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This is a list of sovereign states, containing 203 entries, giving an overview of states around the world with information on the status and recognition of their sovereignty. For the sake of clarity, it is divided into two parts. The first part lists all 193 widely recognised sovereign states, including all member states of the United Nations. The second part lists states which either have de facto or de jure status, or both, but which are not universally recognised by other states. Both parts are arranged alphabetically.

Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as the status of many entries are disputed. For information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the "criteria for inclusion" section below. For more general information on sovereign states, please see "sovereign state".

Internationally recognized sovereign states

Name in English and the official languages of the state Information on status and recognition of sovereignty



A


Abkhazia Other states

– Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
  • Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت
  • Dari/Persian: افغانستان – جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Albania
  • Albanian: Shqipëria – Republika e Shqipërise
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
  • Arabic: الجزائر – الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Principality of Andorra
  • Catalan: Andorra – Principat d’Andorra
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Angola
Widely recognized member of the UN. A separatist government in exile claims independence for Cabinda.



Widely recognized member of the UN. Antigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm and has a division (dependency), Barbudamarker, with an autonomous status.

– Argentine Republic
  • Spanish: Argentina – República Argentina
Widely recognized member of the UN. Argentina is a federation divided into provinces and one federal district. Argentina also claims sovereignty over the British overseas territories of the Falkland Islandsmarker and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islandsmarker.

– Republic of Armenia
  • Armenian: Հայաստան – Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Commonwealth of Australia
  • English: Australia – Commonwealth of Australia
Widely recognized member of the UN. Australia is a Commonwealth realm and a federation of states and territories. Australia has sovereignty over:
Australia claims sovereignty over parts of Antarcticamarker as:

– Republic of Austria
  • German: Österreich – Republik Österreich
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU. Austria is a federation divided into federal-states .

– Republic of Azerbaijan
  • Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan – Azərbaycan Respublikası
Widely recognized member of the UN. Azerbaijan has one autonomous republic, Nakhchivanmarker and the autonomous region of Nagorno-Karabakh (Dağlıq Qarabağ,). In Nagorno-Karabakh, a de facto country in the de jure territory of Azerbaijan has been established.



B


– Commonwealth of The Bahamas
  • English: The Bahamas – Commonwealth of The Bahamas
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.

– Kingdom of Bahrain
  • Arabic: البحرين – مملكة البحرين
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– People's Republic of Bangladesh
  • Bengali: বাংলাদেশ – গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Widely recognized member of the UN. Barbados is a Commonwealth realm.

– Republic of Belarus
  • Belarusian: Беларусь – Рэспубліка Беларусь
  • Russian: Беларусь / Белоруссия – Республика Беларусь
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Kingdom of Belgium
  • Dutch: België – Koninkrijk België
  • French: Belgique – Royaume de Belgique
  • German: Belgien – Königreich Belgien
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU. Belgium is a federation divided into linguistic communities and regions.

Widely recognized member of the UN. Belize is a Commonwealth realm.

– Republic of Benin
  • French: Bénin – République du Bénin
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Kingdom of Bhutan
  • Dzongkha: འབྲུག་ཡུལ་ - འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Plurinational State of Bolivia
  • Spanish: Bolivia – Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
  • Quechua: Bulibiya – Bulibiya Mama Llaqta
  • Aymara: Wuliwya – Wuliwya Suyu
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Widely recognized member of the UN. As a result of the Dayton Agreement between Bosnia and Herzegovinamarker, Croatiamarker and the former Federal Republic of Yugoslaviamarker, Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided into two constituent entities:

– Republic of Botswana
  • Tswana: Botswana – Lefatshe la Botswana
  • English: Botswana – Republic of Botswana
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Federative Republic of Brazil
  • Portuguese: Brasil – República Federativa do Brasil
Widely recognized member of the UN. Brazil is a federation divided into 26 states and one federal district.

– State of Brunei, Abode of Peace
  • Malay: Brunei – Negara Brunei Darussalam
Widely recognized member of the UN. Brunei claims sovereignty over part of the Spratly Islandsmarker.

– Republic of Bulgaria
  • Bulgarian: България – Република България
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.

Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Union of Myanmar
  • Burmese: ဴမြန်မာပြည် — ျပည္ေတာင္စုၿမန္မာႏိုင္ငံေတာ္
Widely recognized member of the UN

– Republic of Burundi
  • Kirundi: Uburundi – Republika y'Uburundi
  • French: Burundi – République du Burundi
Widely recognized member of the UN.



C


– Kingdom of Cambodia
  • Khmer: កម្ពុជា - ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រ កម្ពុជា


Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Cameroon
  • French: Cameroun – République du Cameroun
  • English: Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Widely recognized member of the UN. Canada is a Commonwealth realm and a federation divided into provinces and territories.

– Republic of Cape Verde
  • Portuguese: Cabo Verde – República de Cabo Verde
Widely recognized member of the UN.

  • French: République Centrafricaine
  • Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Chad
  • French: Tchad – République du Tchad
  • Arabic: تشاد – جمهوريّة تشاد
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Chile
  • Spanish: Chile – República de Chile
Widely recognized member of the UN. Easter Islandmarker and the Juan Fernández Islandsmarker are "special territories" of Chile. The Desventuradas Islandsmarker and Isla Salas y Gómezmarker are part of the Valparaíso Regionmarker.

– People's Republic of China
  • Chinese: 中国 – 中华人民共和国
Widely recognized member of the UN. Commonly known as Chinamarker, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has five autonomous regions: Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet. Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:
It also claims:

China, Republic of Taiwan Other states

– Republic of Colombia
  • Spanish: Colombia – República de Colombia
Widely recognized member of the UN. Colombia is an independent republic with 31 departments (including the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina) and one capital district (Bogotá).

