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Northumbriamarker, a kingdom of Angles in northern Englandmarker, was initially divided into two kingdoms, Bernicia and Deira. The two were first united by Aethelfrith around the year 604, and except for occasional periods of division over the subsequent century, they remained so.

The exceptions are during the brief period from 633 to 634, when Northumbria was plunged into chaos by the death of King Edwin in battle and the ruinous invasion of Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd. The unity of the Northumbrian kingdoms was restored after Cadwallon's death in battle in 634.
Another exception is a period from about the year 644 to 664, when kings ruled individually over Deira. In 651, King Oswiu had Oswine of Deira killed and replaced by Aethelwald, but Aethelwald did not prove to be a loyal sub-king, allying with the Mercianmarker king Penda; according to Bede, Aethelwald acted as Penda's guide during the latter's invasion of Northumbria but withdrew his forces when the Mercians met the Northumbrians at the Battle of Winwaed. After the Mercian defeat at Winwaed, Aethelwald lost power and Oswiu's own son, Alchfrith, became king in his place. In 670, Aelfwine, the brother of the childless King Ecgfrith, was made king of Deira; by this point the title may have been used primarily to designate an heir. Aelfwine was killed in battle against Mercia in 679, and there was not another separate king of Deira until the time of Norse rule.

Following are lists of the kings of Bernicia, Deira, and Northumbria. Note that many of their dates, particularly in the earlier period, are considered unreliable.

This was a time when spellings varied widely, even within a document. A number of variations of the details below exist. Amongst these are the preference between þ and ð (hard and soft 'th').

The character '7' was used as the ampersand '&' in contemporary Anglo-Saxon writings. The era pre-dates the emergence of forms of writing accepted today, notably minuscule, and the letters 'W' and 'U'. Where W was followed by U this was generally rendered as 'VV' (which was also used for 'W' alone).

Kings of Bernicia

Reign Incumbent Notes
fl.500 Esa

(Oesa)
ESA INGVING CYNING

ESA REX BERNICIA CYNING
fl.c.520 Eoppa EOPPA ESING BERNICIA CYNING

EOPPA REX BERNICIA
547 to 559 Ida IDA EOPPING BERNICIA CYNING

IDA REX BERNICIA
559 to 560 Glappa

(Clappa)
GLAPPA BERNICIA CYNING

GLAPPA REX BERNICIA
560 to 568 Adda ADDA IDING BERNICIA CYNING

ADDA REX BERNICIA
568 to 572 Æthelric ÆÞELRIC IDING BERNICIA CYNING

ÆÞELRIC REX BERNICIA
572 to 579 Theodric

(Deoric)
ÞEODRIC IDING BERNICIA CYNING

ÞEODRIC REX BERNICIA
579 to 585 Frithuwald

(Frithewlf)
FRIÞVVALD BERNICIA CYNING

FRIÞVVALD REX BERNICIA
585 to 593 Hussa HVSSA BERNICIA CYNING

HVSSA REX BERNICIA
593 to 616 Æthelfrith ÆÞELFRIÞ ÆÞELRICING BERNICIA 7 DEIRA CYNING

ÆÞELFRIÞ REX BERNICIA ET DEIRA
Killed in battle
Deira Dynasty
616 to 12/14 October 632 Edwin EDVVIN ÆLLING BERNICIA 7 DEIRA CYNING

EDVVIN REX BERNICIA ET DEIRA
Killed in battle by Penda, King of Mercia
Bernicia Dynasty
late 632 to 633 Eanfrith EANFRIÞ ÆÞELFRIÞING BERNICIA CYNING

EANFRIÞ REX BERNICIA
634 to 5 August 642 Oswald OSVVALD ÆÞELFRIÞING BERNICIA 7 DEIRA CYNING

OSVVALD REX BERNICIA ET DEIRA
Killed by Penda, King of Mercia; Saint Oswald
late 642 to 654 Oswiu OSVVIO ÆÞELFRIÞING BERNICIA CYNING

OSVVIO REX BERNICIA
Became King of united Northumbria


Kings of Deira

Reign Incumbent Notes
559/560 to 589 Aella

(Aelli)
ÆLLA YFFING DEIRA CYNING

ÆLLA REX DEIRA
589/599 to 604 Aethelric

(Aedilric)
ÆÞELRIC DEIRA CYNING

ÆÞELRIC REX DEIRA
Bernician Dynasty
593/604? to 616 Aethelfrith ÆÞELFERÞ ÆÞELRICING DEIRA CYNING

ÆÞELFERÞ REX DEIRA
Killed in battle
Deira Dynasty
616 to 12/14 October 632 Edwin EDVVIN ÆLLING BERNICIA 7 DEIRA CYNING

EDVVIN REX BERNICIA ET DEIRA
Killed in battle by Cadwallon of Gwynedd and Penda of Mercia; Saint Edwin
late 633 to summer 634 Osric OSRIC ÆLFRICING DEIRA CYNING

OSRIC REX DEIRA
633 to 5 August 642 Oswald OSVVALD BERNICIA 7 DEIRA CYNING

OSVVALD REX BERNICIA ET DEIRA
Killed by Penda, King of Mercia; Saint Oswald
642 to 644 Oswiu OSVVIO ÆÞELFRIÞING BERNICIA 7 DEIRA CYNING

OSVVIO REX BERNICIA ET DEIRA
644 to 651 Oswine OSVVINE OSRICING DEIRA CYNING

OSVVINE REX DEIRA
Murdered
summer 651 to late 654 or 655 Æthelwold ÆÞELVVALD OSVVALDING DEIRA CYNING

