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Although determining the world's tallest structure has generally been straightforward, the definition of the world's tallest building or the world's tallest tower is less clear. The disputes generally centre on what should be counted as a building or a tower, and what is being measured.

In terms of absolute height, the tallest structure is the Burj Dubaimarker, although it will not hold the official title of "Tallest Building in the World" until the building is officially opened on 4 January 2010. The official holder of the "Tallest Building in the World" is held by Taipei 101marker. In addition, there are dozens of radio and television broadcasting towers which measure over 600 metres (about 2,000 feet) in height. There is, however, some debate about:
  • whether structures under construction should be included in the list
  • whether structures rising out of water should have their below-water height included.


For towers, there is a debate over:
  • whether guy-wire-supported structures should be counted


For buildings, there is debate over:
  • whether communication towers with observation galleries should be considered habitable buildings.
  • whether only habitable height is considered.
  • whether roof-top antennas should be considered towards height of buildings; with particular interest in whether components that look like spires can be either classified as antennas or architectural detail.


The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, the organization that determines the title of the "World’s Tallest Building," recognizes a building only if at least fifty percent of its height is made up of floor plates containing habitable floor area. Structures that do not meet this criterion, such as the CN Towermarker, are defined as "towers."

Tallest structures

The tallest man-made structure is Burj Dubaimarker, a skyscraper under construction in Dubaimarker that reached in height on 17 January 2009. By 7 April 2008 it had been built higher than the KVLY-TV mastmarker in North Dakotamarker, USAmarker, which is still the tallest completed structure at . That September it officially surpassed Polandmarker's Warsaw radio mastmarker, which stood from 1974 to 1991, to become the tallest structure ever built. Guyed lattice towers such as these masts had held the world height record since 1954.

The CN Towermarker in Torontomarker, Ontariomarker, Canadamarker, standing at , is the world's tallest completed freestanding structure on land. Opened in 1976, it was surpassed in height by the rising Burj Dubai on September 12, 2007. It has the world's second highest public observation deck at .

The Petronius Platformmarker stands off the sea floor leading some, including Guinness World Records 2007, to claim it as the tallest freestanding structure in the world. However, it is debated whether underwater height should be discounted in the same manner as height below grade is ignored on buildings. The Troll A platformmarker is , without any part of that height being supported by wires. The tension-leg type of oil platform has even greater below-water heights with several examples more than deep. However, these platforms are not considered constant structures as the vast majority of their height is made up of the length of the tendons attaching the floating platforms to the sea floor. Despite this, Guinness World Records 2009 listed the Ursa tension leg platform as the tallest structure in the world with a total height of 1,306 m (4,285 feet).

Taipei 101marker in Taipeimarker, Taiwanmarker is the world's tallest inhabited building in only one of the four main categories that are commonly measured: at as measured to its architectural height (spire). Its roof height and highest occupied floor have recently been overtaken by the Shanghai World Financial Centermarker (roof height ; highest occupied floor ). Willis Towermarker (formerly Sears Tower) is highest in the final category: the greatest height to top of antenna of any building in the world at .

On its completion, projected for late 2009, Burj Dubai will break the height record in all four categories for completed buildings by a wide margin. The Shanghai World Financial Centermarker has the world's highest roof, highest occupied floor, and the world's highest public observation deck at . It will retain the latter record after the completion of Burj Dubai, as Burj Dubai's observation deck will be at .

Tallest structure by category

Due to the disagreements over how to measure height and classify structures, engineers have created various definitions for categories of buildings and other structures. One measure includes the absolute height of a building, another includes only spires and other permanent architectural features, but not antennas. The tradition of including the spire on top of a building and not including the antenna dates back to the rivalry between the Chrysler Buildingmarker and 40 Wall Streetmarker. A modern-day example is that the antenna on top of Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) is not considered part of its architectural height, while the spires on top of the Petronas Twin Towers are counted.

