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The list of Popes chronologically lists the men who have been given the title Pope (or Bishop of Rome) by the Catholic Church. While there is actually no official list of popes, the Annuario Pontificio, published every year by the Vatican, contains a list that is generally considered to be the most authoritative. The Annuario Pontificio lists Benedict XVI as the 265th Bishop of Rome. That list is the one given here; it lists 263 men serving 265 pontificates (periods of Papal office), if Pope-elect Stephen is excluded (see below). The difference in these numbers is due to the fact that Benedict IX reigned during three non-consecutive periods between 1032 and 1048.

The term Pope (Latin: papa "father'") is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders (for example Coptic Pope). This title in English usage usually refers to the head of the Roman Catholic Church. The Roman Catholic pope officially uses the title of Pontifex Maximus. This title was first used by the Ancient Romans as the title of the high priest of the College of Pontiffs. Emperor Augustus later subsumed the office into his Imperial office but Gratian dropped the title on the advice of Ambrose.

Hermannus Contractus may have been the first historian to number the popes continuously. His list ends in 1049 with Pope Leo IX as number 154. Several changes were made to the list during the 20th century. Antipope Christopher was considered legitimate for a long time. Pope-elect Stephen was considered legitimate under the name Stephen II until the 1961 edition, when his name was erased. Although these changes are no longer controversial, a number of modern lists still include this "first Pope Stephen II". It is probable that this is because they are based on the 1913 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, which is in the public domain. In the year 2001 a rigorous study was made by the Catholic Church into the history of the papacy which "prompted almost 200 corrections to the existing biographies of the Popes, from St. Peter to John Paul II.".

The title Episcopus Romanus means Roman Bishop in Latin.

Chronological list of popes

1st–5th Centuries

1st Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
30 – 64/67 Peter
Saint Peter
Petrus, Meaning Rock or Pebble, Episcopus Romanus Simon Peter
שמעון בן יונה
(Shimon ben Yona)

Shimon Kipha
CΙΜΗΟΝ ΚΗΦΑC
(Simeon Kephas – Simon the Rock)





Bethsaida, Galilea     Disciple of Jesus from whom he received the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven, according to . Executed by crucifixion upside-down; feast day (Feast of Saints Peter and Paul) 29 June, (Chair of Saint Peter) 22 February. Recognized as the first Bishop of Rome (Pope) appointed by Christ, by the Catholic Church. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 29 June.
64/67(?) – 76/79(?) Linus
Saint Linus
Linus, Episcopus Romanus Linus Tuscia (Northern Latium)     Feast day 23 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June.
76/79(?) – 88 Anacletus
(Cletus)
Saint Anacletus

Anacletus, Episcopus Romanus Anacletus Probably Greecemarker     Martyred; feast day 26 April. Once erroneously split into Cletus and Anacletus
88/92 – 97/101 Clement I
Saint Clement
Clemens, Episcopus Romanus   Romemarker     Feast day 23 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 November.
97/99 – 105/107 Evaristus
(Aristus)
Saint Evaristus

Evaristus, Episcopus Romanus Aristus Bethlehemmarker, Palestine     Feast day 26 October


2nd Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
105/107 – 115/116 Alexander I
Saint Alexander
Alexander, Episcopus Romanus Alexander Rome     Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 16 March.
115/116 – 125 Sixtus I
Saint Sixtus
Xystus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome or Greece     Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
125 – 136/138 Telesphorus
Saint Telesphorus
Telesphorus, Episcopus Romanus   Greece      
136/138 – 140/142 Hyginus
Saint Hyginus
Hyginus, Episcopus Romanus   Greece     Traditionally martyred; feast day 11 January
140/142 – 155 Pius I
Saint Pius
Pius, Episcopus Romanus   Aquileiamarker, Friuli, Italy     Martyred by sword; feast day 11 July
155 – 166 Anicetus
Saint Anicetus
Anicetus, Episcopus Romanus   Emesamarker, Syria     Traditionally martyred; feast day 17 April
c.166 – 174/175 Soter
Saint Soter
Soterius, Episcopus Romanus   Fondimarker, Latium, Italy     Traditionally martyred; feast day 22 April
174/175 – 189 Eleuterus
Saint Eleutherus
Eleutherius, Episcopus Romanus   Nicopolimarker, Epyrus     Traditionally martyred; feast day 6 May
189 – 198/199 Victor I
Saint Victor
Victor, Episcopus Romanus   Northern Africa      
199 – 217 Zephyrinus
Saint Zephyrin
Zephyrinus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome      


3rd Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
c.217 – 222/223 Callixtus I
Saint Callixtus
Callistus, Episcopus Romanus         Martyred; feast day 14 October
222/223 – 230 Urban I
Saint Urban
Urbanus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome     Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 May.
21 July 230 – 28 September 235 Pontian
Saint Pontian
Pontianus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   5 First Pope with firm dates of office
21 November 235 – 3 January 236 Anterus
Saint Anterus
Anterus, Episcopus Romanus   Greece   <1<></1<>small> Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
10 January 236 – 20 January 250 Fabian
Saint Fabian
Fabianus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   14 Feast day 20 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
6 March/11 March 251 – June 253 Cornelius
Saint Cornelius
Cornelius, Episcopus Romanus       2 Died a martyr, through extreme hardship; feast day 16 September
25 June 253 – 5 March 254 Lucius I
Saint Lucius
Lucius, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   <1<></1<>small> Feast day 4 March
12 May 254 – 2 August 257 Stephen I
Saint Stephen
Stephanus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   3 Martyred by beheading; feast day 2 August. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with the same feast day.
30/31 August 257 – 6 August 258 Sixtus II
Saint Sixtus II
Xystus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus   Greece   <1<></1<>small> Martyred by beheading. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
22 July 259 – 26 December 268 Dionysius
Saint Dionysius
Dionysius, Episcopus Romanus   Greece   9 Feast day 26 December
5 January 269 – 30 December 274 Felix I
Saint Felix
Felix, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   5  
4 January 275 – 7 December 283 Eutychian
Saint Eutychian
Eutychianus, Episcopus Romanus       8  
17 December 283 – 22 April 296 Caius
Saint Caius
Caius, Episcopus Romanus       12 Martyred (according to legend) Feast day 22 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 11 August.
30 June 296 – 1 April 304 Marcellinus
Saint Marcellinus
Marcellinus, Episcopus Romanus       7 Feast day 26 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June.


