack Unit. In a meeting at Mabalacat, on October 19, 1944, Onishi told officers of the 201st Flying Group headquarters: that he believed the only way to retain control of the Philippines was to put 250-kg bombs on Zero fighter planes and crash them into U.S. carriers, to wreak havoc on the U.S. Fleet and disable them for weeks.

Commanded by Ōnishi, the first Kamikaze missions were launched from the occupied Clark Air Base. The first volunteers were 23 pilots of the Imperial Japanese Navy's 201st Kokutai, 1st Air Fleet. These were divided into four separate groups: Shikishima, Yamato, Asahi and the Yama Yukio Seki units.

At 07:25 October 25, 1944, the Shikishima unit departed Clark lead by Lieutenant Yokjo Seki. At 10:45 am they attacked U.S. ships stationed at Leyte Island, Philippines during the Battle of Leyte Gulfmarker. Five Zeros, led by Seki, and escorted to the target by leading Japanese ace Hiroyoshi Nishizawa, attacked several escort carriers. One Zero attempted to hit the bridge of the USS Kitkun Bay but instead exploded on the port catwalk and cartwheeled into the sea. Two others dove at USS Fanshaw Bay but were destroyed by anti-aircraft fire. The last two ran at the USS White Plains, however one, under heavy fire and trailing smoke, aborted the attempt on the White Plains and instead banked toward the USS St. Lo, plowing into the flight deck. Its bomb caused fires that resulted in the bomb magazine exploding, sinking the carrier.

1945 recapture

Clark Air Base was recaptured by Americans in January 1945 after three months of fierce fighting. Elements of the Sixth U.S. Army cleared most Japanese from Ft Stotsenburg-Clark Fld area and flying activity commenced on least damaged runway while the field still drew Japanese fire, January 25, 1945; saboteurs and infiltrators sporadically damaged parked aircraft until February 10, 1945.

Clark was used as an operational base for several groups in the closing months of the war in the southwest Pacific. Operational units flying from Clark were:

  • 475th Fighter Group (P-38) - flew many missions to support ground forces on Luzon during the first part of 1945. Also flew escort missions to Chinamarker and attacked railways on Formosamarker.

  • 22d Bombardment Group (Heavy) (B-24) - Bombed Japanese airfields, shipping, and oil installations in Borneomarker, Ceram, and Halmahera.

  • 43d Bombardment Group (Heavy) (B-24) - Struck industries, airfields, and installations in China and Formosa; and supported ground forces on Luzon.

  • 35th Fighter Group (P-51D) - Operated in support of ground forces on Luzon. Also escorted bombers and completed some fighter sweeps to Formosa and China.

  • 421st Night Fighter Squadron (P-61) - Flew night intruder missions against Japanese airfields and ground installations. Also provided protection of B-29 bases on Saipanmarker against night attacks, and flew combat air patrols and interception missions.

  • 312th Bombardment Group (B-32) - Performed operational combat testing of Consolidated B-32 Dominator Bomber. The first combat mission took place on May 29, 1945 with a strike against a Japanese supply depot in Luzon's Cayagan Valley. This raid was followed by a series of attacks on Japanese targets in the Philippines, in Formosa, and on Hainan Island in the Tonkin Gulf.

Military units during the Cold War

B-29 Superfortress
18th TFW F-51Ds In Korea
With the end of the war in September 1945, Clark became an immediate dumping ground for aircraft of all types from inactivating fighter and bomber units in the southwest Pacific. Aircraft were flown to Clark and the pilots (along with aircrews and maintenance and support personnel) would get on transports back to the United States for discharge. Many of the aircraft (some almost brand-new) were scrapped although low-hour planes were retained and flown back to the United States storage fields and mothballed.

The 20th Air Force 313th Bombardment Wing with four Boeing B-29 Superfortress (6th, 9th, 504th, 505th) Very Heavy bomb groups was reassigned from North Field, Tinianmarker on March 13, 1946. Between 1946 and June 15, 1948, all of these groups were reassigned or inactivated:

  • 6th Bombardment Group -> Kadena ABmarker, Okinawamarker (June 1, 1947)
  • 9th Bombardment Group -> Harmon Field, Guammarker, (June 9, 1947)
  • 504th Bombardment Group -> Inactivated June 15, 1946.
  • 505th Bombardment Group -> Inactivated June 30, 1946.

On March 14, 1947, the U.S. and the Philippines signed the Military Bases Agreement which provided for use of Clark Air Base until the year 2046 (later amended by the 1966 Rusk-Ramos agreement to 1991).