– Union of the Comoros
  • Comorian: Komori – Udzima wa Komori
  • French: Comores – Union des Comores
  • Arabic: القمر – اتحاد القمر
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Comoros is a federation with autonomous islands. The Comoros dispute the French sovereignty over Mayottemarker and the Glorioso Islandsmarker.

(Congo-Kinshasa)
  • French: Congo – République Démocratique du Congo
Widely recognized member of the UN.

(Congo-Brazzaville)
  • French: Congo – République du Congo
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Costa Rica
  • Spanish: Costa Rica – República de Costa Rica
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
  • French: Côte d'Ivoire – République de Côte d'Ivoire
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Croatia
  • Croatian: Hrvatska – Republika Hrvatska
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Cuba
  • Spanish: Cuba – República de Cuba
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Cubanmarker area of Guantánamo Bay is, along with the Guantanamo Bay Naval Basemarker, under the permanent control (with no claim of sovereignty) of the United Statesmarker, which pays rent under terms of the Cuban-American Treaty of 1903.

– Republic of Cyprus
  • Greek: Κύπρος – Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία
  • Turkish: Kıbrıs – Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU. See Northern Cyprus for the de facto state in the de jure territory of Cyprus.

  • Czech: Česko – Česká republika
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.



D


– Kingdom of Denmark
  • Danish: Danmark – Kongeriget Danmark
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.
The Kingdom of Denmarkmarker also includes two autonomous areas. For more information, see Rigsfællesskabet.
  • (Føroyar/Færøerne)
  • (Kalaallit Nunaat/Grønland)

– Republic of Djibouti
  • French: Djibouti – République de Djibouti
  • Arabic: جيبوتي – جمهورية جيبوتي
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Commonwealth of Dominica
  • English: Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Widely recognized member of the UN.



E


– Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
  • Tetum: Timor Lorosa'e – Repúblika Demokrátika Timor Lorosa'e
  • Portuguese: Timor-Leste – República Democrática de Timor-Leste
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Ecuador
  • Spanish: Ecuador – República del Ecuador
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Arab Republic of Egypt
  • Arabic: مصر – جمهوريّة مصرالعربيّة
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of El Salvador
  • Spanish: El Salvador – República de El Salvador
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Equatorial Guinea
  • Spanish: Guinea Ecuatorial – República de Guinea Ecuatorial
  • French: Guinée Équatoriale – République de Guinée Équatoriale
  • Portuguese: Guiné Equatorial – República da Guiné Equatorial
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– State of Eritrea
  • Tigrinya: ኤርትራ – ሃግሬ ኤርትራ
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Estonia
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.

– Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
  • Amharic: ኢትዮጵያ – የኢትዮጵያ ፈደራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ
Widely recognized member of the UN. Ethiopia is a federation divided into regions and chartered cities.





F


– Republic of the Fiji Islands
  • Fijian: Viti – Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti
  • English: Fiji – Republic of the Fiji Islands
  • Hindustani: फ़िजी / فِجی – फ़िजी गणराज्य / فِجی رپبلک


Widely recognized member of the UN. Fiji has an autonomous region (dependency), Rotumamarker.

– Republic of Finland
  • Finnish: Suomi – Suomen tasavalta
  • Swedish: Finland – Republiken Finland
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.
  • is a neutral and demilitarised autonomous region of Finland.

– French Republic
  • French: France – République française
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU. The French overseas regions/departments (French Guianamarker, Guadeloupemarker, Martiniquemarker and Réunionmarker) are legally part of France and France possesses the uninhabited Clipperton Islandmarker. French sovereignty also includes the overseas territories of:
  • (Polynésie française)
  • (disputed by Comorosmarker)
  • (Nouvelle-Calédonie)
  • (Saint-Martin)
  • (Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon)
  • (Wallis-et-Futuna)
  • (Terres australes et antarctiques françaises, uninhabited). It includes the Antarctic claim of Adélie Landmarker.
French sovereignty over Bassas da Indiamarker, Europa Islandmarker and Juan de Nova Islandmarker is disputed by Madagascarmarker, over Glorioso Islandsmarker by Madagascarmarker, the Seychellesmarker and the Comorosmarker, and over Tromelin Islandmarker by Mauritiusmarker and the Seychellesmarker.



G


– Gabonese Republic
  • French: Gabon – République Gabonaise
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of The Gambia
  • English: The Gambia – Republic of The Gambia
Widely recognized member of the UN.

  • Georgian: საქართველო
Widely recognized member of the UN. Georgia has two divisions with autonomous statuses:
In Abkhazia and South Ossetia (a former autonomous entity) de facto states inside the de jure territory of Georgia have been formed.

– Federal Republic of Germany
  • German: Deutschland – Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU. Germany is a federation divided into states .

– Republic of Ghana
  • English: Ghana – Republic of Ghana
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Hellenic Republic
  • Greek: Ελλάδα – Ελληνική Δημοκρατία
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU. Greece has sovereignty over Mount Athos, an autonomous monastic state that is jointly governed by the multi-national "Holy Community" on the mountain and the Civil Governor appointed by the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and spiritually comes under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

Widely recognized member of the UN. Grenada is a Commonwealth realm.

– Republic of Guatemala
  • Spanish: Guatemala – República de Guatemala
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Guinea
  • French: Guinée – République de Guinée
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Guinea-Bissau
  • Portuguese: Guiné-Bissau – República da Guiné-Bissau
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Co-operative Republic of Guyana
  • English: Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana
Widely recognized member of the UN.



H


– Republic of Haiti
Widely recognized member of the UN. Haiti claims the uninhabited United States possession of Navassa Islandmarker.

Holy See Vatican City

– Republic of Honduras
  • Spanish: Honduras – República de Honduras
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Hungary
  • Hungarian: Magyarország – Magyar Köztársaság
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.