4th Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
308 to 309 Marcellus I
Saint Marcellus
Marcellus, Episcopus Romanus          
c.309 – c.310 Eusebius
Saint Eusebius
Eusebius, Episcopus Romanus          
2 July 311 – 11 January 314 Miltiades
Melchiades
Saint Miltiades

Miltiades, Episcopus Romanus   Africa   2 First pope after the end of the persecution of Christians through the Edict of Milan (313 AD) issued by Constantine the Great
31 January 314 – 31 December 335 Sylvester I
Saint Sylvester
Silvester, Episcopus Romanus   Sant'Angelo a Scalamarker, Avellinomarker   21 Feast day 31 December. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 2 January.
18 January 336 – 7 October 336 Mark
Saint Mark
Marcus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   <1<></1<>small> Feast day 7 October
6 February 337 – 12 April 352 Julius I
Saint Julius
Iulius, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   15  
17 May 352 – 24 September 366 Liberius Liberius, Episcopus Romanus       14 Earliest Pope not yet canonized by the Roman Church. Revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 27 August.
1 October 366 – 11 December 384 Damasus I
Saint Damasus
Damasus, Episcopus Romanus   Idanha-a-Velhamarker, Portugal   18
11 December 384 – 26 November 399 Siricius
Saint Siricius
Papa Siricius, Episcopus Romanus       14 First Bishop of Rome to employ the title "Papa" ("Pope")
27 November 399 – 19 December 401 Anastasius I
Saint Anastasius
Papa Anastasius, Episcopus Romanus       2  


5th Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
22 December 401 – 12 March 417 Innocent I
Saint Innocent
Papa Innocentius, Episcopus Romanus       15 Visigoth Sack of Rome under Alaric
18 March 417 – 26 December 418 Zosimus
Saint Zosimus
Papa Zosimus, Episcopus Romanus       1  
28/29 December 418 – 4 September 422 Boniface I
Saint Boniface
Papa Bonifacius, Episcopus Romanus       3  
10 September 422 – 27 July 432 Celestine I
Saint Celestine
Papa Coelestinus, Episcopus Romanus   Romemarker, Western Roman Empire   9 Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 8 April.
31 July 432 – March/August 440 Sixtus III
Saint Sixtus
Papa Xystus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus       8  
29 September 440 – 10 November 461 Leo I
Saint Leo
Leo the Great

Papa Leo Magnus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   21 Convinced Attila the Hun to turn back his invasion of Italy. Feast day 10 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 18 February.
19 November 461 – 29 February 468 Hilarius
Saint Hilarius
Papa Hilarius, Episcopus Romanus   Sardinia, Western Roman Empire   6  
3 March 468 – 10 March 483 Simplicius
Saint Simplicius
Papa Simplicius, Episcopus Romanus   Tivolimarker, Italy   15  
13 March 483 – 1 March 492 Felix III (Felix II)
Saint Felix
Papa Felix Tertius (Secundus), Episcopus Romanus   Rome   8 Sometimes called Felix II
1 March 492 to 21 November 496 Gelasius I
Saint Gelasius
Papa Gelasius, Episcopus Romanus   Africa   4  
24 November 496 – 19 November 498 Anastasius II Papa Anastasius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus       1  
22 November 498 – 19 July 514 Symmachus
Saint Symmachus
Papa Symmachus, Episcopus Romanus   Sardinia   15  


6th–10th Centuries

6th Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
20 July 514 – 19 July 523 Hormisdas
Saint Hormisdas
Papa Hormisdus, Episcopus Romanus   Frosinonemarker, Southern Latium, Italy   8 Father of Pope Silverius
13 August 523 – 18 May 526 John I
Saint John
Papa Ioannes, Episcopus Romanus   Tuscany   2  
13 July 526 – 22 September 530 Felix IV (Felix III)
Saint Felix
Papa Felix Quartus(Tertius), Episcopus Romanus   Samnium   4 Sometimes called Felix III
22 September 530 – 17 October 532 Boniface II Papa Bonifacius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus   Romemarker to Ostrogoth parents   2  
2 January 533 – 8 May 535 John II Papa Ioannes Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Mercurius Rome   2 First pope to not use personal name. This was due to Mercury being a Roman god.
13 May 535 – 22 April 536 Agapetus I
Agapitus
Saint Agapetus

Papa Agapetus, Episcopus Romanus   Romemarker, Ostrogothic Kingdommarker   <1<></1<>small> Feast days 22 April, 20 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 17 April.
1 June 536 – 11 November 537 Silverius
Saint Silverius
Papa Silverius, Episcopus Romanus       1 Exiled; feast day 20 June, son of Pope Hormisdas
29 March 537 – 7 June 555 Vigilius Papa Vigilius, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   18  
16 April 556 – 4 March 561 Pelagius I Papa Pelagius, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   5  
17 July 561 – 13 July 574 John III Papa Ioannes Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Catelinus Romemarker, Eastern Roman Empire   12  
2 June 575 – 30 July 579 Benedict I Papa Benedictus, Episcopus Romanus       4  
26 November 579 – 7 February 590 Pelagius II Papa Pelagius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   10  
3 September 590 – 12 March 604 Gregory I, O.S.B.
Saint Gregory
Gregory the Great

Papa Gregorius Magnus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   13 First to formally employ the titles "Servus servorum Dei" and "Pontifex Maximus". Feast day 3 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 12 March.


7th Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
13 September 604 – 22 February 606 Sabinian
Saint Sabinian
Papa Sabinianus, Episcopus Romanus   Bleramarker   1  
19 February 607 – 12 November 607 Boniface III Papa Bonifacius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   <1<></1<>small>  
25 August 608 – 8 May 615 Boniface IV, O.S.B.
Saint Boniface
Papa Bonifacius Quartus, Episcopus Romanus   Marsi   6 First Pope to bear the same name as his predecessor. Member of the Order of St. Benedict.
19 October 615 – 8 November 618 Adeodatus I Papa Adeodatus,

