# List of rivers by length: Map

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### Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:

This is a list of the longest rivers on Earth. It includes river systems over 1,000 kilometers.

## Definition of length

The length of a river is hard to calculate. It depends on the identification of the source, the identification of the mouth, and the precise measurement of the river length between source and mouth. As a result, the length measurements of many rivers are only approximations. In particular, there has long been disagreement as to whether the Amazon or the Nile is the world's longest river.

The source of a river may be hard to determine because a river typically has many tributaries. Among the many sources, the one that is farthest away from the mouth is considered as the source of the river, thus giving a maximal river length. In practice, the tributary with the farthest source is not always the one given the name of the river. For example, the farthest source of the Mississippi River system is the source of the Jefferson River, a tributary of the Missouri River which in turn is a tributary of the Mississippi. However, a different (and shorter) tributary is identified as the Mississippi. When the river is measured from mouth to farthest source, it is called the Mississippi-Missouri-Jefferson. Also, it is hard to state exactly where a river begins as very often rivers are formed by seasonal streams, swamps, or changing lakes. In this article, length means the length of the river system, including all tributaries.

The mouth of a river is hard to determine in cases where the river has a large estuary that gradually widens and opens into the ocean; examples are the River Plate and the Saint Lawrence River. Some rivers like the Okavango or Colorado do not have a mouth; instead they dwindle to very low water volume and eventually evaporate, or sink into an aquifer, or get diverted for agriculture. The exact point where these rivers end will vary seasonally.

The length of a river between source and mouth may be hard to determine because of a lack of precise maps. In these cases, the measured length of a river will depend on the scale of the map on which the measurement is based; in general, due to the fractal quality of a river, the finer the scale, the longer the resulting length measurement. This issue was discovered by Lewis Fry Richardson and also applies when measuring borders between countries and coastlines. According to the generally accepted ideal, length measurements should be based on maps that are of a large enough scale to show the width of the river, and the path measured is the path a small boat would take down the middle of the river.

Even when precise maps are available, the length measurement is not always clear. A river may have multiple arms. It may depend on whether the center or the edge of the river is taken as reference point. It may not be clear how to measure the length through a lake: this may also vary by season. These points make it difficult, if not impossible, to get a precise (or comparable ) measurement of the length of a river or stream.

## List of rivers longer than 1000 km

One should take the aforementioned discussion into account when using the data in the following table. For most rivers, different sources provide conflicting information on the length of a river system. The information in different sources is between parentheses.

Continent color key
Africa Asia Oceania Europe North America South America
River Length (km) Length (miles) Drainage area (km²) Average discharge (m³/s) Outflow Countries in the drainage basin
1.** Nile 6,650 4,135 3,349,000 5,100
2.** Amazon 6,400

3,980

6,915,000 219,000
3. Yangtze
(Chang Jiang)
6,300

3,917

1,800,000 31,900
4. 6,275

3,902

2,980,000 16,200 United States (98.5%), Canada (1.5%)
5. 5,539

3,445

2,580,000 19,600
6. Yellow
(Huang He)
5,464

3,398

745,000 2,110 Bohai Sea
(Balhae)
P.R. China
7. 5,410 3,364 2,990,000 12,800 Russia, Kazakhstan, P.R. China, Mongolia
8. CongoChambeshi
(Zaire)
4,700

2,922

3,680,000 41,800 Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Cameroon, Zambia, Burundi, Rwanda
9. AmurArgun
(Heilong Jiang)
4,444 2,763 1,855,000 11,400 Russia, P.R. China, Mongolia
10. 4,400

2,736

2,490,000 17,100 Russia
11. Mekong
(Lancang Jiang)
4,350 2,705 810,000 16,000 Laos, Thailand, P.R. China, Cambodia, Vietnam, Myanmar
12. 4,241

2,637

1,790,000 10,300 Canada
13. Niger 4,200

2,611

2,090,000 9,570 Nigeria (26.6%), Mali (25.6%), Niger (23.6%), Algeria (7.6%), Guinea (4.5%), Cameroon (4.2%), Burkina Faso (3.9%), Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Chad
14. 3,998

2,486

3,100,000 25,700 Atlantic Ocean Brazil (46.7%), Argentina (27.7%), Paraguay (13.5%), Bolivia (8.3%), Uruguay (3.8%)
15. Volga 3,645 2,266 1,380,000 8,080 Russia (99.8%), Kazakhstan (minor)
16. 3,596