The 18th Fighter Group was assigned to Clark on September 16, 1947. The 18th was the major Far East Air Force unit in the Philippines in the immediate postwar years, flying a mixture of fighter (P/F-47, P/F-51, F-80), and reconnaissance (RB-29, RB-17G) aircraft. The 18th Flew patrols and trained with Lockheed F-80 Shooting Stars, with the distinction of being the first overseas fighter unit to be jet-equipped. On January 20, 1950, the wing was re-designated the 18th Fighter-Bomber Wing. As a result of the Korean War, the 18th was reassigned from Clark to Pusan AB, South Korea on December 1, 1950.

During the Korean War, the 6204th Photo Mapping Squadron was deployed for three months in 1950 performing aerial mapping of both Northmarker and South Koreamarker before being replaced. The unit flew adapted Boeing B-17s (as RB-17Gs) for photographic mapping by having its bombing equipment deleted and replaced by photographic equipment. Some cameras were installed in the nose and in the aft fuselage as well.

During the Koran War and First Indochina War (1950–1954), the 581st Air Resupply and communications Wing performed psychological warfare and unconventional operations. Conducted limited operations in French Indochina in 1953 with C-119, B-29, C-54, and C-118 aircraft.

During the immediate postwar years and throughout the 1950s, Clark's mission was that of a major supply and maintenance depot for Far East Air Forces (later Pacific Air Forces) along with being a command base with Headquarters, 13th Air Force taking up residence in 1949. 13th Air Force would remain at Clark until its closure in 1991.

The 39th Air Division at Misawa ABmarker, Japanmarker deployed the 26th, and later the 509th Fighter-Interceptor Squadrons to Clark from 1954–1960 flying North American F-86F & F-86D Sabres to provide air defense of the Philippine Islandsmarker.

405th Fighter Wing

F-4C 64-0820 1st TFS 405th FW, Clark AB February 1975
A change of mission occurred at Clark with the activation of the 405th Fighter Wing on September 4, 1959, replacing the 6200th Air Base Wing. The mission changed from that of being a support depot and maintenance facility to that of an operational fighter wing.

The mission of the 405th was to provide air defense and offensive fighter operations in the Philippinesmarker, Taiwanmarker, and other Far Eastern points. The wing had numerous TDY squadrons attached over its operational lifetime at Clark. The following operational squadrons assigned to the wing were:

  • 8th Bombardment Squadron (November 18, 1964 – January 15, 1968) (Martin B-57A, Yellow tail stripe)
  • 13th Bombardment Squadron (November 18, 1964 – January 15, 1968) (Martin B-57A)

Both Squadrons reassigned to 35th TFW, Phan Rang Air Basemarker, South Vietnam, January 1968. Tail coded PE, PK, PN, PQ and PV

  • 64th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron (June 10, 1966 – December 15, 1969)
    (Convair F-102A, Tail Coded "PE" Blue/Yellow noted as squadron colors.)
  • 509th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron (April 9, 1959 – December 15, 1969)
    (North American F-86D, Convair F-102A, Converted from F-86D to F-102A June 10, 1966.

    Tail Coded "PK" Red noted as squadron color.)

Both F-102 squadrons rotated between Clark and Bien Hoa Air Basemarker and Da Nang Air Basemarker, South Vietnam. Rotational TDY also to Don Muang Royal Thai Air Force Basemarker, Thailandmarker. Inactivated December 1969.

  • 1st Test Squadron (April 30, 1970 – September 16, 1974) (McDonnell F-4C/D)
    Tail Codes DS, PA and PN used.

    Operated in the test role for PACAF F-4 wings.

  • 90th Tactical Fighter Squadron (December 15, 1972 – September 16, 1974) (McDonnell F-4D/E/G) (Tail Code: PH)
  • 774th Tactical Airlift Squadron (December 31, 1971 – September 15, 1972) (C-130, C-118) (Tail Code: QW)

During the Vietnam War, the wing provided air defense training for Royal Thai Air Force personnel, from Don Muang Royal Thai Air Force Basemarker, Thailandmarker from November 1961 – February 1966. From mid-1962 until the end of the conflict in Southeast Asia, the wing frequently deployed assigned and attached components to bases in Thailandmarker and South Vietnam for air defense and combat operations under operational control of other organizations.

When not so involved, components trained in air defense and other tactical exercises in Taiwan and the Philippines. During July–August 1972, provided extensive flood relief to Philippine areas inundated by monsoon rains. During February–March 1973, provided medical, logistical, and administrative support for former American prisoners of war, on their way to the United States from North Vietnam.