or Papa Deusdedit Episcopus Romanus
  Rome   3 Sometimes called Deusdedit, and then Pope Adeodatus II is called Pope Adeodatus without a number
23 December 619 – 25 October 625 Boniface V Papa Bonifacius Quintus, Episcopus Romanus   Naplesmarker   5  
27 October 625 – 12 October 638 Honorius I Papa Honorius, Episcopus Romanus   Campania, Byzantine Empire   2  
October 638 – 2 August 640 Severinus Papa Severinus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   1  
24 December 640 – 12 October 642 John IV Papa Ioannes Quartus, Episcopus Romanus   Zadarmarker, Dalmatia, now Croatiamarker   1  
24 November 642 – 14 May 649 Theodore I Papa Theodorus, Episcopus Romanus   Palestine   6  
July 649 – 16 September 655 Martin I
Saint Martin
Papa Martinus, Episcopus Romanus   Near Todimarker, Umbria, Byzantine Empire   6 Feast Day 12 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 14 April.
10 August 654 – 2 June 657 Eugene I
Saint Eugene
Papa Eugenius, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   2  
30 July 657 – 27 January 672 Vitalian
Saint Vitalian
Papa Vitalianus, Episcopus Romanus   Segnimarker, Byzantine Empire   14  
11 April 672 – 17 June 676 Adeodatus II, O.S.B. Papa Adeodatus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus   Romemarker, Byzantine Empire   4 Sometimes called Pope Adeodatus (without a number) when Pope Adeodatus I is called Pope Deusdedit. Member of the Order of St. Benedict.
2 November 676 – 11 April 678 Donus Papa Donus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome, Byzantine Empire   1  
27 June 678 – 10 January 681 Agatho
Saint Agatho
Papa Agatho, Episcopus Romanus   Sicily   2 Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 20 February.
December 681 – 3 July 683 Leo II
Saint Leo
Papa Leo Secundus, Episcopus Romanus   Sicily   1 Feast day 3 July
683/26 June 684 – 8 May 685 Benedict II
Saint Benedict
Papa Benedictus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome, Byzantine Empire   <1<></1<>small> Feast day 7 May
12 July 685 – 2 August 686 John V Papa Ioannes Quintus, Episcopus Romanus   Syriamarker   1  
21 October 686 – 22 September 687 Conon Papa Conon, Episcopus Romanus       <1<></1<>small>  
15 December 687 – 8 September 701 Sergius I
Saint Sergius
Papa Sergius, Episcopus Romanus   Sicily   13  


8th Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
30 October 701 – 11 January 705 John VI Papa Ioannes Sextus, Episcopus Romanus   Greece   3  
1 March 705 – 18 October 707 John VII Papa Ioannes Septumus, Episcopus Romanus   Greece   2 Second Pope to bear the same name as his predecessor
15 January 708 – 4 February 708 Sisinnius Papa Sisinnius, Episcopus Romanus   Syria   <1<></1<>small>  
25 March 708 – 9 April 715 Constantine Papa Constantinus, Episcopus Romanus   Syria   7 Last Pope to visit Greecemarker until John Paul II in 2001
19 May 715 – 11 February 731 Gregory II
Saint Gregory
Papa Gregorius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome, Byzantine Empire   15 Feast day 11 February
18 March 731 – 28 November 741 Gregory III Papa Gregorius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus   Syria   10 Third Pope to bear the same name as his predecessor
3 December 741 – 14 March/22 March 752 Zachary
Saint Zachary
Papa Zacharias, Episcopus Romanus   Greece   10 Feast day 15 March
23 March 752 – 25 March 752 Never took office as Pope. Papa Scelga Stephanus       0 Sometimes known as Stephen II. Died three days after his election and was never consecrated into the office of Pope as such. Some lists still include his name. The Vatican sanctioned his addition to the list of Popes in the sixteenth century, however he was removed in 1961. He is no longer considered a Pope by the Catholic Church.
26 March 752 – 26 April 757 Stephen II Papa Stephanus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus       5 Sometimes called Stephen III
29 May 757 – 28 June 767 Paul I
Saint Paul
Papa Paulus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   10  
1 August or 7 August 767 – 24 January 772 Stephen III Papa Stephanus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus   Sicily   4 Sometimes called Stephen IV
1 February 772 – 26 December 795 Adrian I Papa Hadrianus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   23  
26 December 795 – 12 June 816 Leo III
Saint Leo
Papa Leo Tertius, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   20 Crowned Charlemagne Imperator Augustus on Christmas Day, 800, thereby initiating what would become the office of Holy Roman Emperor requiring the imprimatur of the pope for its legitimacy


9th Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
12 June 816 – 24 January 817 Stephen IV Papa Stephanus Quartus, Episcopus Romanus       <1<></1<>small> Sometimes called Stephen V
25 January 817 – 11 February 824 Paschal I
Saint Paschal
Papa Paschalis, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   7  
8 May 824 – August 827 Eugene II Papa Eugenius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   3  
August 827 – September 827 Valentine Papa Valentinus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   <1<></1<>small>  
827 – January 844 Gregory IV Papa Gregorius Quartus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   17  
January 844 – 7 January 847 Sergius II Papa Sergius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   3  
January 847 – 17 July 855 Leo IV, O.S.B.
Saint Leo
Papa Leo Quartus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   8 Member of the Order of St. Benedict.
855 – 7 April 858 Benedict III Papa Benedictus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus   Rome      
24 April 858 – 13 November 867 Nicholas I
Saint Nicholas
Nicholas the Great

Papa Nicolaus Magnus Episcopus Romanus   Rome   9  
14 December 867 – 14 December 872 Adrian II Papa Hadrianus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   5  
14 December 872 – 16 December 882 John VIII Papa Ioannes Octavus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   10  
16 December 882 – 15 May 884 Marinus I Papa Marinus, Episcopus Romanus   Gallesemarker, Rome   1  
17 May 884 – c.September 885 Adrian III
Saint Adrian
Papa Hadrianus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus   Rome      
885 – 14 September 891 Stephen V Papa Stephanus Quintus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome     Sometimes called Stephen VI
19 September 891 – 4 April 896 Formosus Papa Formosus, Episcopus Romanus   Ostiamarker   4 Posthumously ritually executed following the Cadaver Synod
4 April 896 – 19 April 896 Boniface VI Papa Bonifacius Sextus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   <1<></1<>small>  
22 May 896 – August 897 Stephen VI Papa Stephanus Sextus, Episcopus Romanus       1 Sometimes called Stephen VII
August 897 – November 897 Romanus Papa Romanus, Episcopus Romanus   Gallese, Rome   <1<></1<>small>  
December 897 Theodore II Papa Theodorus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   <1<></1<>small>  
January 898 – January 900 John IX, O.S.B. Papa Ioannes Nonus, Episcopus Romanus   Tivoli, Italy     Member of the Order of St. Benedict.
900 – 903 Benedict IV Papa Benedictus Quartus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome      