2,236

884,000 856 Iraq (60.5%), Turkey (24.8%), Syria (14.7%)
17. 3,379 2,101 63,166 8,400 Amazon Brazil, Peru
18. 3,370

2,094

1,061,000 767 Australia
19. 3,239 2,014 850,000 17,000 Amazon Brazil, Bolivia, Peru
20. 3,700 2,300 850,000 6,210 United States (59.8%), Canada (40.2%)
21. Indus
(Sindhu)
3,180 1,976 960,000 7,160 Pakistan (93%), India, P. R. China,Afghanistan
22. 3,180*
(2,900)
1,976*
(1,802)
610,000 3,300 Atlantic Ocean Brazil
23. 3,078 1,913 219,000 703 Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan
24. Salween
(Nu Jiang)
3,060 1,901 324,000 3,153 P.R. China (52.4%), Myanmar (43.9%), Thailand (3.7%)
25. 3,058 1,900 1,030,000 10,100 Canada (52.1%), United States (47.9%)
26. 3,057
(2,896)
1,900
(1,799)
570,000 82 Gulf of Mexico United States (52.1%), Mexico (47.9%)
27. Lower Tunguska 2,989 1,857 473,000 3,600 Yenisei Russia
28. 2,948* 1,832* 1,730,000 19,200 India (58.0%), P.R. China (19.7%), Nepal (9.0%), Bangladesh (6.6%), Disputed India/P.R. China (4.2%), Bhutan (2.4%)
29. Danube 2,850* 1,771* 817,000 7,130 Romania (28.9%), Hungary (11.7%), Austria (10.3%), Serbia (10.3%), Germany (7.5%), Slovakia (5.8%), Bulgaria (5.2%), Czech Republic (2.5%),
30. Tocantins 2,699 1,677 1,400,000 13,598 Atlantic Ocean, Amazon Brazil
31. Zambezi
(Zambesi)
2,693* 1,673* 1,330,000 4,880 Zambia (41.6%), Angola (18.4%), Zimbabwe (15.6%), Mozambique (11.8%), Malawi (8.0%), Tanzania (2.0%), Namibia, Botswana
32. 2,650 1,647 454,000 1,480 Russia
33. Araguaia 2,627 1,632 358,125 6,172 Tocantins Brazil
34. 2,620 1,628 534,739 1,400
35. Japurá
(Rio Yapurá)
2,615* 1,625* 242,259 6,000 Amazon Brazil, Colombia
36. 2,570 1,597 1,093,000 2,575 Canada, United States
37. Paraguay
(Rio Paraguay)
2,549 1,584 900,000 4,300 Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina
38. Kolyma 2,513 1,562 644,000 3,800 Russia
39. Ganges/Padma
(Ganga)
2,510 1,560 907,000 12,037 India, Bangladesh, Nepal
40. Pilcomayo 2,500 1,553 270,000 Paraguay Paraguay, Argentina, Bolivia
41. Upper Ob 2,490 1,547 Ob Russia
42. Ishim 2,450 1,522 177,000 56 Kazakhstan, Russia
43. Juruá 2,410 1,498 200,000 6,000 Amazon Peru, Brazil
44. Ural 2,428 1,509 237,000 475 Russia, Kazakhstan
45. 2,348 1,459 505,000
(435,122)
1,066 Mississippi United States
46. UbangiUele 2,300 1,429 4,003 Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic
47. Olenyok 2,292 1,424 219,000 1,210 Russia
48. Dnieper 2,287 1,421 516,300 1,670 Russia, Belarus, Ukraine
49. 2,273 1,412 729,000 5,060 Russia
50. Negro 2,250 1,450 720,114 26,700 Amazon Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia
51. Columbia 2,250 (1,953) 1,450 (1,214) 415,211 7500 United States, Canada
52. Colorado (western U.S.) 2,333 1,450 390,000 1,200 United States, Mexico
53. 2,200 1,376 437,000 13,600 South China Sea P.R. China (98.5%), Vietnam (1.5%)
54. 2,188 1,360 78,592 875 Mississippi United States
55. Ayeyarwady