I


– Republic of Iceland
  • Icelandic: Ísland – Lýðveldið Ísland
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of India
  • Hindi: भारत – भारत गणराज्य
  • English: India – Republic of India
  • Assamese: ভাৰত - ভাৰত গণৰাজ্য
  • Bengali: ভারত - ভারতীয় প্রজাতন্ত্র
  • Bhojpuri: भारत - भारत गणराज्य
  • Gujarati: ભારત - ભારતીય પ્રજાસત્તાક
  • Kannada : ಭಾರತ - ಭಾರತ ಗಣರಾಜ್ಯ
  • Kashmiri: ہِندوستان
  • Konkani: भारत - भारत गणराज्य
  • Malayalam: ഭാരതം - ഭാരത ഗണരാജ്യം
  • Meitei Manipuri: ভারত - ভারত গণরাজ্য
  • Marathi: भारत - भारतीय प्रजासत्ताक
  • Nepali: भारत - भारत गणराज्य
  • Oriya: ଭାରତ - ଭାରତ ଗଣରାଜ୍ଯ
  • Punjabi: ਭਾਰਤ - ਭਾਰਤ ਗਣਤੰਤਰ
  • Sanskrit: भारतम् - भारत गणराज्यम्
  • Sindhi: भारत गणराज्य, ڀارت، - هندستانڀارت، भारत ڀارت،
  • Tamil: இந்தியா - இந்தியக் குடியரசு
  • Telugu: భారత్ - భారత గణతంత్ర రాజ్యము
  • Urdu: جمہوریہ بھارت - جمہوریہ بھارت
Widely recognized member of the UN. India is a federation divided into states and union territories. The Indian sovereignty over Arunachal Pradeshmarker is disputed by the People's Republic of China. India claims sovereignty over all of Jammu and Kashmir and administers part of Kashmirmarker.

– Republic of Indonesia
Widely recognized member of the UN. Indonesia has five provinces with special status, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalammarker, Yogyakarta Special Regionmarker, Papuamarker, West Papuamarker, and Jakarta Special Capital Regionmarker. Separatist governments in exile claim independence for the Republic of the South Moluccas and the Republic of West Papua.

– Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Persian: ایران – جمهوری اسلامی ایران
Widely recognized member of the UN. Divided into provinces and counties

– Republic of Iraq
  • Arabic : العراق – جمهورية العراق
  • Kurdish: عێراق – كۆماری عێراق
Widely recognized member of the UN. Iraq's constitution labels the country as a federation divided into regions, governorates and the capital district. At present the only region is Iraqi Kurdistanmarker.

Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.

– State of Israel
  • Hebrew: ישראל – מדינת ישראל
  • Arabic: اسرائيل – دولة اسرائيل
Widely recognized member of the UN. Israelmarker occupies East Jerusalem, the Golan Heightsmarker and parts of the West Bankmarker. These areas are not internationally recognized as being part of Israel. Israel no longer has a permanent military presence in the Gaza Stripmarker, following its unilateral disengagement but is still the occupying power under International law, though this status is disputed. For more information, see also: Palestinian National Authority.



– Italian Republic
  • Italian: Italia – Repubblica Italiana
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU. Italy has autonomous regions, Aosta Valleymarker, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.

Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire



J


Widely recognized member of the UN. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm.

Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
  • Arabic: الاردن – المملكة الأردنّيّة الهاشميّة
Widely recognized member of the UN.



K


– Republic of Kazakhstan
  • Kazakh: Қазақстан Республикасы/Qazaqstan Respwblïkası
  • Russian: Республика Казахстан/Respublika Kazakhstan
  • Ukrainian: Казахстан - Республіка Казахстан
  • German: Kasachstan - Republik Kasachstan
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Kenya
  • English: Kenya – Republic of Kenya
  • Swahili: Kenya – Jamhuri ya Kenya
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Kiribati
  • Gilbertese: Kiribati – Ribaberikin Kiribati
  • English: Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Democratic People's Republic of Korea
  • Korean: 조선 – 조선민주주의인민공화국
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Korea
  • Korean: 한국 – 대한민국
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Kosovo Other states

– State of Kuwait
  • Arabic: الكويت – دولة الكويت
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Kyrgyz Republic
  • Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан – Кыргыз Республикасы
  • Russian: Кыргызстан – Кыргызская республика
Widely recognized member of the UN.



L


– Lao People's Democratic Republic
  • Lao: ນລາວ – ສາທາລະນະລັດປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Latvia
  • Latvian: Latvija – Latvijas Republika
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.

– Republic of Lebanon
  • Arabic: لبنان – الجمهوريّة اللبنانيّة
  • French: République libanaise
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Kingdom of Lesotho
  • English: Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho
  • Sotho: Lesotho – Mmuso wa Lesotho
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Liberia
  • English: Liberia – Republic of Liberia
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
  • Arabic: ليبيا – الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الإشتراكية العظمى
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Principality of Liechtenstein
  • German: Liechtenstein – Fürstentum Liechtenstein
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Lithuania
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.

– Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
  • Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg – Groussherzogdem Lëtzebuerg
  • French: Luxembourg – Grand-Duché du Luxembourg
  • German: Luxemburg – Großherzogtum Luxemburg
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.



M


– Republic of Macedonia
  • Macedonian: Македонија – Република Македонија
Widely recognized member of the UN, provisionally referred to by many international organisations and some countries as the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", see Macedonia naming dispute.

– Republic of Madagascar
  • Malagasy: Madagasikara – Repoblikan'i Madagasikara
  • French: Madagascar – Republique de Madagascar
Widely recognized member of the UN. Madagascar claims the French possessions of the Glorioso Islandsmarker and Juan de Nova Islandmarker.