10th Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
July 903 – September 903 Leo V Papa Leo Quintus, Episcopus Romanus   Ardeamarker   <1<></1<>small>  
29 January 904 – 14 April 911 Sergius III Papa Sergius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   7 "Pornocracy" begins
April 911 – June 913 Anastasius III Papa Anastasius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   2  
July/August 913 – February/March 914 Lando Papa Lando, Episcopus Romanus   Sabina, Italy   <1<></1<>small>  
March 914 – May 928 John X Papa Ioannes Decimus, Episcopus Romanus   Romagnamarker, Italy   14  
May 928 – December 928 Leo VI Papa Leo Sextus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   <1<></1<>small>  
December 928 – February 931 Stephen VII Papa Stephanus Septimus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   2 Sometimes called Stephen VIII
February/March 931 – December 935 John XI Papa Ioannes Undecimus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   4  
3 January 936 – 13 July 939 Leo VII, O.S.B. Papa Leo Septimus, Episcopus Romanus       3 Member of the Order of St. Benedict.
14 July 939 – October 942 Stephen VIII Papa Stephanus Octavus, Episcopus Romanus   Germany   3 Sometimes called Stephen IX
30 October 942 – May 946 Marinus II Papa Marinus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   3  
10 May 946 – December 955 Agapetus II Papa Agapetus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   9  
16 December 955 – 14 May 964 John XII Papa Ioannes Duodecimus, Episcopus Romanus Octavian Rome   8 Deposed in 963 by Emperor Otto invalidly; end of the "Pornocracy"
22 May 964 – 23 June 964 Benedict V Papa Benedictus Quintus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   <1<></1<>small> Elected after John XII's death by the people of Rome, in opposition to the Antipope Leo VIII who was appointed by Emperor Otto; Benedict accepted his deposition in 964 leaving Leo as sole pope.
July 964 – 1 March 965 Leo VIII Papa Leo Octavus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   <1<></1<>small> Appointed antipope by Emperor Otto in 963 in opposition to John XII and Benedict V. He became the true Pope after Benedict V was deposed
1 October 965 – 6 September 972 John XIII Papa Ioannes Tertius Decimus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   6  
19 January 973 – June 974 Benedict VI Papa Benedictus Sextus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome, Papal Statesmarker   1 Deposed and murdered
October 974 – 10 July 983 Benedict VII Papa Benedictus Septimus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   8  
December 983 – 20 August 984 John XIV Papa Ioannes Quartus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Pietro Campanora Paviamarker   <1<></1<>small>  
August 985 – March 996 John XV Papa Ioannes Quintus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus   Rome   10  
3 May 996 – 18 February 999 Gregory V Papa Gregorius Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Bruno of Carinthia Germany, Holy Roman Empire   2 First German Pope
2 April 999 – 12 May 1003 Sylvester II Papa Silvester Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Gerbert d'Aurillac Auvergne region of France   4 First French Pope


11th–15th Centuries

11th Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
June 1003 – December 1003 John XVII Papa Ioannes Septimus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Siccone Romemarker, Papal Statesmarker   <1<></1<>small>  
25 December 1003 – July 1009 John XVIII Papa Ioannes Duodevicesimus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Fasano; Phasianus Rapagnanomarker, Papal Statesmarker   5  
31 July 1009 – 12 May 1012 Sergius IV Papa Sergius Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Pietro Boccapecora Romemarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   2  
18 May 1012 – 9 April 1024 Benedict VIII Papa Benedictus Octavus, Episcopus Romanus Theophylactus II, Conti di Tusculum Romemarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   11  
April/May 1024 – 20 October 1032 John XIX Papa Ioannes Undevicesimus, Episcopus Romanus Romanus, Conti di Tusculum Romemarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   8  
1032 – 1044 Benedict IX Papa Benedictus Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Theophylactus III, Conti di Tusculum Romemarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire     1st Term
1045 Sylvester III Papa Silvester Tertius, Episcopus Romanus John, Bishop of Sabina Romemarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire     Validity of election questioned; considered Anti-Pope; deposed at the Council of Sutri.
1045 – 1046 Benedict IX Papa Benedictus Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Theophylactus III, Conti di Tusculum Romemarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire     2nd Term; deposed at the Council of Sutri
April/May 1045 – 20 December 1046 Gregory VI Papa Gregorius Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Johannes Gratianus Romemarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   1 Deposed at the Council of Sutri
24 December 1046 – 9 October 1047 Clement II Papa Clemens Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Suidger Hornburgmarker, Duchy of Saxony, Holy Roman Empire   <1<></1<>small>  
November 1047 – 1048 Benedict IX Papa Benedictus Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Theophylactus III, Conti di Tusculum Romemarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire     3rd Term; deposed and excommunicated
17 July 1048 – 9 August 1048 Damasus II Papa Damasus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Poppo Pildenau, Duchy of Bavaria, Holy Roman Empire   <1<></1<>small>  
12 February 1049 – 19 April 1054 Leo IX
Saint Leo
Papa Leo Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Bruno, Count of Dagsbourg Eguisheimmarker, Swabia, Holy Roman Empire   5 In 1054, Leo IX and Patriarch of Constantinople Michael I Cerularius excommunicated each other, beginning the still-existing East-West schism.
13 April 1055 – 28 July 1057 Victor II Papa Victor Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Gebhard, Count of Calw, Tollenstein, and Hirschberg Kingdom of Germany, Holy Roman Empire   2  
2 August 1057 – 29 March 1058 Stephen IX, O.S.B. Papa Stephanus Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Frederic de Lorraine; Frederick of Lorraine Duchy of Lorraine, Holy Roman Empire   <1<></1<>small> Sometimes called Stephen X. Member of the Order of St. Benedict.
6 December 1058 – 27 July 1061 Nicholas II Papa Nicolaus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Gérard de Bourgogne; Gerard of Burgundy Château de Chevronmarker, Kingdom of Arles   2  
30 September 1061 – 21 April 1073 Alexander II Papa Alexander Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Anselmo da Baggio Milanmarker, Italy, Holy Roman Empire   11  
22 April 1073 – 25 May 1085 Gregory VII, O.S.B.
Saint Gregory
Papa Gregorius Septimus, Episcopus Romanus Hildebrand Sovanamarker, Italy, Holy Roman Empire   12 Restricted the use of title "Papa" to the Bishop of Rome. Member of the Order of St. Benedict.
24 May 1086 – 16 September 1087 Victor III, O.S.B.
Blessed Victor
Papa Victor Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Desiderio; Desiderius; Dauferius Beneventomarker, Duchy of Benevento   1 Member of the Order of St. Benedict.
12 March 1088 – 29 July 1099 Urban II, O.S.B.
Blessed Urban
Papa Urbanus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Odo of Lagery Lagerymarker, County of Champagne, Francemarker   11 Started the First Crusade. Member of the Order of St. Benedict.
13 August 1099 – 21 January 1118 Paschal II, O.S.B. Papa Paschalis Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Raniero Bledamarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   18 Member of the Order of St. Benedict.


