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These are lists of regions and countries sorted by their estimated real gross domestic product (GDP) in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a country/region in a given year. GDP dollar (international dollar) estimates here are derived from PPP estimates.

In some of these lists, the term country corresponds to the geographical region of the country being referred to, not the country itself. Most of the information below is based on estimates by economic historian Angus Maddison, former professor at University of Groningen and assistant director of the economics development division for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, in his work The World Economy: Historical Statistics. Estimates are for the periods from the 1st century to 1998, with figures in millions of international dollars, and shares of world GDP are also given.

Maddison' assumptions have been criticized and admired by academics and journalists. Bryan Haig, who has characterized Maddison's figures for 19th century Australia as "inaccurate and irrelevant", by John Caldwell, in whose assessment Maddison's arguments have a "dangerous circularity", by W. W. Rostow, according to whom, "This excessive macroeconomic bias also causes him (Maddison) to mis-date, in my view, the beginning of what he calls the capitalist era at 1820 rather than, say, the mid-1780s, and by W. J. MacPherson who has described Maddison's work on India and Pakistan of using "dubious comparative data."

Economist and Journalist Evan Davis has praised Maddison's research by citing it as a "fantastic publication" and that it was "based on the detailed scholarship of the world expert on historical economic data Angus Maddison." He also added that "One shouldn't read the book in the belief the statistics are accurate to 12 decimal places."

1st century

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 102 536 100
India 33 750 32.9
Han China 26 820 26.2
Roman Empire 22 000 21.5
Western Europe 11 115 10.8
West Asia 10 120 Maddison (2003) 9.9
Africa 8 030 7.8
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 6 970 6.8
Latin America 2 240 2.2
Eastern Europe (excluding Russia) 1 900 1.9
Russia and Central Asia 1 560 1.5
Japan 1 200 1.2
North America and Australiamarker 468 0.5


1000

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 116 790 100
India 33 750 28.9
Song China 26 550 22.7
Islamic Caliphate 21 640 18.5
Africa 13 723 11.8
West Asia 12 415 10.6
Western Europe 10 165 8.7
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 6 215 6.8
Latin America 4 560 3.9
Japan 3 188 2.7
Russia and Central Asia 2 840 2.4
Eastern Europe (excluding Russia) 2 600 2.2
North America and Australiamarker 784 0.7


1500

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 247 116 100
Ming Chinamarker 61 800 25.0
India 60 500 24.5
Ottoman Empire 10 495 4.2
Russia and Central Asia 8 475 3.4
Germany 8 112 3.3
Japan 7 700 3.1
Eastern Europe (excluding Russia) 6 237 2.5
Spain 4 744 1.9
South America and Central America 4 100 1.7
Mexico 3 188 1.3
British Islesmarker 2 815 1.1
Austria 1 414 0.6
Belgium 1 225 0.5
United States 800 0.3
Netherlands 716 0.3
Portugal 632 0.3
Switzerland 482 0.2
Denmark 443 0.2
Sweden 382 0.2
Canada and Australiamarker 320 0.1
Norway 192 0.1
Finland 136 0.1


1600

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 329 417 100
Ming Chinamarker 96 000 29.2
Mughal India 74 250 22.6
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 24 088 7.3
Africa 22 000 6.7
Spanish Empire 20 789 6.3
France 15 559 4.7
Italian States 14 410 4.4
Ottoman Empire 12 637 3.8
Germany 12 432 3.8
Russia and Central Asia 11 447 3.5
Japan 9 620 2.9
Eastern Europe (excluding Russia) 8 743 2.7
Spain 7 416 2.1
British Islesmarker 6 007 1.8
South America and Central America 2 623 0.8
Austria 2 093 0.6
Netherlands 2 052 0.6
Belgium 1 561 0.5
Mexico 1 134 0.3
Switzerland 880 0.3
Portugal 850 0.3
Sweden 626 0.2
United States 600 0.2
Denmark 569 0.2
Canada and Australiamarker 320 0.1
Norway 304 0.1
Finland 215 0.1