– Republic of Malawi
  • English: Malawi – Republic of Malawi
  • Chewa: Malaŵi – Mfuko la Malaŵi
Widely recognized member of the UN.

- Federation of Malaysia
  • English: Malaysia - Federation of Malaysia
  • Malay: Malaysia - Persekutuan Malaysia
  • Chinese: 马来西亚 - Mă Lái Xī Yà
  • Tamil: மலேசியா


Widely recognized member of the UN. Malaysia is a federation divided into states and federal territories. Malaysia claims part of the Spratly Islandsmarker.

– Republic of Maldives
  • Dhivehi: ދިވެހިރާއްޖޭގެ ޖުމްހޫރިއްޔާ
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Mali
  • French: Mali – République du Mali
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Malta
  • Maltese: Malta – Repubblika ta' Malta
  • English: Malta – Republic of Malta
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.

– Republic of the Marshall Islands
  • Marshallese: Aorōkin M̧ajeļ – Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ
  • English: Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands
Widely recognized member of the UN under Compact of Free Association with the United Statesmarker. The Marshall Islands claim the United States territory of Wake Islandmarker.

– Islamic Republic of Mauritania
  • Arabic: موريتانيا – الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية
  • French: Mauritanie – République Islamique de la Mauritanie
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Mauritius
  • English: Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius
Widely recognized member of the UN. Mauritius has an autonomous island, Rodriguesmarker. Mauritius claims the British Indian Ocean Territorymarker and the French island of Tromelinmarker.

– United Mexican States
  • Spanish: México – Estados Unidos Mexicanos
Widely recognized member of the UN. Mexico is a federation divided into 31 states and one federal district.

– Federated States of Micronesia
  • English: Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia
Widely recognized member of the UN under Compact of Free Association with the United Statesmarker. Micronesia is a federation divided into states.

– Republic of Moldova
  • Romanian: Moldova – Republica Moldova
Widely recognized member of the UN. See Transnistria for the de facto state inside the de jure territory of Moldova.

– Principality of Monaco
  • French: Monaco – Principauté de Monaco
  • Monegasque: Múnegu – Principatu de Múnegu
  • Italian: Monaco - Principato di Monaco
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Widely recognized member of the UN.

Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Kingdom of Morocco
  • Arabic: المغرب – المملكة المغربية
Widely recognized member of the UN. Morocco claims sovereignty over the Western Saharamarker and controls most of it, which is disputed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Morocco disputes the Spanish sovereignty over Ceutamarker, Isla de Alboránmarker, Isla Perejilmarker, Islas Chafarinasmarker, Melillamarker and Peñón de Alhucemasmarker.

– Republic of Mozambique
  • Portuguese: Moçambique – República de Moçambique
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Myanmar Burma



N


Nagorno-Karabakh Other states

– Republic of Namibia
  • English: Namibia – Republic of Namibia
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Nauru
  • Nauruan: Naoero – Ripublik Naoero
  • English: Nauru – Republic of Nauru
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
  • Nepali: नेपाल – संघिय लोकतन्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Kingdom of the Netherlands
  • Dutch: Nederland – Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
  • Papiamentu: Hulanda (or Ulanda) - Reino di Hulanda
  • English Netherlands - Kingdom of the Netherlands
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of three countries which each enjoy a great amount of autonomy:


The designation Netherlands thus legally only refers to one of the Kingdom's constituent countries. The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles are not part of the EU.

Widely recognized member of the UN. New Zealand is a Commonwealth realm and has responsibilities for the two free associated states of:
  • . The Cook Islands have received some diplomatic recognition
  • . Niue established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 2007, while New Zealand has responsibility for Niue's external affairs.


The dependent territory of:New Zealand also claims sovereignty over parts of Antarctica as:

– Republic of Nicaragua
  • Spanish: Nicaragua – República de Nicaragua
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Niger
  • French: Niger – République du Niger
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • English: Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • Hausa: Najeriya - Kasar Najeriya
  • Yorùbá: Naìjírìà - Orílẹ̀-èdè Olómìnira Àpapọ̀ Ilẹ̀ Naìjírìà
  • Igbo: Naigeria - Republic ndi Naigeria
Widely recognized member of the UN. Nigeria is a federation divided into 36 states and one federal territory.

Northern Cyprus Other states


North Korea Korea, Democratic People's Republic of

– Kingdom of Norway
Widely recognized member of the UN. Svalbardmarker is an integral part of Norway, but has a special status due to the Spitsbergen Treaty. The overseas uninhabited possessions of Bouvet Islandmarker and Jan Mayenmarker are integral parts of Norway. The Norwegian claim of Peter I Islandmarker and Queen Maud Land (Antarctica) as part of Norway is suspended.



O


– Sultanate of Oman
  • Arabic: عُمان – سلطنة عُمان
Widely recognized member of the UN.



P


– Islamic Republic of Pakistan
  • Urdu: پاکستان – اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان
  • English: Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Widely recognized member of the UN. Pakistan is a federation divided into provinces and territories. Pakistan claims sovereignty over and administers part of Kashmirmarker.

– Republic of Palau
  • Palauan: Belau – Beluu er a Belau
  • English: Palau – Republic of Palau
Widely recognized member of the UN under Compact of Free Association with the United Statesmarker.

The Palestinian National Authority Other states

– Republic of Panama
  • Spanish: Panamá – República de Panamá
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Independent State of Papua New Guinea
  • English: Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea
  • Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini – Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini
Widely recognized member of the UN. Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm and also has the autonomous Region of Bougainvillemarker.