12th Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
24 January 1118 – 28 January 1119 Gelasius II, O.S.B. Papa Gelasius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Coniulo Gaetamarker, Principality of Capua   1 Member of the Order of St. Benedict.
2 February 1119 – 13 December 1124 Callixtus II Papa Callistus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Guido, Comte de Bourgogne Quingey, County of Burgundy, Holy Roman Empire   5 Opened the First Council of the Lateran in 1123
15 December 1124 – 13 February 1130 Honorius II, Can.Reg. Papa Honorius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Lamberto Scannabecchi Fiagnanomarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   5 Canon Regular of S. Maria di San Reno
14 February 1130 – 24 September 1143 Innocent II, Can. Reg. Papa Innocentius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Gregorio Papareschi Romemarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   13 Canon Regular of Lateran; Convened the Second Council of the Lateran, 1139
26 September 1143 – 8 March 1144 Celestine II Papa Coelestinus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Guido Città di Castellomarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   <1<></1<>small>  
12 March 1144 – 15 February 1145 Lucius II, Can. Reg. Papa Lucius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Gerardo Caccianemici dal Orso Bolognamarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   1 Canon Regular of S. Frediano di Lucca
15 February 1145 – 8 July 1153 Eugene III, O.Cist.
Blessed Eugene
Papa Eugenius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Bernardo da Pisa Pisamarker, Republic of Pisa, Holy Roman Empire   8 Member of the Order of Cistercians.
8 July 1153 – 3 December 1154 Anastasius IV Papa Anastasius Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Corrado Demetri della Suburra Romemarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   1  
4 December 1154 – 1 September 1159 Adrian IV, O.S.A. Papa Hadrianus Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Nicholas Breakspear Abbots Langleymarker, Hertfordshiremarker, Kingdom of Englandmarker   4 First and only English pope; purportedly granted Ireland to Henry II, King of England. Member of the Order of St. Augustine.
7 September 1159 – 30 August 1181 Alexander III Papa Alexander Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Rolando Sienamarker, Italy, Holy Roman Empire   21 Convened the Third Council of the Lateran, 1179
1 September 1181 – 25 November 1185 Lucius III Papa Lucius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Ubaldo Luccamarker, Italy, Holy Roman Empire   4  
25 November 1185 – 19 October 1187 Urban III Papa Urbanus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Uberto Crivelli Cuggionomarker, Italy, Holy Roman Empire   1  
21 October 1187 – 17 December 1187 Gregory VIII, Can. Reg. Papa Gregorius Octavus, Episcopus Romanus Alberto di Morra Beneventomarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   <1<></1<>small> Canon Regular Premostratense; Proposed the Third Crusade
19 December 1187 – 20 March 1191 Clement III Papa Clemens Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Paolo Scolari Romemarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   3  
21 March 1191 – 8 January 1198 Celestine III Papa Coelestinus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Giacinto Bobone Romemarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   6  
8 January 1198 – 16 July 1216 Innocent III Papa Innocentius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Lothario dei Conti di Segnimarker Gavignanomarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   18 Convened the Fourth Council of the Lateran, 1215


13th Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
18 July 1216 – 18 March 1227 Honorius III Papa Honorius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Cencio Romemarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   10  
19 March 1227 – 22 August 1241 Gregory IX Papa Gregorius Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Ugolino dei Conti di Segnimarker Anagnimarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   14 Canonized Elisabeth of Hungary, 1235
25 October 1241 – 10 November 1241 Celestine IV Papa Coelestinus Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Goffredo Castiglioni Milanmarker, Italy, Holy Roman Empire   <1<></1<>small> Died before coronation.
25 June 1243 – 7 December 1254 Innocent IV Papa Innocentius Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Sinibaldo Fieschi Genoamarker, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire   11 Convened the First Council of Lyons, 1245
12 December 1254 – 25 May 1261 Alexander IV Papa Alexander Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Rinaldo dei Conti di Jenne Jennemarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   6  
29 August 1261 – 2 October 1264 Urban IV Papa Urbanus Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Jacques Pantaléon Troyesmarker, County of Champagne, Francemarker   3  
5 February 1265 – 29 November 1268 Clement IV Papa Clemens Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Gui Faucoi le Gros (angl: Guy Foulques the Fat) Saint-Gillesmarker, Languedoc, Francemarker   3  
29 November 1268 – 1 September 1271 interregnum Almost 3 year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
1 September 1271 – 10 January 1276 Gregory X
Blessed Gregory
Papa Gregorius Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Tebaldo Visconti Piacenzamarker, Italy, Holy Roman Empire   4 Convened the Second Council of Lyons, 1274.
21 January 1276 – 22 June 1276 Innocent V, O.P.
Blessed Innocent
Papa Innocentius Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Pierre de Tarentaise County of Savoy, Holy Roman Empire   <1<></1<>small> Member of the Dominican Order.
11 July 1276 – 18 August 1276 Adrian V Papa Hadrianus Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Ottobuono Fieschi Genoamarker, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire   <1<></1<>small>  
8 September 1276 – 20 May 1277 John XXI Papa Ioannes Vicesimus Primus, Episcopus Romanus Pedro Hispano Lisbonmarker, Portugalmarker   <1<></1<>small> Killed in the collapse of his scientific laboratory
25 November 1277 – 22 August 1280 Nicholas III Papa Nicolaus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Gaetano Orsini Romemarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   2
22 February 1281 – 28 March 1285 Martin IV Papa Martinus Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Simon de Brion; Simon de Brie Meinpicien, Tourainemarker, Francemarker   4  
2 April 1285 – 3 April 1287 Honorius IV Papa Honorius Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Giacomo Savelli Romemarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   2  
22 February 1288 – 4 April 1292 Nicholas IV, O.F.M. Papa Nicolaus Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Girolamo Masci Lisciano, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   4 Member of the Franciscan Order.
4 April 1292 – 5 July 1294 interregnum 2 year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
5 July 1294 – 13 December 1294 Celestine V, O.S.B.
Saint Celestine
Papa Coelestinus Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Pietro da Morrone Sant' Angelo Limosano, Kingdom of Sicily   <1<></1<>small> One of only two popes who abdicated. Member of the Order of St. Benedict.
24 December 1294 – 11 October 1303 Boniface VIII Papa Bonifacius Octavus, Episcopus Romanus Benedetto Caetani Anagnimarker, Papal Statesmarker, Holy Roman Empire   8  