1700

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 371 369 100
Mughal India 90 750 24.4
Qing Chinamarker 82 800 22.3
Western Europe 82 072 22.1
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 28 276 7.6
Africa 24 400 6.6
Spanish Empire 23 867 6.5
France 21 180 5.7
Russia and Central Asia 16 222 4.4
Japan 15 390 4.1
Italy 14 630 3.9
Germany 13 410 3.6
West Asia 12 291 3.3
British Islesmarker 10 709 2.9
Eastern Europe (excluding Russia) 10 647 2.9
Spain 7 893 2.2
Netherlands 4 009 1.1
South America and Central America 3 813 1.0
Mexico 2 558 0.7
Austria 2 483 0.7
Belgium 2 288 0.6
Portugal 1 708 0.5
Switzerland 1 253 0.3
Sweden 1 231 0.3
Denmark 727 0.2
United States 527 0.1
Norway 450 0.1
Canada and Australiamarker 300 0.1
Finland 255 0.1


1820

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 694 442 100
Qing Chinamarker 228 600 32.9
India 111 417 16.0
France 38 434 5.5
Russian Empiremarker 37 710 5.4
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 36 592 5.3
United Kingdom 36 232 5.2
Africa 31 010 4.5
Germany 26 349 3.8
Eastern Europe (excluding Russian Empiremarker) 23 149 3.3
Italy 22 535 3.2
Japan 20 739 3.0
West Asia 18 549 2.7
Spain 12 975 1.9
United States 12 548 1.8
South America and Central America 9 120 1.3
Netherlands 4 288 0.6
Mexico 5 000 0.7
Belgium 4 529 0.7
Austria 4 104 0.6
Portugal 3 175 0.5
Sweden 3 098 0.4
Switzerland 2 342 0.3
Denmark 1 471 0.2
Norway 1 071 0.2
Canada and Australiamarker 941 0.1
Finland 913 0.1


1870

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 1 101 369 100
British Empire 265 000 24.1
Qing Chinamarker 189 740 17.2
British India 134 882 12.2
United Kingdom 100 179 9.1
United States 98 374 8.9
Russian Empiremarker 83 646 7.6
France 72 100 6.5
Germany 71 429 6.5
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 55 391 5.0
Eastern Europe (excluding Russian Empiremarker) 45 448 4.1
Italy 41 814 3.8
Africa 40 172 3.6
Japan 25 393 2.3
South America and Central America 21 683 2.0
West Asia 22 405 2.0
Spain 22 295 2.0
Canada and Australiamarker 13 781 1.3
Belgium 13 746 1.2
Netherlands 9 952 0.9
Austria 8 419 0.8
Sweden 6 927 0.6
Mexico 6 214 0.6
Switzerland 5 867 0.5
Portugal 4 338 0.4
Denmark 3 782 0.3
Norway 2 485 0.2
Finland 1 999 0.2
Brazil Empire 1 920 0.2


1913

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 2 704 782 100
British Empire 570 406 21.1
United States 517 383 19.1
Republic of China 241 344 8.9
Germany 237 332 8.8
Russian Empiremarker 232 351 8.6
United Kingdom 224 618 8.3
British India 204 241 7.6
France 144 489 5.3
Eastern Europe (excluding Russian Empiremarker) 121 559 4.5
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 120 462 4.5
South America and Central America 95 760 3.5
Italy 95 487 3.5
Africa 72 948 2.7
Japan 71 653 2.6
Canada and Australiamarker 68 249 2.5
Spain 45 686 1.7
West Asia 35 428 1.3
Belgium 32 347 1.2
Mexico 25 921 1.0
Netherlands 24 955 0.9
Austria 23 451 0.9
Sweden 17 403 0.6
Switzerland 16 483 0.6
Denmark 11 670 0.4
Portugal 7 467 0.3
Finland 6 389 0.2
Norway 6 119 0.2
Brazil 3 119 0.2


1950

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 5 336 101 100
United States 1 455 916 27.3
Soviet Unionmarker 510 243 9.6
South America and Central America 356 188 6.7
United Kingdom 347 850 6.5
Germany 265 354 5.0
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 252 166 4.7
People's Republic of China 239 903 4.5
Republic of India 222 222 4.2
France 220 492 4.1
Africa 194 569 3.6
Eastern Europe (excluding Soviet Unionmarker) 185 023 3.5
Canada and Australiamarker 179 574 3.4
Italy 164 957 3.1
Japan 160 966 3.0
West Asia 110 412 2.1
Spain 66 792 1.3
Mexico 67 368 1.3
Netherlands 60 642 1.1
Sweden 47 269 0.9
Belgium 47 190 0.9
Switzerland 42 545 0.8
Denmark 29 654 0.6
Austria 25 702 0.5
Brazil 18 126 0.4
Norway 17 838 0.3
Portugal 17 615 0.3
Finland 17 051 0.3