3d Tactical Fighter Wing

[[Image:F-4g-69-0275-pn-90tfs-3tfw-clark-1979.jpg|thumb|McDonnell Douglas F-4E-42-MC PhantomSerial 69-0275 of the 90th TFS/3d TFW Clark AFB, Philippines, 1979. Later, this aircraft was converted to the F-4G configuration. To AMARC as FP1024 3/25/1996. To Holloman AFB as QF-4G AF151. Expended 2/5/1998.]]
Northrup F-5E Tiger IIs of the 26th Training Aggressor Squadron at Clark AB.
Serial 73-0847 in foreground was originally scheduled for shipment to the South Vietnamese Air Force, however the aircraft was retained by the USAF after the collapse of the South Vietnamese government in 1975.
With the deactivation of the 26th TAS in 1990, this aircraft was sold to the Honduras Air Force.
After the end of the Vietnam War, the 3d Tactical Fighter Wing was reassigned to Clark without personnel or equipment from Kunsan ABmarker, South Koreamarker on September 16, 1974, replacing the 405th Fighter Wing which was inactivated in place.

The 3d TFW assumed the mission of the former 405th and provided tactical air defense of the Philippines. It participated in frequent operational exercises and evaluations. Between April 5 and May 31, 1975, the wing used its facilities as a staging area for Operations Baby Lift (evacuation of Vietnamese Orphans from South Vietnam to the United States) and New Life (Evacuation of Vietnamese Adults to the United States for resettlement). Provided PACAF aircrews with realistic training in dissimilar aerial combat and current intelligence on enemy air-to-air capabilities and tactics, 1976–1989.

Operational squadrons of the 3d TFW were:

  • 1st Test Squadron (September 16, 1974 – September 30, 1978) (F-4E) (PN)
  • 90th Tactical Fighter Squadron (September 16, 1974 – December 16, 1991)(F-4E/G) (PN, Red tail stripe)
    Converted to "Wild Weasel" role in 1979 when converting to F-4G.
  • 3d Tactical Fighter Squadron (December 1, 1975 – December 16, 1991) (F-4E) (PN, Blue tail stripe)
  • 26th Aggressor Squadron (January 2, 1976 – February 21, 1990) (T-38/F-5E)

The 3d Tactical Fighter Wing was placed on non-operational status with the evacuation of Clark in June 1991.

  • The 3d TFS was inactivated December 19, 1991 at Clark. Moved w/o/p/e and reassigned to 343d FW, Eielson AFB, Alaska as 3d Fighter Training squadron.

  • The 90th TFS inactivated May 29, 1991 at Clark. Moved w/o/p/e and reassigned to 21st TFW, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska as an F-15E Squadron

The Wing deployed six F-4Es to Turkeymarker for Operation Desert Storm in early 1991 where they flew some of that aircraft's last combat sorties.

Cope Thunder

Douglas A-4K Skyhawk aircraft of No.
75 Squadron, Royal New Zealand Air Force, are serviced on the flight line during Exercise COPE THUNDER '84-7 on September 10, 1984 at Clark Air Base
C-130B of the 463d TAW at Ton Son Nuht AB, SVN, 1969
Cope Thunder was a Pacific Air Forces-sponsored exercise initiated at Clark in 1976 which was devised as a way to give aircrews from across Asia their first taste of warfare. The exercise quickly grew into PACAF’s "premier simulated combat airpower employment exercise."

Prior to Operation Desert Storm, less than one-fifth of the U.S. Air Force’s primary fighter pilots had seen actual combat. While the percentage of combat-experienced pilots has increased in recent years, with the end of the Vietnam War a high percentage of had not been thrust into combat. Analysis indicates most combat losses occurred during an aircrew’s first eight to 10 missions. Therefore, the goal of Cope Thunder was to provide each aircrew with these first vital missions, increasing their chances of survival in combat environments.

Each Cope Thunder exercise was a multi-service, multi-platform coordinated, combat operations exercise and corresponds to the designed operational capability of participating units. In other words, exercises involved several units whose military mission may differ significantly from that of other participating units. Cope Thunder planners took those factors into consideration when designing exercises so participants received the maximum training possible without being placed at an unfair advantage during simulated combat scenarios.

Tactical Airlift

Between 1968 and 1989, PACAF, and starting in 1974, Military Airlift Command operated a theater airlift capability from Clark.

The 463d Tactical Airlift Wing rotated C-130 squadrons between Clark and Tan Son Nhut Air Basemarker, South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. After the war, the 374th Tactical Airlift Wing operated C-130s within the theater, as well as Aeromedical Evacuation flights.

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