14th Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
22 October 1303 – 7 July 1304 Benedict XI, O.P.
Blessed Bendedict
Papa Benedictus Undecimus, Episcopus Romanus Niccolò Boccasini Treviso, Italy, Holy Roman Empire   <1<></1<>small> Convened the Council of Vienne, 1311–1312. Member of the Dominican Order.
5 June 1305 – 20 April 1314 Clement V Papa Clemens Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Bertrand de Got Villandraut, Gascony, France   8 Pope at Avignon. Ordered the execution of the Knights Templar at the Council of Vienne.
20 April 1314 – 7 August 1316 interregnum 2 year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
7 August 1316 – 4 December 1334 John XXII Papa Ioannes Vicesimus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Jacques d'Euse; Jacques Duèse Cahors, Quercy, France   18 Pope at Avignon
20 December 1334 – 25 April 1342 Benedict XII, O.Cist. Papa Benedictus Duodecimus, Episcopus Romanus Jacques Fournier Saverdun, County of Foix, France   7 Pope at Avignon. Member of the Order of Cistercians.
7 May 1342 – 6 December 1352 Clement VI, O.S.B. Papa Clemens Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Pierre Roger Maumont, Limousin, France   10 Pope at Avignon
18 December 1352 – 12 September 1362 Innocent VI Papa Innocentius Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Étienne Aubert; Stephen Aubert Les Monts, Limousin, France   9 Pope at Avignon
28 September 1362 – 19 December 1370 Urban V, O.S.B.
Blessed Urban
Papa Urbanus Quintus, Episcopus Guillaume Grimoard; Guillaume de Grimoard Grizac, Languedoc, France   8 Pope at Avignon. Member of the Order of St. Benedict.
30 December 1370 – 26 March 1378 Gregory XI Papa Gregorius Undecimus, Episcopus Romanus Pierre Roger de Beaufort Maumont, Limousin, France   7 Pope at Avignon; returns to Rome; last French Pope
8 April 1378 – 15 October 1389 Urban VI Papa Urbanus Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Bartolomeo Prignano Naples, Kingdom of Naples   11 Western Schism
2 November 1389 – 1 October 1404 Boniface IX Papa Bonifacius Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Pietro Tomacelli Naples, Kingdom of Naples   14 Western Schism


15th Century

  • This pope resigned his office.
  • The exact birth date of Innocent VIII and almost all popes prior to Eugene IV is unknown, therefore the lowest probable age has been assumed for this table.


Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
17 October 1404 – 6 November 1406 Innocent VII Papa Innocentius Septimus, Episcopus Romanus Cosimo Gentile Migliorati Sulmona, Kingdom of Naples 67 / 69 2 Western Schism
30 November 1406 – 4 July 1415 Gregory XII Papa Gregorius Duodecimus, Episcopus Romanus Angelo Correr Venice, Republic of Venice 60 / 69 8 Western Schism; abdicated during the Council of Constancemarker, which had been called by his opponent John XXIII.
4 July 1415 – 11 November 1417 Interregnum Two year period without a valid pope elected. Alexander V and John XXIII were both antipopes during this period.
11 November 1417 – 20 February 1431 Martin V Papa Martinus Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Oddone Colonna Genazzano, Papal States 48 / 62 13 Convened the Council of Basel, 1431
3 March 1431 – 23 February 1447 Eugene IV, O.S.A. Papa Eugenius Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Gabriele Condulmer Venice, Republic of Venice 47 / 63 15 Member of the Augustinian Order. Crowned Sigismund emperor at Romemarker in 1433. Transferred the Council of Basel to Ferrara. It was later transferred again, to Florence, because of the Bubonic plague.
6 March 1447 – 24 March 1455 Nicholas V Papa Nicolaus Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Tommaso Parentucelli Sarzana, Republic of Genoa 49 / 57 8 Held Jubilee of 1450; crowned Frederick III emperor at Rome in 1452.
8 April 1455 – 6 August 1458 Callixtus III Papa Callistus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Alfonso de Borgia Xàtiva, Kingdom of Valencia, Crown of Aragon 76 / 79 3 First Spanish Pope
19 August 1458 – 15 August 1464 Pius II Papa Pius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Enea Silvio Piccolomini Corsignano, Republic of Siena 52 / 58 5  
30 August 1464 – 26 July 1471 Paul II Papa Paulus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Pietro Barbo Venice, Republic of Venice 47 / 54 6 Nephew of Eugene IV
9 August 1471 – 12 August 1484 Sixtus IV, O.F.M. Papa Xystus Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Francesco della Rovere Celle Ligure, Republic of Genoa 57 / 70 13 Member of the Franciscan Order. Commissioned the Sistine Chapelmarker
29 August 1484 – 25 July 1492 Innocent VIII Papa Innocentius Octavus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Battista Cybo Genoa, Republic of Genoa 51 / 59 7 Appointed Tomás de Torquemada
11 August 1492 – 18 August 1503 Alexander VI Papa Alexander Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Rodrigo de Lanzòl-Borgia Xàtiva, Kingdom of Valencia, Crown of Aragon 61 / 72 11 Nephew of Callixtus III. Father to Cesare Borgia and Lucrezia Borgia. Divided the extra-European world between Spain and Portugal in 1493 by the Bull Inter caetera.


16th–20th Centuries

16th Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
22 September 1503 – 18 October 1503 Pius III Papa Pius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini Siena, Republic of Siena 64 / 64 <1<></1<>small> Nephew of Pius II
31 October 1503 – 21 February 1513 Julius II Papa Iulius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Giuliano della Rovere Albisola, Republic of Genoa 59 / 69 9 Nephew of Sixtus IV; Convened the Fifth Council of the Lateran, 1512. Took effective control of the whole territory of the Papal Statesmarker for the first time. Proposed plans for rebuilding of Saint Peter's Basilicamarker
9 March 1513 – 1 December 1521 Leo X Papa Leo Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici Florence, Republic of Florence 37 / 45 8 Son of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Excommunicated Martin Luther
9 January 1522 – 14 September 1523 Adrian VI Papa Hadrianus Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Adriaan Floriszoon Boeyens Utrecht, Bishopric of Utrecht, Holy Roman Empire (presently The Netherlandsmarker) 62 / 64 1 The only Dutch Pope. Last non-Italian to be elected pope until John Paul II in 1978. The tutor of Emperor Charles V
26 November 1523 – 25 September 1534 Clement VII Papa Clemens Septimus, Episcopus Romanus Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici Florence, Republic of Florence 45 / 56 11 Cousin of Leo X. Rome plundered by imperial troops ("Sacco di Roma"), 1527. He forbade the divorce of Henry VIII and crowned Charles V Emperor at Bolognamarker in 1530. His niece Catherine de' Medici was married to the son of the French king.
13 October 1534 – 10 November 1549 Paul III Papa Paulus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Alessandro Farnese Canino, Lazio, Papal States 66 / 81 15 Opened the Council of Trent in 1545. His illegitimate son became the first Duke of Parma.
7 February 1550 – 29 March 1555 Julius III Papa Iulius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte Rome, Papal States 62 / 67 5  
9 April 1555 – 30 April or 1 May 1555 Marcellus II Papa Marcellus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Marcello Cervini Montefano, Marche, Papal States 53 / 53 <1<></1<>small> Last to use birth name as regnal name
23 May 1555 – 18 August 1559 Paul IV Papa Paulus Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Pietro Carafa Capriglia Irpina, Campania, Kingdom of Naples 78 / 83 4  
26 December 1559 – 9 December 1565 Pius IV Papa Pius Quartus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Angelo Medici Milan, Duchy of Milan 60 / 66 6 Reopened the Council of Trent, 1562, it concluded its proceedings in 1563
7 January 1566 – 1 May 1572 Pius V, O.P.
Saint Pius V
Papa Pius Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Michele Ghislieri Bosco, Duchy of Milan 61 / 68 6 Member of the Dominican Order. Excommunicated Elizabeth I of England, 1570. Victory of Lepanto 1571
13 May 1572 – 10 April 1585 Gregory XIII Papa Gregorius Tertius Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Ugo Boncompagni Bologna, Papal States 70 / 83 12 Reform of the calendar 1582
24 April 1585 – 27 August 1590 Sixtus V, O.F.M. Conv. Papa Xystus Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Felice Peretti Grottammare, Marche, Papal States 63 / 68 5 Member of the Conventual Franciscan Order.
15 September 1590 – 27 September 1590 Urban VII Papa Urbanus Septimus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Battista Castagna Rome, Papal States 69 / 69 <1<></1<>small>  
5 December 1590 – 15 /16 October 1591 Gregory XIV Papa Gregorius Quartus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Niccolò Sfondrati Somma Lombardo, Duchy of Milan 55 / 56 <1<></1<>small>  
29 October 1591 – 30 December 1591 Innocent IX Papa Innocentius Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti Bologna, Papal States 72 / 72 <1<></1<>small>  
30 January 1592 – 3 March 1605 Clement VIII Papa Clemens Octavus, Episcopus Romanus Ippolito Aldobrandini Fano, Marche, Papal States 55 / 69 13  