Category Structure Country City Height (m) Height (ft) Built
Skyscraper (Topped out) - all categories Burj Dubaimarker United Arab Emiratesmarker Dubaimarker 818 2,684 2009
Guyed Mast KVLY-TV mastmarker United Statesmarker Blanchard, N.D.marker 628.8 2,063 1963
Concrete tower (Topped out) Guangzhou TV & Sightseeing Towermarker Chinamarker Guangzhoumarker 610 2,001 2009
Concrete tower CN Towermarker Canadamarker Torontomarker 553.3 1,815 1976
Skyscraper - to top of antenna Willis Towermarker United States Chicagomarker 527.3 1,730 1973
Skyscraper - to top of spire Taipei 101marker Taiwanmarker Taipeimarker 509.2 1,671 2004
Skyscraper - to top of roof Shanghai World Financial Centermarker China Shanghai 492 1,614 2008
Tower for scientific research BREN Towermarker United States Nevada Test Sitemarker 462 1,516 1962
Twin towers Petronas Twin Towersmarker Malaysiamarker Kuala Lumpurmarker 452 1,482 1998
Chimney GRES-2 Power Stationmarker Kazakhstanmarker Ekibastuszmarker 419.7 1,377 1987
Radar Dimona Radar Facility Israelmarker Dimonamarker 400 1,312 2008
Guyed tubular steel mast Belmont transmitting stationmarker United Kingdommarker Donington on Bainmarker 387.7 1,272 1965
Lattice tower Kiev TV Towermarker Ukrainemarker Kievmarker 385 1,263 1973
Partially guyed tower Gerbrandy Towermarker Netherlandsmarker IJsselsteinmarker 366.8 1,203 1961
Electricity pylon Yangtze River Crossing, Jiangyin China Jiangyinmarker 346.5 1,137 2004
Bridge pillar Millau Viaductmarker Francemarker Millaumarker 342 1,122 2004
Iron tower Tokyo Towermarker Japanmarker Tokyomarker 333 1,092 1958
Dam Nurek Dammarker Tajikistanmarker Nurekmarker 300 984 1980
Concrete dam Grande Dixence Dammarker Switzerlandmarker Val d'Hérensmarker 285 935 1965
Clock tower NTT Docomo Yoyogi Buildingmarker Japanmarker Tokyomarker 240 790 2000
Minaret Hassan II Mosque Moroccomarker Casablancamarker 210 689 1993
Wind turbine Fuhrländer Wind Turbine Laasowmarker Germanymarker Laasow, Brandenburgmarker 205 673 2006
Cooling tower Niederaussem Power Stationmarker Germany Niederaussemmarker 200 656 2003
Monument Gateway Archmarker United States St. Louis, Missourimarker 192 630 1965
Masonry tower Anaconda Smelter Stackmarker United States Anaconda, Montanamarker 178.3 585 1919
Inclined structure,

Stadium
Olympic Stadiummarker Canada Montrealmarker 175 574 1976
Obelisk San Jacinto Monumentmarker United States Deer Park, Texasmarker 173.7 570 1939
Church building Chicago Temple Building United States Chicagomarker 173 568 1924
Masonry building Mole Antonellianamarker Italymarker Torinomarker 167 548 1889
Masonry building Philadelphia City Hallmarker United States Philadelphiamarker 167 548 1901
Ferris wheel Singapore Flyermarker Singaporemarker Singaporemarker 165 541.3 2008
Church tower Ulm Cathedralmarker Germany Ulmmarker 162 530 1890
Industrial hall Vehicle Assembly Buildingmarker United States Kennedy Space Centermarker 160 525 1966
Memorial cross Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídosmarker Spainmarker El Escorialmarker 152.4 500 1957
Roller coaster Kingda Kamarker United States Jackson, New Jerseymarker 138.98 456 2005
Tombmarker Great Pyramid of Gizamarker Egyptmarker Gizamarker, Cairomarker 138.8 455.2 2560 BCE
Dome St Peter's Basilicamarker dome Vatican Citymarker Vatican Citymarker, Romemarker 136.57 448.06 1626
Air traffic control tower Suvarnabhumi Airport control towermarker Thailandmarker Bangkokmarker 132.2 433.7 2006
Flagpole, free-standing Ashgabat Flagpole Turkmenistanmarker Ashgabatmarker 133 436.4 ?
Statue (including pedestal) Ushiku Daibutsumarker Bronze Buddha Statue Japanmarker Ushikumarker 120 394 1995
Storage silo Henninger Turmmarker Germany Frankfurtmarker 120 394 1961
Sculpture Spire of Dublinmarker Irelandmarker Dublinmarker 120 393 2003
Wooden structure Gliwice Radio Towermarker Polandmarker Gliwicemarker 118 387 1935
Aerial tramway support tower Pillar of third section of Gletscherbahn Kaprunmarker Austriamarker Kaprunmarker 113.6 373 1966
Lighthouse Yokohama Marine Towermarker Japan Yokohama 106 348 1961
Sphere Ericsson Globemarker Swedenmarker Stockholmmarker 85 279 1989
Statue (not including pedestal) The Mamayev Monumentmarker Russiamarker Volgogradmarker 82 269 1967
Brick lighthouse Torre della Lanternamarker Italy Genoamarker 77 253 1128
Brick minaret Qutub Minarmarker Indiamarker Delhimarker 72.5 237.8 1386