1973

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 16 059 180 100
United States 3 536 622 22.0
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 2 166 225 13.5
Soviet Unionmarker 1 513 070 9.4
Japan 1 242 932 7.7
South America and Central America 1 118 398 7.0
Germany 944 755 5.9
West Asia 932 968 5.1
People's Republic of China 740 048 4.6
France 683 965 4.3
United Kingdom 675 941 4.2
Italy 582 713 3.6
Eastern Europe (excluding Soviet Unionmarker) 550 757 3.4
Africa 529 185 3.3
Canada and Australiamarker 521 667 3.2
Republic of India 494 832 3.1
Spain 304 220 1.9
Mexico 279 302 1.7
Brazil 239 178 1.5
Netherlands 175 791 1.1
Belgium 118 516 0.7
Switzerland 117 251 0.7
Sweden 109 794 0.7
Austria 85 227 0.5
Denmark 70 032 0.4
Portugal 63 397 0.4
Finland 51 724 0.3
Norway 44 544 0.3


1998

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 33 725 635 100
United Statesmarker 7 394 598 21.9
People's Republic of Chinamarker 3 873 352 11.5
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 3 140 603 9.3
Japanmarker 2 581 576 7.7
South America and Central America (excluding Brazilmarker) 2 085 700 6.8
Republic of Indiamarker 1 702 712 5.0
Germanymarker 1 560 069 4.3
West Asia 1 436 328 3.7
United Kingdommarker 1 350 080 3.4
Russiamarker and Central Asia 1 332 434 3.4
Francemarker 1 308 568 3.3
Canadamarker and Australiamarker 1 261 537 3.1
Africa 1 239 408 3.1
Italymarker 1 122 776 3.0
Brazil 973 178 2.2
Eastern Europe (excluding Russia) 660 861 2.0
Mexicomarker 655 910 1.9
Spainmarker 560 138 1.7
Netherlandsmarker 317 517 0.9
Belgiummarker 198 249 0.6
Swedenmarker 165 385 0.5
Austriamarker 152 712 0.5
Switzerlandmarker 152 345 0.5
Portugalmarker 128 877 0.4
Denmarkmarker 117 319 0.3
Norwaymarker 104 860 0.3
Iranmarker 102 182 0.3
Finlandmarker 94 421 0.3


See also



Notes

  1. Haig, Bryan. 2005. "Review of The World Economy: Historical Statistics by Angus Maddison," Economic Reports, volume 81.
  2. Caldwell, John C. (Sept. 2002), "Reviewed Work(s): The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective by Angus Maddison", Population and Development Review, Vol. 28, No. 3., pp. 559-561.
  3. Rostow, W. W.. "Reviewed Work(s): Phases of Capitalist Development. by Angus Maddison," The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 45, No. 4. (Dec., 1985), pp. 1026-1028.
  4. MacPherson, W. J. "Reviewed Work(s): Class Structure and Economic Growth. India and Pakistan since the Moghuls by Angus Maddison." The Economic Journal, Vol. 82, No. 328. (Dec., 1972), pp. 1470-1472.
  5. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4337203.stm.
  6. These estimates refer to the combined economy of the various states located in the regions now corresponding to the Republic of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
  7. Goldsmith (p. 263, 267).
  8. These estimates refer to the combined economy of the various states located in the region corresponding to the former Russian Empire.
  9. The combined GDP of West Asia, Egypt, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Sicily and southern Italy (estimated as 50% of Italy), Spain and Portugual was $21,640 in 1000, in Maddison (2003).
  10. These estimates refer to the combined economy of the various states located in the region now corresponding to the United States.
  11. The combined GDP of Spain, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia (estimated as 50% of Italy), South America, Central America, Belgium, Mexico and Portugal (part of the Spanish Empire from 1580 to 1640).
  12. The combined GDP of Spain, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia (estimated as 50% of Italy), South America, Central America, Belgium and Mexico.
  13. The combined GDP of the United Kingdom, British India, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ceylon, Hong Kong, Singapore and South Africa was about $265 billion in 1870, in Maddison (2006).
  14. The combined GDP of the United Kingdom, British India, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ceylon, Malaya, Hong Kong, Singapore, Egypt, Ghana and South Africa is about $547 billion in 1913, in Maddison (2006). The combined GDP of the remaining territories was estimated by multiplying the average Asian (not including China, India or Japan) and African GDP per capita by the combined populations of the remaining Asian and African territories respectively.


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