(Irrawaddy)
2,170 1,348 411,000 13,000 Myanmar
56. 2,153 1,338 880,200 10,000 Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo
57. OhioAllegheny 2,102 1,306 490,603 7,957 Mississippi United States
58. Orinoco 2,101 1,306 880,000 30,000 Atlantic Ocean Venezuela, Colombia, Guyana
59. 2,100 1,305 557,000 P. R. China
60. 2,100 1,305 Amazon Brazil
61. 2,092 1,300     Atlantic Ocean
62. Northern Salado 2,010 1,249 Argentina
63. 1,978 1,229 Russia
64. 1,950 1,212
65. 1,927 1,197 P. R. China
66. Tapajós 1,900 1,181 Amazon Brazil
67. Don 1,870 1,162 425,600 935 Russia, Ukraine
68. Stony Tunguska 1,865 1,159 240,000 Russia
69. 1,809 1,124 322,000 Russia
70. Kama 1,805 1,122 507,000 Volga Russia
71. 1,800 1,118 413,000
72. Guaporé (Itenez) 1,749 1,087 Brazil, Bolivia
73. Indigirka 1,726 1,072 360,400 1,810 Russia
74. Snake 1,670 1,038 279,719 1,611 Columbia United States
75. Senegal 1,641 1,020 419,659 Atlantic Ocean
76. Uruguay 1,610 1,000 370,000 Atlantic Ocean Uruguay, Argentina, Brazil
77. 1,600 994 Nile
77. Churchill 1,600 994
77. Khatanga 1,600 994 Russia
77. 1,600 994
77. Volta 1,600 994
82. Beni 1,599 994 Madeira Bolivia
83. Platte 1,594 990 United States
84. Tobol 1,591 989 Kazakhstan, Russia
85. 1,580* 982*
86. Içá (Putumayo) 1,575 979 Amazon Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador
87. 1,550 963 Colombia
88. 1,532 952 P. R. China
89. Lomami 1,500 932 Democratic Republic of the Congo
89. Oka 1,500 932 Volga Russia
90. Pecos 1,490 926 United States
91. Upper Yenisei 1,480 920 Russia, Mongolia
92. Godavari 1,465 910 India
93. Colorado (Texas) 1,438 894 Gulf of Mexico United States
94. Río Grande (Guapay) 1,438 894 Bolivia
95. Belaya 1,420 882 Kama Russia
96. 1,420 880 Australia
97. 1,415 879 Amazon Peru
98. 1,411 (1,352) 877 (840)
99. 1,400 870 Niger
99. Ili
(Yili)
1,400 870 P. R. China, Kazakhstan
99. 1,400 870 Australia
102. 1,372 852 China, India, Pakistan
103. 1,370 851 India
103. 1,370 851 Kama Russia
105. Fraser 1,368 850 220,000 3,475 Canada
106. Kura 1,364 848
107. Grande 1,360 845 Brazil
108. Brazos 1,352 840 Gulf of Mexico United States
109. Cauca River 1,350 839 Colombia
110. Liao 1,345 836 Bo Hai P. R. China
111. Yalong 1,323 822 P. R. China
112. 1,320 820 Brazil, Argentina
112. Olyokma 1,320 820 Russia
112. 1,320 820 198,735 2,330
113. Northern DvinaSukhona 1,302 809 357,052 3,332
114. Krishna 1,300 808 India
114. Iriri 1,300 808 Brazil
115. 1,289 801 India
116. Ottawa 1,271 790 Canada
117. Zeya 1,242 772 Russia
118. Juruena 1,240 771 Tapajós Brazil
119. Upper Mississippi 1,236 768 Mississippi United States
120. Athabasca 1,231 765 95,300 Canada
121. ElbeVltava 1,231 765 148,268 711
122. Canadian 1,223 760 United States
123. North Saskatchewan 1,220 758 Saskatchewan Canada
124. 1,218 994
125. 1,210 752 South Africa
126. 1,200 746
127. Nen
(Nonni)
1,190 739 P. R. China
128. Green 1,175 730 Colorado (western U.S.) United States
129. Milk 1,173 729 United States, Canada
130. 1,158 720 Myanmar
131. Sankuru 1,150 715 Democratic Republic of the Congo
132. James 1,143 710 United States
133. Kapuas 1,143 710 South China Sea
135. Desna 1,130 702 88,900 360 Dnieper
135. Helmand 1,130 702
135. 1,130 702 Madeira Peru, Bolivia
135. Tietê 1,130 702 Brazil
135. 1,130 702 Northern Dvina Russia
140. Sepik 1,126 700 77,700
141. Cimarron 1,123 698 United States
142. 1,120 696 Russia
143. Jialing River 1,119 695 P. R. China
144. 1,115 693 Canada
145. White 1,102 685 Mississippi United States
146. 1,100 684 Peru
146. Kwango 1,100 684 263,500 2,700 Kasai Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo
148. 1,094 680 Atlantic Ocean
149. 1,086 675 India, Pakistan
150. Yellowstone 1,080 671 United States
151. Chu River 1067 663 62,500 none
152. 1,078 (1,053) 670 (654) Don Ukraine, Russia
153. Bermejo 1,050 652 Paraguay Argentina, Bolivia
153. 1,050 652
153. Guaviare 1,050 652 Orinoco Colombia
153. 1,050 652 United States
157. Tennessee 1,049 652 Ohio United States
158. Daugava 1,020 634 87,900 678 Latvia, Belarus, Russia
159. Gila 1,015 631 Colorado (western U.S.) United States
160. Vistula 1,014 630 194,424 1,080
161. 1,012 629 Atlantic Ocean
162. 1,010 628 Atlantic Ocean
162. Khoper 1,010 628 Don Russia
164. Tagus
(Tajo/Tejo)
1,006 625 80,100 Atlantic Ocean