– Republic of Paraguay
  • Spanish: Paraguay – República del Paraguay
  • Guarani: Paraguái – Tetã Paraguái
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Persia Iran

– Republic of Peru
  • Spanish: Perú – República del Perú
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of the Philippines
  • Filipino: Pilipinas – Republika ng Pilipinas
  • English: Philippines – Republic of the Philippines
  • Spanish: Filipinas - República de Filipinas
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Philippines has the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. The Philippines administers Scarborough Shoal and most of the Kalayaan Islandsmarker and claims sovereignty over Macclesfield Bankmarker and Sabahmarker. Sabah is currently administered by Malaysiamarker.

– Republic of Poland
  • Polish: Polska – Rzeczpospolita Polska
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.

– Portuguese Republic
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU. Portugal has two autonomous regions:
Portugal does not recognize Spanishmarker sovereignty over:

Pridnestrovie Other states, Transnistria



Q


– State of Qatar
  • Arabic: قطر – دولة قطر
Widely recognized member of the UN.



R


Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.

– Russian Federation
  • Russian: Россия – Российская Федерация
Widely recognized member of the UN. Russia is a federation divided into Subjects of Russia (oblasts, republics, autonomous okrugs, krays, and federal cities).
Several of the federal subjects are republics acting as ethnic autonomies:

– Republic of Rwanda
  • KinyaRwanda: Rwanda – Repubulika y'u Rwanda
  • French: Rwanda – République du Rwanda
  • English: Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda
Widely recognized member of the UN.



S


Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Other states

– Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
  • English: Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
Widely recognized member of the UN. Saint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm and is a federation of the islands.

Widely recognized member of the UN. Saint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.

  • English: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Widely recognized member of the UN. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.

– Independent State of Samoa
  • Samoan: Sāmoa – Mālo Tuto'atasi o Sāmoa
  • English: Samoa – Independent State of Samoa
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of San Marino
  • Italian: San Marino – Repubblica di San Marino
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe
  • Portuguese: São Tomé e Príncipe – República Democrática de São Tomé e Príncipe
Widely recognized member of the UN. São Tomé and Príncipe has an autonomous province, Príncipemarker.

– Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • Arabic: السعودية – المملكة العربيّة السّعوديّة
Widely recognized member of the UN.



– Republic of Senegal
  • French: Sénégal – République du Sénégal
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Serbia
  • Serbian: Србија – Република Србија
  • Hungarian: Szerbia – Szerb Köztársaság
Widely recognized member of the UN. Serbia considers itself to have two autonomous provinces, though most of Kosovo is under the de facto control of the Republic of Kosovo, which does not have general recognition.

– Republic of Seychelles
  • English: Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles
  • French: Seychelles – République des Seychelles
  • Seselwa: Sesel - Repiblik Sesel
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Seychelles claim the British Indian Ocean Territorymarker and the French Glorioso Islandsmarker and Tromelin Islandmarker.

– Republic of Sierra Leone
  • English: Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Singapore
  • English: Singapore – Republic of Singapore
  • Malay: Singapura – Republik Singapura
  • Chinese: 新加坡 – 新加坡共和国
  • Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர் – சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசு
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Slovak Republic
  • Slovak: Slovensko – Slovenská republika
  • Hungarian: Szlovákia - Szlovák Köztársaság
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.

– Republic of Slovenia
  • Slovenian: Slovenija – Republika Slovenija
  • Italian: Slovenia - Repubblica slovena
  • Hungarian: Szlovénia – a Szlovén Köztársaság
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.

Widely recognized member of the UN. The Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.

– Republic of Somalia
  • Somali: Soomaaliya – Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya
  • Arabic: الصومال – جمهورية الصومال
Widely recognized member of the UN. Somaliamarker is presently fragmented with its Transitional National Government. Somalia disputed the Yemenite sovereignty over Socotramarker. See Somaliland for the de facto country inside the de jure territory of Somaliamarker.

– Republic of South Africa
  • English: South Africa – Republic of South Africa
  • Afrikaans: Suid-Afrika – Republiek van Suid-Afrika
  • Xhosa: Mzantsi Afrika – IRiphabliki yaseMzantsi Afrika
  • Zulu: Ningizimu Afrika – IRiphabliki yaseNingizimu Afrika
  • Southern Ndebele: Sewula Afrika – IRiphabliki yeSewula Afrika
  • Northern Sotho: Afrika-Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Afrika-Borwa
  • Sotho: Afrika Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Afrika Borwa
  • Tswana: Aforika Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Aforika Borwa
  • Swati: Ningizimu Afrika – IRiphabhulikhi yeNingizimu Afrika
  • Venda: Afurika Tshipembe – Riphabuḽiki ya Afurika Tshipembe
  • Tsonga: Afrika Dzonga – Riphabliki ra Afrika Dzonga
Widely recognized member of the UN.

South Korea Korea, Republic of

South Ossetia Other states

– Kingdom of Spain
  • Spanish: España – Reino de España
  • Catalan: Espanya – Regne d'Espanya
  • Occitan: Espanha – Reialme d'Espanha
  • Basque: Espainia – Espainiako Erresuma
  • Galician: España – Reino de España
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU. Spain is divided into autonomous communities and cities. The sovereignty over Ceutamarker, Isla de Alboránmarker, Isla Perejilmarker, Islas Chafarinasmarker, Melillamarker and Peñón de Alhucemasmarker is disputed by Morocco. The sovereignty over Olivenzamarker and Táligamarker is disputed by Portugalmarker. Spain disputes the British sovereignty over Gibraltarmarker.

– Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
  • Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා – ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය
  • Tamil: இலங்கை – இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சமத்துவ குடியரசு
Widely recognized member of the UN. Located on the better-known Island of Ceylonmarker.

– Republic of the Sudan
  • Arabic: السودان – جمهورية السودان
  • English: Sudan – Republic of the Sudan
Widely recognized member of the UN. Sudan is a federation divided into states and has one autonomous region, Southern Sudanmarker, formed out of the Southern Sudanese states.