17th Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
1 April 1605 – 27 April 1605 Leo XI Papa Leo Undecimus, Episcopus Romanus Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici Florence, Duchy of Florence 69 / 69 <1<></1<>small>  
16 May 1605 – 28 January 1621 Paul V Papa Paulus Quintus, Episcopus Romanus Camillo Borghese Rome, Papal States 52 / 68 15  
9 February 1621 – 8 July 1623 Gregory XV Papa Gregorius Quintus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Alessandro Ludovisi Bologna, Papal States 67 / 69 2  
6 August 1623 – 29 July 1644 Urban VIII Papa Urbanus Octavus, Episcopus Romanus Maffeo Barberini Florence, Duchy of Florence 55 / 76 20 Trial against Galileo Galilei
15 September 1644 – 7 January 1655 Innocent X Papa Innocentius Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Battista Pamphilj Rome, Papal States 70 / 80 10  
7 April 1655 – 22 May 1667 Alexander VII Papa Alexander Septimus, Episcopus Romanus Fabio Chigi Siena, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 56 / 68 12  
20 June 1667 – 9 December 1669 Clement IX Papa Clemens Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Giulio Rospigliosi Pistoia, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 67 / 69 2  
29 April 1670 – 22 July 1676 Clement X Papa Clemens Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Emilio Altieri Rome, Papal States 79 / 86 6  
21 September 1676 – 11/12 August 1689 Innocent XI
Blessed Innocent XI
Papa Innocentius Undecimus, Episcopus Romanus Benedetto Odescalchi Como, Duchy of Milan 65 / 78 12  
6 October 1689 – 1 February 1691 Alexander VIII Papa Alexander Octavus, Episcopus Romanus Pietro Vito Ottoboni Venice, Republic of Venice 79 / 80 1  
12 July 1691 – 27 September 1700 Innocent XII Papa Innocentius Duodecimus, Episcopus Romanus Antonio Pignatelli Spinazzola, Kingdom of Naples 76 / 85 9  
23 November 1700 – 19 March 1721 Clement XI Papa Clemens Undecimus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Francesco Albani Urbino, Marche, Papal States 51 / 71 20  


18th Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
8 May 1721 – 7 March 1724 Innocent XIII Papa Innocentius Tertius Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Michelangelo de ’Conti; Michael Angelo Conti Poli, Lazio, Papal States 65 / 68 3  
29 May 1724 – 21 February 1730 Benedict XIII, O.P. Papa Benedictus Tertius Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Pierfrancesco Orsini Gravina in Puglia, Kingdom of Naples 75 / 81 5 Member of the Dominican Order.
12 July 1730 – 6 February 1740 Clement XII Papa Clemens Duodecimus, Episcopus Romanus Lorenzo Corsini Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 78 / 87 9  
17 August 1740 – 3 May 1758 Benedict XIV Papa Benedictus Quartus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini Bologna, Papal States 65 / 83 17  
6 July 1758 – 2 February 1769 Clement XIII Papa Clemens Tertius Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Carlo della Torre Rezzonico Venice, Republic of Venice 65 / 75 10  
19 May 1769 – 22 September 1774 Clement XIV, O.F.M. Conv. Papa Clemens Quartus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli Sant' Arcangelo di Romagna, Papal States 63 / 68 5 Member of the Conventual Franciscan Order. Suppressed the Jesuit Order.
15 February 1775 – 29 August 1799 Pius VI Papa Pius Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi Cesena, Papal States 57 / 81 24 Condemned the French Revolution and was expelled from the Papal States by French troops from 1798 until his death.
14 March 1800 – 20 August 1823 Pius VII, O.S.B. Papa Pius Septimus, Episcopus Romanus Barnaba Chiaramonti Cesena, Papal States 57 / 81 23 Member of the Order of St. Benedict. Present at Napoleon's coronation as Emperor of the French. Temporarily expelled from the Papal States by the French between 1809 and 1814.


19th Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
28 September 1823 – 10 February 1829 Leo XII Papa Leo Duodecimus, Episcopus Romanus Count Annibale Sermattei della Genga Genga or Spoleto, Papal States 63 / 68 5  
31 March 1829 – 1 December 1830 Pius VIII Papa Pius Octavus, Episcopus Romanus Francesco Saverio Castiglioni Cingoli, Marche, Papal States 67 / 69 1  
2 February 1831 – 1 June 1846 Gregory XVI, O.S.B. Cam. Papa Gregorius Sextus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari Belluno, Republic of Venice 65 / 80 15 Member of the Camaldolese Order. The last non-bishop to be elected
16 June 1846 – 7 February 1878 Pius IX, O.F.S.
Blessed Pius IX
Papa Pius Nonus, Episcopus Romanus Count Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti Senigallia, Marche, Papal States 54 / 85 31 Opened First Vatican Council; lost the Papal Statesmarker to Italy. Longest serving pope in history (see note on St. Peter.)
20 February 1878 – 20 July 1903 Leo XIII, O.F.S. Papa Leo Tertius Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Pecci Carpineto Romano, Rome département, French Empire (now Italy) 67 / 93 25 Laid down the seeds of Catholic Social Teaching through his encyclical, Rerum Novarum (On Capital and Labor) and supported Christian Democracy as against communism; he is the third-longest reigning pope after Pius IX (reigned for 31 years) and John Paul II (reigned for 26 years)


