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This list of the non-marine molluscs of Irelandmarker comprises 165 species of non-marine molluscs which have been recorded as part of the fauna of Ireland. These are terrestrial and aquatic gastropods, and bivalves; the list does not include species of molluscs which are considered to be fully marine.

In other words: this list includes land snails and slugs, and freshwater and brackish water snails. It also includes freshwater mussels and freshwater clams, including some that can tolerate brackish water. Molluscs that are fully adapted to live in the sea are not included here.

Irelandmarker is an island in the northeastern Atlanticmarker. It consists of the Republic of Irelandmarker, also known simply as Ireland (or in the Irish language Éire), and Northern Irelandmarker, which is part of the United Kingdommarker.

The mollusc fauna of the island of Ireland has not been as thoroughly researched as that of the island of Great Britain, and therefore it is possible that some uncommon and local species (whether native or introduced) may, as yet, have been overlooked. Even so, it seems that the non-marine molluscan fauna of Ireland is a smaller fauna that that of Great Britain.

This list is of land and freshwater molluscs only. Some species of gastropods listed here (for example Peringia ulvae) live in habitats that are intermediate between freshwater and saltwater. Others live in habitats that are intermediate between land and saltwater. Both of these kinds of species are often also included in marine faunal lists.

In addition to the species that live naturally outdoors in Ireland, there are at least 2 aquatic gastropod species which live only in artificially-heated indoor environments such as aquaria in greenhouses. These are known as "hothouse aliens", and in this list they are not counted as part of the total fauna.

A number of species are listed with subspecies, in cases where there are recognized subspecies in different parts of Europe. In some cases a synonym is given, where the species may be perhaps better known under an older name.

The list is arranged by presumed biological affinity, rather than being alphabetical by family.

The following table shows a summary of species numbers. It is not always easy to define which species are aquatic and which are terrestrial, as some species such as Galba truncatula are virtually amphibious. It also can be difficult to determine which species are introduced, as some introductions are quite ancient, for example from the Paleolithic. Those species that do not have a shell usually do not leave an archeological or fossil record, and therefore it is not always possible to determine whether they are native or introduced.

Non-marine molluscs of Ireland
Land gastropods 107
Aquatic gastropods 37
Gastropod total: 144
Freshwater bivalves 21
Mollusc total: 165
Introduced land gastropods in natural habitats: 15
Introduced bivalves in natural habitats: 1
Total introduced molluscs in natural habitats: 16
Gastropods living as "hothouse aliens" 2
Bivalves living as "hothouse aliens" 0


Conservation

Species protected by EU Habitats Directive include: Geomalacus maculosus (annex II and IV), Vertigo angustior, Vertigo geyeri, Vertigo moulinsiana (annex II) and Margaritifera margaritifera (annex II and V).

Two species are protected by Wildlife Act of 1976 since 1990: Geomalacus maculosus and Margaritifera margaritifera. They were added by regulation SI 112/1990.

A recent regional red list has been published on the non-marine molluscs of Ireland [723499] In this publication, the threat status of 150 native species were evaluated using IUCN regional guidelines . Of these species, two are considered to be regionally extinct, five critically endangered, fourteen endangered, twenty-six vulnerable, six near threatened, and the rest of least concern, or data deficient.

Regional Red List of Irish Non-Marine Molluscs

The following species have been assigned threat categories or considered regionally extinct on the island of Ireland, at the present time .

Regionally extinct (RE)Helicigona lapicida (Linnaeus, 1758)Omphiscola glabra (O.F. Müller, 1774)

Critically Endangered (CR)Pisidium conventus Clessin, 1877Pomatias elegans (O.F. Müller, 1774)Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)Truncatella subcylindrica (Linnaeus, 1767)Margaritifera durrovensis Philips, 1928

Endangered (EN)Gyraulus laevis (Alder, 1838)Pisidium pulchellum Jenyns, 1832Hydrobia acuta neglecta (Muus, 1963)Pupilla muscorum (Linnaeus, 1758)Mercuria cf. similis (Draparnaud, 1805)Quickella arenaria (Potiez & Michaud, 1835)Merdigera obscura (O.F. Müller, 1774)Spermodea lamellata (Jeffreys, 1830)Myxas glutinosa (O.F. Müller, 1774)Succinella oblonga Draparnaud, 1801Pisidium moitessierianum Paladilhe, 1866Vertigo moulinsiana (Dupuy, 1849)Pisidium pseudosphaerium Schlesch, 1947Vertigo pusilla Müller, 1774