– Republic of Suriname
  • Dutch: Suriname – Republiek Suriname
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Kingdom of Swaziland
  • English: Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland
  • Swati: eSwatini – Umbuso weSwatini
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Kingdom of Sweden
  • Swedish: Sverige – Konungariket Sverige
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.

– Swiss Confederation
  • German: Schweiz – Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft
  • French: Suisse – Confédération Suisse
  • Italian: Svizzera – Confederazione Svizzera
  • Raeto-Romance: Svizra – Confederaziun Svizra
  • Latin: Confoederatio Helvetica
Widely recognized member of the UN. Switzerland is a federation divided into cantons.

– Syrian Arab Republic
  • Arabic: سورية – الجمهوريّة العربيّة السّوريّة
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Golan Heightsmarker are annexed by Israel. Syria disputed the Turkish sovereignty over Hatay Provincemarker.



T


Taiwan Other states

– Republic of Tajikistan
  • Tajik: Тоҷикистон – Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон
Widely recognized member of the UN. Tajikistan also has the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Provincemarker.

– United Republic of Tanzania
  • Swahili: Tanzania – Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
  • English: Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania
Widely recognized member of the UN. Tanzania is a federacy with an autonomous status for Zanzibarmarker.

– Kingdom of Thailand
  • Thai: ประเทศไทย – ราชอาณาจักรไทย
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Timor-Leste East Timor

– Togolese Republic
  • French: Togo – République Togolaise
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Kingdom of Tonga
  • Tongan: Tonga – Pule'anga Fakatu'i 'o Tonga
  • English: Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Transnistria Other states

– Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
  • English: Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Widely recognized member of the UN. Trinidad and Tobago has an autonomous island, Tobagomarker.

– Republic of Tunisia
  • Arabic: تونس – الجمهورية التونسية
  • French: Tunisie - République du Tunisie
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Turkey
  • Turkish: Türkiye – Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Widely recognized member of the UN.

Widely recognized member of the UN. Tuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.



U


– Republic of Uganda
  • English: Uganda – Republic of Uganda
  • Swahili: Uganda – Jamhuri ya Uganda
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Widely recognized member of the UN. Ukraine has one autonomous republic:

  • Arabic: دولة الإمارات العربيّة المتّحدة
Widely recognized member of the UN. The United Arab Emirates is a federation divided into emirates.

– United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  • English: United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  • Welsh: Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon
  • Scottish Gaelic: An Rìoghachd Aonaichte na Breatainn Mhòr agus Èirinn a Tuath
  • Irish: Ríocht Aontaithe na Breataine Móire agus Thuaisceart Éireann
  • Scots: Unitit Kinrick o Great Breetain an Northren Ireland
  • Cornish: Ruwvaneth Unys Breten Veur hag Iwerdhon Gledh
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU. The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm divided into four parts. The United Kingdom has the following overseas territories:
The British Monarch has direct sovereignty over these, which are mostly self-governing:
  • , with three dependencies:

– United States of America
  • English: United States – United States of America
Widely recognized member of the UN. The United States is a federation divided into 50 states, one federal district, and one incorporated territory (Palmyra Atollmarker). The United States has sovereignty over the following inhabited possessions and commonwealths:


In addition, there are uninhabited possessions of the United States in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea: Baker Islandmarker, Howland Islandmarker, Jarvis Islandmarker, Johnston Atollmarker, Kingman Reefmarker, Midway Atollmarker, Petrel Islandsmarker (disputed with Colombiamarker and Jamaicamarker), Serranilla Bankmarker (disputed with Colombiamarker), Wake Islandmarker (somewhat disputed by the Marshall Islandsmarker) as well as Navassa Islandmarker (disputed by Haitimarker).

– Eastern Republic of Uruguay
  • Spanish: Uruguay – República Oriental del Uruguay
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Uzbekistan
  • Uzbek: Ўзбекистон – Ўзбекистон Республикаси
Widely recognized member of the UN. Uzbekistan has one autonomous republic:



V


– Republic of Vanuatu
  • Bislama: Vanuatu – Ripablik blong Vanuatu
  • English: Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu
  • French: Vanuatu – République du Vanuatu
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– State of the Vatican City
  • Latin: Civitas Vaticana – Status Civitatis Vaticanæ
  • Italian: Città del Vaticano – Stato della Città del Vaticano
Widely recognized country. The Holy See, a sovereign entity recognized by 176 countries, administers the territory of Vatican City; the Holy See is a permanent observer of the UN. Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, with the latter being the Bishop of the Archdiocese of Rome and therefore, ex officio sovereign of Vatican City. The Holy See also administers a number of extraterritorial properties in Italymarker and in many other countries (Apostolic Nunciatures).

– Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
  • Spanish: Venezuela – República Bolivariana de Venezuela
Widely recognized member of the UN. Venezuela is a federation divided into states, one federal dependency and one federal district.

– Socialist Republic of Vietnam
  • Vietnamese: Việt Nam – Cộng hòa Xã hội Chủ nghĩa Việt Nam
Widely recognized member of the UN. Vietnam claims sovereignty over the Paracelmarker and Spratly Islandsmarker.



W




X




Y


– Republic of Yemen
  • Arabic: اليمن – الجمهوريّة اليمنية
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Yemenitemarker sovereignty over Socotramarker is disputed by Somaliamarker.


Z


– Republic of Zambia
  • English: Zambia – Republic of Zambia
Widely recognized member of the UN.

– Republic of Zimbabwe
  • English: Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe
Widely recognized member of the UN.



Other states

This annex lists states that claim sovereignty and have control over (part of) their claimed territories, but due to disputes over their legitimacy, do not have normal diplomatic relations with the majority of sovereign states. Entities considered to be micronations are not included.