ÆÞELVVALD REX DEIRA
654 to 15 August 670 Oswiu OSVVIO ÆÞELFERÞING NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

OSVVIO REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Restored
656 to 664 Alchfrith ALCHFRIÞ DEIRA CYNING

ALCHFRIÞ REX DEIRA
670 to 679 Aelfwine ÆLFVVINE DEIRA CYNING

ÆLFVVINE REX DEIRA


Kings of Northumbria before the Norse era

Reign Incumbent Notes
654 to 15 February 670 Oswiu OSVVIO ÆÞELFRIÞING NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

OSVVIO REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Hither of Bernicia and Deira
February 670 to 20 May 685 Ecgfrith ECGFERÞ OSVVEOING NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

ECGFERÞ REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Killed in battle against the Picts
May 685 to 14 December 704 Aldfrith

(Ealdfrith, Aldfrid)
ALDFERÞ OSVVEOING NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

ALDFERÞ REX NORÞANHYMBRA
late 704 to early 705 Eadwulf EADVVLF NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

EADVVLF REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Usurper
705 to 716 Osred I OSRED ALDFERÞING NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

OSRED REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Killed in battle or murdered
716 to 718 Coenred COENRED NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

COENRED REX NORÞANHYMBRA
718 to 29 May 729 Osric OSRIC ALDFERÞING NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

OSRIC REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Adopted Ceolwulf as his heir
729 to 731 Ceolwulf CEOLVVLF NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

CEOLVVLF REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Deposed; Saint Ceolwulf
731 to 737/8 Ceolwulf CEOLVVLF NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

CEOLVVLF REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Restored; abdicated to become a monk
737 to 758 Eadberht EADBRYHT EATING NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

EADBRYHT REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Abdicated to become a monk
758 to 759 Oswulf

(Osulf)
OSVVLF NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

OSVVLF REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Murdered by his servants
759 to 765 Æthelwald Moll ÆÞELVVALD MOLL NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

ÆÞELVVALD MOLL REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Deposed
765 to 774 Alhred EALCHRED NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

EALCHRED REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Deposed and exiled
774 to 779 Æthelred I ÆÞELRED NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

ÆÞELRED REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Deposed
779 to 23 September 788 Ælfwald I ÆLFVVALD NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

ÆLFVVALD REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Murdered
788 to 790 Osred II OSRED ALCHREDING NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

OSRED REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Deposed and exiled
790 to 18 April 796 Æthelred I ÆÞELRED NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

ÆÞELRED REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Restored
796 Osbald OSBALD NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

OSBALD REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Exiled after a reign of 27 days
14 May 796 to 806/8 Eardwulf EARDVVLF NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

EARDVVLF REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Deposed
806/8 to 808/10 Ælfwald II

(Elfwald II)
ÆLFVVALD NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

ÆLFVVALD REX NORÞANHYMBRA
808 to 810 Eardwulf EARDVVLF NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

EARDVVLF REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Restored
810 to 841 Eanred EANRED EARDVVLFING NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

EANRED REX NORÞANHYMBRA
840/1 to 844 Æthelred II ÆÞELRED EANREDING NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

ÆÞELRED REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Deposed
844 Rædwulf

(Redwulf)
RÆDVVLF NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

RÆDVVLF REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Usurper
844 to c.848/9 Æthelred II ÆÞELRED EANREDING NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

ÆÞELRED REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Restored
c.848/9 to 862/3 Osberht

(Osbert)
OSBEORHT NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

OSBEORHT REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Deposed
862/3/7 to 23 March 867 Ælle II ÆLLE NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

ÆLLE REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Usurper; Killed by the Danes with Osbeorht
867 to 21 March 867 Osberht

(Osbert)
OSBEORHT NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

OSBEORHT REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Killed by the Danes with the usurper Aelle


Kings of Northumbria in the Norse era

Reign Incumbent Notes
867 to 872 Ecgberht I ECGBRYHT NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

ECGBRYHT REX NORÞANHYMBRA
Puppet king of the Danes
872 to 876 Ricsige RICSIGE NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

RICSIGE REX NORÞANHYMBRA
876 to c.878 Ecgberht II ECGBRYHT NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

ECGBRYHT REX NORÞANHYMBRA
878 to 895 Guðroðr GUTHFRID NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING

GUTHFRID REX NORÞANHYMBRA
late 800s/early 900sDownham, Viking Kings, p. 79 Sigfroðr
late 800s/early 900s Knútr Sigfroðr and Knútr may have been joint kings for part or all of the period between 895 and 905
fl. c. 900—902 Æthelwold
died 910Downham, Viking Kings, p. 87 Hálfdan and Eowils Another king, Ingwær, brother of the above, may have ruled too
died 913Downham, Viking Kings, p. 88Woolf, Pictland to Alba, p. 139 Eadwulf II
from 913 to 918 to unknown Ealdred Ealdred appears to have ruled some territory in the north, probably from Bamburgh, until at least 927
918 to 921 Ragnall ua Ímair
921 to 927 Sigtrygg Caech
927 to 939 Æthelstan of Wessex
939 to 941 Amlaíb mac Gofraid
941 to 943 or 944 Amlaíb Cuarán
943 to 944 (with Amlaíb Cuarán?) Ragnall mac Gofraid
roughly 944 to 946 Eadmund of Wessex
c. 947 to 948 Eric
949 to 952 Amlaíb Cuarán (again)
952 to 954 Eric (again)
from 954 Woolf, Pictland to Alba, p. 190 Eadred of Wessex laiming and enforcing rule from 946; Kingdom absorbed permanently into England after 954


See also



Family tree





Notes

References




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