20th Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
4 August 1903 – 20 August 1914 Pius X, O.F.S.
Saint Pius X
Papa Pius Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto Riese, Lombardy-Venetia, Austrian Empire 68 / 79 11 Encouraged and expanded reception of Holy Communion. Most recent pope to be canonized.
3 September 1914 – 22 January 1922 Benedict XV, O.F.S. Papa Benedictus Quintus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Giacomo Della Chiesa Genoa, Kingdom of Sardinia 59 / 67 7 Credited for intervening for peace during World War I. He is remembered by Pope Benedict XVI as "prophet of peace."
6 February 1922 – 10 February 1939 Pius XI, O.F.S. Papa Pius Undecimus, Episcopus Romanus Achille Ambrogio Damiano Ratti Desio, Lombardy-Venetia, Austrian Empire 64 / 81 17 Signed the Lateran Treaty with Italy, establishing the Vatican Citymarker as a sovereign state.
2 March 1939 – 9 October 1958 Pius XII, O.F.S.
Venerable Pius XII
Papa Pius Duodecimus, Episcopus Romanus Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli Rome, Italy 63 / 82 19 Invoked papal infallibility in encyclical Munificentissimus Deus.
28 October 1958 – 3 June 1963 John XXIII, O.F.S.
Blessed John XXIII
Papa Ioannes Vicesimus Tertius, Episcopus Romanus Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli Sotto il Monte, Bergamo, Italy 76 / 81 4 Opened Second Vatican Council; sometimes called "Good Pope John"
21 June 1963 – 6 August 1978 Paul VI
Servant of God Paul VI
Papa Paulus Sextus, Episcopus Romanus Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini Concesio, Brescia, Italy 65 / 80 15 The last pope to be crowned with the Papal Tiara. Concluded Second Vatican Council.
26 August 1978 – 28 September 1978 John Paul I
Servant of God John Paul I
Papa Ioannes Paulus Primus, Episcopus Romanus Albino Luciani Forno di Canale (now Canale d'Agordomarker), Veneto, Italy 65 / 65 <1<></1<>small> First Pope to use 'the First' in regnal name. First pope with two names, for his two immediate predecessors. Died early into a charismatic reign.
16 October 1978 – 2 April 2005 John Paul II
Servant of God John Paul II
Papa Ioannes Paulus Secundus, Episcopus Romanus Karol Józef Wojtyła Wadowicemarker, Polandmarker 58 / 84 26 First Polishmarker pope and first non-Italian pope in 455 years. Canonized more saints than all predecessors. Traveled extensively. First Pope to travel to America (25 January 1979). Longest serving Pope since Pius IX (1846–1878) and 2nd longest serving Pope to date (see note on St. Peter. )


21st Century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Regnal (Latin) name Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
19 April 2005 – present Benedict XVI Papa Benedictus Sextus Decimus, Episcopus Romanus Joseph Alois Ratzinger Marktl am Innmarker, Bavariamarker, Germany 78 / - First German pope since Stephen IX in 1057. Oldest to become pope since Clement XII in 1730.


Religious Orders

33 popes have been members of religious orders. These have included:
  • 16 Benedictines (Gregory I, Boniface IV, Adeodatus II, Leo IV, John IX, Leo VII, Stephen IX, Gregory VII, Victor III, Urban II, Paschal II, Gelasius II, Celestine V, Clement VI, Urban V, and Pius VII)
  • 4 Dominicans (Innocent V, Benedict XI, Pius V, and Benedict XIII)
  • 2 Franciscans (Nicholas IV, Sixtus IV)
  • 2 Cistercians (Eugene III, and Benedict XII)
  • 2 Augustinians (Adrian IV and Eugene IV)
  • 2 Conventual Franciscans (Sixtus V and Clement XIV)
  • 1 Canon Regular of S. Maria di Reno (Honorius II)
  • 1 Canon Regular of St. John in Lateran (Innocent II)
  • 1 Canon Regular of S. Frediano di Lucca (Lucius II)
  • 1 Canon Regular of St. Martin in Laon (Gregory VIII)
  • 1 Camaldolese (Gregory XVI)


Notes on numbering of popes

A number of anomalies in the list given above need further explanation:
  • Felix II (356–357), Boniface VII (974, 984–985), John XVI (997–998), Benedict X (1058–1059) and Alexander V (1409–1410) are not listed because they are considered antipopes.
  • The numbering of popes named Felix has been amended to omit antipope Felix II. However, most lists still call the last two Felixes Felix III and Felix IV. Additionally, there was an antipope Felix V.
  • There has never been a pope John XX as a result of confusion of the numbering system in the 11th century.
  • Pope-elect Stephen, who died before being consecrated, has not been on the Vatican's official list of popes since 1961, but appears on lists dating from before 1960. The numbering of following popes called Stephen are nowadays given as Pope Stephen II to Pope Stephen IX, rather than Stephen III to Stephen X.
  • When Simon de Brion became pope in 1281, he chose to be called Martin. At that time, Marinus I and Marinus II were mistakenly considered to be Martin II and Martin III respectively, and so, erroneously, Simon de Brion became Pope Martin IV.
  • Pope Donus II, said to have reigned about 974, never existed. The belief resulted from the confusion of the title dominus (lord) with a proper name. (Pope Joan also probably never existed; however, legends about her may have originated from stories about the pornocracy.)
  • The status of Antipope John XXIII was uncertain for hundreds of years, and was finally settled in 1958 when Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli announced his own name as John XXIII. Baldassare Cossa, who was Antipope John XXIII, served as a Cardinal of the reunited church before his death in 1419 and his remains are found in the Battistero di San Giovanni marker.


See also



References

Specific

  1. [1] Pontifex maximus: the Roman high priest.
  2. Gratian (367-83 A.D.) Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
  3. The fourth pope Discussed in the article on Clement I
  4. For the dates of death of Clement III and the election of Celestine III see Katrin Baaken: Zu Wahl, Weihe und Krönung Papst Cölestins III. Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters Volume 41 / 1985, pp. 203–211


General

  • John N.D. Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, Oxford University Press, 1986.
  • AA.VV., Enciclopedia dei Papi, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana, 2000.
  • Pontificia Amministrazione della Patriarcale Basilica di San Paolo, I Papi. Venti secoli di storia, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2002.


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