: Republic of Abkhazia
  • Abkhaz: Аҧсны – Аҧснытәи Республика
  • Russian: Aбхазия – Республика Абхазия
De facto independent state only recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, South Ossetia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Georgiamarker as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.

– Republic of Kosovo
  • Albanian: Kosovës – Republika e Kosovës
  • Serbian: Косово – Република Косово
De facto independent state that is recognised by   UN member states and by the Republic of China. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Serbia as part of its Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohijamarker. In turn, the Republic of Kosovo claims the part of Kosovo controlled by the Republic of Serbia and still administered by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK).

– Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
  • Armenian: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ – Լեռնային Ղարաբաղի Հանրապետություն
De facto independent state that has not been diplomatically recognized by any other state. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Azerbaijan.

– Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
  • Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs – Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti
De facto independent state that is recognised only by Turkey. It was accepted as an observer state of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference under the name of the Turkish Cypriot State since 1979. In addition, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republicmarker regards TRNC as sovereign but Azerbaijan (the sovereign state that Nakhichevan belongs to) has not followed suit. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.

Palestine
 Palestine has observer status at United Nations General Assembly and maintains a permanent observer mission at the UN Headquarters The declared State of Palestine is recognized by more than 100 countries, though with varying territorial borders, or even none. In foreign relations, the State of Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization. The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited control over parts of the West Bankmarker, the rest of which is controlled by Israelmarker, while the Gaza Stripmarker is controlled by Hamas.

– Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
  • Arabic: الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية
De facto independent state recognized by 46 other states. It is a member of the African Union and the Asian-African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian-African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of the Western Saharamarker to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Algeria.

– Republic of Somaliland
  • Somali: Soomaaliland – Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland
  • Arabic: ارض الصومال – جمهورية ارض الصومال
De facto independent state not diplomatically recognized by any other state, claimed in whole by the Somali Republic.

– Republic of South Ossetia
  • Ossetian: Хуссар Ирыстон – Республикæ Хуссар Ирыстон
  • Russian: Южная Осетия – Республика Южная Осетия
De facto independent state only recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Abkhazia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.

– Republic of China
A state competing for recognition with the People's Republic of Chinamarker as the government of Chinamarker since 1949. The Republic of China controls the island of Taiwanmarker and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas, and part of the Spratly Islandsmarker and has not renounced claims over the territory of the PRC and Mongoliamarker. The Republic of China is currently recognised by   including the Holy See. The territory of the Republic of China is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China. The Republic of China participates in the World Health Organization and a number of non-UN international organizations such as the World Trade Organization, International Olympic Committeemarker and others under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly  .

– Transnistrian Moldovan Republic (Pridnestrovie, Trans-Dniester)
  • Russian: Приднестровье: Приднестровская Молдавская Республика
  • Ukrainian: Придністров'я: Придністровська Молдавська Республіка
  • Romanian: Нистря: Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ
De facto independent state, recognized only by Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Moldova as the Territorial Unit of Transnistria.


Criteria for inclusion

This list derives its definition of a state from Article 1 of the Montevideo Convention of 1933. According to the Convention, a state should possess the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population, (b) a defined territory, (c) government, and (d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states. In respect of the last qualification, the role of recognition by other states can often be crucial since it implies acceptance into the international community. The list includes all states which are often regarded as satisfying these criteria and claim to be sovereign and independent. However, in many cases, whether an entity satisfies the Montevideo Convention criteria is disputed. It is also important to note that there is a divergence of opinion in international law on whether the Montevideo Convention criteria alone are sufficient qualities of statehood. Links to different theories on this question are provided below.

On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 203 entities:

Entities considered to be micronations that are not internationally recognized are not included.

Unlisted above are the following noteworthy entities that do not satisfy all the qualifications in the Montevideo Convention:
  • Antarcticamarker as a whole has no government and no permanent population. Seven countries claim parts of Antarctica and five of these have reciprocally recognized one another's claims. These claims, which are regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System, are not recognised by any other country.
  • The European Union, a sui generis supranational organization which currently has 27 member states. The member states have transferred a measure of their legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, and as such the EU has some characteristics of a sovereign state, without generally being considered a sovereign state. The European Union does not claim to be a sovereign state and has only limited capacity for relations with other states.
  • The subnational entities called States, in the United States, Australia, and other countries, for which, see: State . Most such subnational entities do not form relations with foreign states, but there have been exceptions; the member states of the German Empiremarker had consulates abroad, and Ukrainemarker and Belorussia (now Belarusmarker), then a part of the Soviet Unionmarker, were founding members of the United Nations.
  • The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is a United Nations observer and is recognized by 103 states, but has no territory other than extraterritorial areas within Rome. It claims to be a traditional example of a sovereign entity other than a sovereign state.