### Notes

• When the length of a river is followed by an asterisk , it is an average of multiple information sources. If the difference in lengths between given information sources is significant, all lengths are listed. Likewise, if the lengths from secondary information sources are similar, they are averaged and that figure has an asterisk.
• Scientists are at a debate whether the longest river in the world is the Amazon or the Nile. Traditionally, the Nile has been considered the longer river, but recent information might point towards the Amazon possibly being the longer one of the two rivers. Differences in the recorded length of the Amazon mainly depend on whether or not it is valid to take a course south of the Ilha de Marajó at the Amazon's mouth. New evidence, (dated Saturday 16 June 2007) obtained from a high-altitude scientific venture in the Andes, claims that "the Amazon is longer than the Nile by 100km, with its longest headwater being the Carhuasanta stream originating in the south of Peru on the Nevado Mismi mountain's northern slopes and flowing into the Río Apurímac"
• Generally, the most commonly used/anglicised name of the river is used. The name in a native language or alternate spelling may be shown.
• The exact percentage of each river in countries may be disputed (including the effects of political frontier disputes) or unknown.

## River systems that may have existed in the past

### Amazon-Congo

The Amazon basin formerly drained westwards into the Pacific Ocean, until the Andes rose and reversed the drainage.

The Congo basin is completely surrounded by high land, except for its long narrow exit valley past Kinshasa, including waterfalls around Manyanga. That gives the impression that most of the Congo basin was formerly on a much higher land level and that it was rejuvenated by much of its lower course being removed.

In Permian and early Triassic times Africa and South America were close against each other with no sea between (see continental drift and plate tectonics), and the Congo probably drained into the Amazon basin and eventually into the Pacific. Including part of its course that was completely lost when the South Atlantic opened, its total course may have been anything up to approximately 12,000 km (7,500 miles) long.

### West Siberian Glacial Lake drainage

This river would have been about 10,000 km (6,000 miles) long, in the last Ice Age. See West Siberian Glacial Lake. Its longest headwater was the Selenga river of Mongolia: it drained through ice-dammed lakes and the Aral Sea and the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea.

### Nile

Formerly Lake Tanganyika drained northwards into the Albert Nile, making the Nile somewhere around 700 miles longer, until in the Miocene the Virunga Volcanoes arose and blocked its course. Also, when the Mediterranean Sea was dry during the Messinian Salinity Crisis, the Nile extended northwards over the dry seabed and thus may have gained 100 miles or more in length.

### Eridanos

The Eridanos was a large river during the Baventian Stage about two million years ago in the late early Pleistocene, when it was about 2700 kilometres or about 1700 miles long, a little shorter than the modern Danube. It began in Lapland, and then flowed through the area of the modern-day Gulf of Bothnia and Baltic Sea to western Europe, where it had an immense delta which spanned almost all the current North Sea. It was comparable in size to the current-day Amazon River.

### Po

Similarly to the Nile, during the Messinian Salinity Crisis, the Po would have extended its course south-eastwards in what is today the seabed of the Adriatic Sea, more or less doubling its current length (652 km), likely varying seasonally according to how far it managed to flow across the hot dry seabed until it dried.

## Notes

1. http://www.ga.gov.au/education/facts/landforms/longrive.htm GeoScience Australia
2. Ganges - Farakka
3. Daily Telegraph, Monday 18 June 2007, page 18

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