Vulnerable (VU)Acicula fusca (Montagu, 1803)Pisidium lilljeborgii Clessin, 1866Anisus vortex (Linnaeus, 1758)Radix auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758)Anodonta anatina (Linnaeus, 1758)Sphaerium nucleus (Studer, 1820)Anodonta cygnea (Linnaeus, 1758)Tandonia rustica (Millet, 1843)Aplexa hypnorum (Linnaeus, 1758)Testacella haliotidea Draparnaud, 1801Arianta arbustorum (Linnaeus, 1758)Vallonia pulchella (O.F. Müller, 1774)Balea perversa (Linnaeus, 1758)Ventrosia ventrosa (Montagu, 1803)Cecilioides acicula (Müller, 1774)Vertigo angustior Jeffreys, 1830Cochlodina laminata (Montagu, 1803)Vertigo antivertigo (Draparnaud, 1801)Helicella itala (Linnaeus, 1758)Vertigo geyeri Lindholm, 1925Leiostyla anglica (A. Férussac, 1821)Vertigo lilljeborgi (Westerlund, 1871)Limax cinereoniger Wolf, 1803Zenobiella subrufescens (J.S. Miller, 1822)Musculium lacustre (O.F. Müller, 1774)Zonitoides excavatus (Alder, 1830)

Systematic list

The list is arranged by presumed biological affinity, rather than being alphabetical by family.

A number of species are listed with subspecies, in cases where there are well-recognized subspecies in different parts of Europe. For some species a synonym is given, where the species may perhaps be better known under another name.

An attempt has been made to label the families as aquatic, terrestrial or intermediate, and an indication is given where it is thought that the species is introduced. Those species that do not have a shell usually do not leave an archeological or fossil record, and therefore it is not always possible to determine whether they are native or introduced. Species are considered to be native, unless otherwise indicated; that information is taken from Kerney, 1999.

Gastropoda

Neritidae - aquatic (also tolerates brackish water)


Aciculidae - terrestrial


Viviparidae - aquatic


Assimineidae - terrestrial (intermediate marine)


Bithyniidae - aquatic


Hydrobiidae - aquatic (some are arguably marine)


Valvatidae - aquatic


Pomatiidae - terrestrial


The following gastropods are pulmonates:

Ellobiidae - terrestrial or semi-marine
Otinidae - aquatic (almost fully marine, but a pulmonate)


Physidae - aquatic
Lymnaeidae - aquatic
Planorbidae - aquatic


Acroloxidae - aquatic
Succineidae - terrestrial (some almost amphibious)


Cochlicopidae - terrestrial


Pyramidulidae - terrestrial


Vertiginidae - terrestrial


Pupillidae - terrestrial


Lauriidae - terrestrial
Valloniidae - terrestrial
Enidae - terrestrial


Punctidae - terrestrial


Discidae - terrestrial
Arionidae - terrestrial


Pristilomatidae - terrestrial
Euconulidae - terrestrial


Gastrodontidae - terrestrial


Oxychilidae - terrestrial
Milacidae - terrestrial


Vitrinidae - terrestrial
Boettgerillidae - terrestrial


Limacidae - terrestrial


Agriolimacidae - terrestrial
Ferussaciidae - terrestrial


Clausiliidae - terrestrial


Testacellidae - terrestrial


Cochlicellidae - terrestrial


Hygromiidae - terrestrial


Helicidae - terrestrial


Bivalvia

Margaritiferidae - aquatic
Unionidae - aquatic


Sphaeriidae - aquatic


Dreissenidae - aquatic


List of "hothouse alien" species

These freshwater species are not truly part of the fauna because they do not live in the wild. They are tropical and thus are incapable of surviving in the wild in Ireland; instead they have established themselves as uninvited inhabitants of aquaria within greenhouses, and similar artificially-heated aquatic habitats.
Lymnaeidae - aquatic


Planorbidae - aquatic


See also



References

  1. (7 January) 2009. Checklist of protected & rare species in Ireland. 15 pp., page 12.
  2. Byrne, A., Moorkens, E.A., Anderson, R., Killeen, I.J. & Regan, E.C. (2009) Ireland Red List No. 2 – Non-Marine Molluscs. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland.
  3. IUCN (2003) Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional Levels: Version 3.0. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland & Cambridge, UK. ii + 26 pp.
  4. Byrne, A., Moorkens, E.A., Anderson, R., Killeen, I.J. & Regan, E.C. (2009) Ireland Red List No. 2 – Non-Marine Molluscs. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland.
  5. Kerney, Michael, 1999, Atlas of the land and freshwater molluscs of Britain and Ireland, Harley Books, Colchester, England, ISBN 0 946589 48 8.
  • Kerney, Michael, 1999, Atlas of the land and freshwater molluscs of Britain and Ireland, Harley Books, Colchester, England, ISBN 0 946589 48 8


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