See also



Notes

  1. The names of the items in the list are given in English and include both an English version of the short official names (e.g. Afghanistan) and an English version of the (longer) official names (e.g. Islamic Republic of Afghanistan), as well as the same names in the (de jure or de facto) official languages on national level of the entity. Main source for the names in the official languages are the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the CIA World Fact Book (both retrieved 14 August 2007). If needed, they have been transliterated into Romanized characters, but original scripts (such as Cyrillic or Chinese characters) are included. When possible, the romanization preferred by the country has been used.The sources for both flag and names, official languages and romanizations are the main articles on these entities. When other sources are used, these sources are mentioned. See for a gallery of flags Gallery of sovereign-state flags.
  2. Information is included on *the extent of recognition and membership of the United Nations (Source: the website of the UN). *the reason a non-de jure state is listed. More information can be found at the list of states with limited recognition. *the overseas dependencies. Some sovereign states have overseas dependencies, generally not part of the territory of the state. More information can be found at List of dependent countries. *the federal structures if applicable. Some sovereign states have more or less federal structures. More information can be found at a List of federations. *the autonomous areas inside the territory of the sovereign state. Some sovereign states have one or more autonomous areas as part of the their territory; see List of autonomous areas by country. *List of territorial disputes *separatist governments in exile.
  3. More information on separatism can be found at the List of active autonomist and secessionist movements and the main articles.
  4. The Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations in which the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. The realms are sovereign states, see Sovereignty of the Realms.
  5. For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see the List of autonomous areas by country.
  6. Argentina is also named Argentine Nation for purposes of legislation.
  7. More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations.
  8. More information on territorial disputes can be found at the List of territorial disputes and the main articles.
  9. The member countries of the European Union transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU.
  10. Formerly referred to as Dahomey, its official name until 1975.
  11. For more information about the division of Bosnia and Herzegovina, see Dayton Agreement and the text of The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  12. Also known as Burkina; formerly referred to as Upper Volta, its official name until 1984.
  13. The legal name for Canada is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion of Canada (which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada, Dominion.
  14. The People's Republic of China (PRC) is commonly referred to as China, while the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly referred to as Taiwan. The ROC is also occasionally known diplomatically as Chinese Taipei, along with other names.
  15. The People's Republic of China is currently not recognized by 23 UN member states and the Holy See, which recognize the Republic of China. See: Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and Foreign relations of the PRC.
  16. Government of Hong Kong
  17. Government of Macau
  18. The Chinese sovereignty over the Paracel Islands is disputed by Vietnam and the Republic of China (see List of territorial disputes).
  19. The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, the Philippines (part), Malaysia (part), and Brunei (part). Except Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).
  20. Abbreviated as DRC, and also known as Congo-Kinshasa; also formerly referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.
  21. Cyprus is recognized by the Holy See and all UN member states except Turkey, see Foreign relations of Cyprus
  22. A simpler official short-form name has been encouraged by the Czech government: the English variant Czechia remains uncommon, but variants in Czech (Česko) and some other languages are more popular. See Name of the Czech Republic
  23. The government of East Timor uses Timor-Leste as the English translation.
  24. Hindustani uses both the Hindi and Urdu script
  25. Source for the romanization is Geonames.
  26. Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
  27. The sovereignty over Kashmir is disputed by India and Pakistan, smaller parts are disputed by the People's Republic of China (and the Republic of China). De facto Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan and China. See the List of territorial disputes.
  28. See List of active autonomist and secessionist movements.
  29. Source: Iraqi constitution
  30. Ireland is often referred to as the Republic of Ireland (its official description but not its name). Sometimes this is done to distinguish Ireland from island of Ireland as a whole. However, sometimes it is done for political reasons and is contentious.
  31. Israel is currently non-recognized by 11 countries, see Foreign relations of Israel.
  32. Israel and the Palestinians: Key terms, BBC Newswatch, accessed, 8 April 2009.
  33. Dore Gold, JCPA Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Vol. 5, No. 3, August 26, 2005.
  34. International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Vol. 7, No. 29 28 January 2008.
  35. Israeli MFA Address by Israeli Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference, Ministry of Foreign Affairs , January 22, 2008.
  36. Panelists Disagree Over Gaza’s Occupation Status, University of Virginia School of Law, November 17, 2005.
  37. "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation" Human Rights Watch. October 29, 2004
  38. "Human Rights Council Special Session on the Occupied Palestinian Territories" July 6, 2006"
  39. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs office on Occupied Palestinian Territory web site.
  40. Summary of the Advisory Opinion: Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, International Court of Justice, July 9, 2004.
  41. Richard Falk, Statement by Prof. Richard Falk, United Nations Special Rapporteur for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories, United Nations Human Rights Council, December 27, 2008.
  42. See Names of Japan for more detail.
  43. Though the sovereignty of the Republic of Macedonia is not disputed, Greece disputes its name. Therefore, the republic is referred to by the UN and a number of countries and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".
  44. Some argue that Albanian is the second official language, others argue that Albanian is not used as a second official language. See also Macedonian language naming dispute.
  45. Moldovan is often considered to be the same language as Romanian, see Moldovan language.
  46. E.g. the Federal Republic of Germany has diplomatic relations with the Cook Islands, Source: German foreign ministry, retrieved 14 August 2007. For more information: Foreign relations of the Cook Islands
  47. Full text of joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Niue, China Internet Information Center, retrieved 25 May 2009
  48. Tokelau remains a dependent territory after referendums. Source: New Zealand Herald, retrieved 8 August 2008
  49. The continent of Antarctica, including its outlying islands south of 60°S, are held in abeyance under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty. All claims are suspended. Claiming countries are Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom. There is also an informal Brazilian claim.
  50. Whether or not the Russian Federation is a genuine federation is a matter of dispute. See: Russian Federation section.
  51. See Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh (17 January 2006). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  52. See The World Factbook|Cyprus (10 January 2006). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  53. Bissio, 1995, p. 433.
  54. Page, 2004, p. 161.
  55. Source for observership: UN Website.
  56. See Regions and territories: Somaliland (30 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  57. Romanization in Pinyin.
  58. In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories currently under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC and the ROC withdrew from the UN: most states recognize the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
  59. 'See Regions and territories: Trans-Dniester (13 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  60. "State", pp. 512–3 in Penguin Dictionary of International Relations. Evans, Graham & Newnham, Jeffrey. 1998. (ISBN 0-14-051397-3). London: Penguin Books Ltd.
  61. "Australia, New Zealand, France, Norway and the United Kingdom reciprocally recognize the validity of each other's claims."
  62. CIA – the World Factbook – Antarctica – accessed 19 January 2008
  63. Bilateral relations with countries, Order of Malta, Retrieved 2009-01-27


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