Tallest destroyed structures by category, not surpassed by existing structures

There are some destroyed architectural structures which were taller than the tallest existing structure of their type.

Category Structure Country City Height (m) Height (ft) Remarks
Guyed mast Warsaw Radio Mastmarker Polandmarker Gąbinmarker 646.38 2,121 completed in 1974, collapsed on August 8, 1991
Guyed tubular steel mast Shushi-Wan Omega Transmitter Japanmarker Tsushimamarker 389 1,276 completed in 1973, dismantled in 1998
Structure for destructive scientific experiment Smoky Shot Tower United Statesmarker Nevada Test Sitemarker 213 700 Guyed mast, which carried 44 kt yield nuclear bomb "Smoky" ( part of operation Plumbbob) on top until its explosion on August 31, 1957
Wooden structure Mühlacker Wood Radio Tower Germanymarker Mühlackermarker 190 623 completed in 1934, destroyed on April 6, 1945, by the Germans to prevent usage by the Allies.
Masonry building Mole Antonellianamarker Italymarker Torinomarker 167.5 549.5 spire destroyed by a tornado in 1953.
Pre-Industrial Era building Lincoln Cathedralmarker United Kingdommarker Lincolnmarker 160 524 completed in 1311, spire blown off in 1549


Tallest building by function



Category Structure Country City Architectural top
m ft
Mixed-Use* Burj Dubaimarker** United Arab Emiratesmarker Dubaimarker 818 2,684
Office Taipei 101marker Taiwanmarker Taipeimarker 509 1,671

Mixed-Use* (completed only) John Hancock Centermarker United Statesmarker Chicagomarker 344 1,127
Hotel Rose Towermarker United Arab Emirates Dubai 333 1,093
Residential Q1marker Australia Gold Coast 323 1,059
Educational Moscow State Universitymarker Russiamarker Moscowmarker 240 787
Hospital Guy's Hospitalmarker United Kingdommarker Londonmarker 143 468
Library Shanghai Library Chinamarker Shanghai 106 348


* Mixed-Use is defined as having three of more [[real estate|RE]] uses (such as retail, office, hotel, etc.) that are physically and functionally integrated in a single property and are mutually supporting.Schwanke D. et al. (2003). ''Mixed-use Development Handbook'', 2nd edition. Washington: Urban Land Institute ISBN 978-0874208887 ** As Burj Dubai is still under construction and not yet inhabitable, it does not serve a specific function. Upon completion, it will serve as a mixed use building.

Tallest buildings

Burj Dubai compared to some other well-known tall structures.
Up until 1998 the tallest building status was essentially uncontested. Counting buildings as structures with floors throughout, and with antenna masts excluded, Sears Towermarker (now Willis Tower) in Chicagomarker was considered the tallest. When the Petronas Twin Towersmarker in Kuala Lumpurmarker, Malaysiamarker were built, controversy arose because the spire extended nine metres higher than the roof of Willis Tower. Excluding the spire, the Petronas Towers are not taller than Willis Tower. At their convention in Chicagomarker, the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) reduced Willis Tower from world's tallest and pronounced it not second tallest, but third, and pronounced Petronas as world's tallest. This action caused a considerable amount of controversy, so CTBUH defined four categories in which the world's tallest building can be measured:

  1. Height to Architectural Top (including spires and pinnacles, but not antennas, masts or flagpoles). This measurement is the most widely utilized and is used to define the rankings of the 100 Tallest Buildings in the World.
  2. Highest Occupied Floor
  3. Height to Top of Roof (omitted from criteria in November 2009)
  4. Height to Tip


The height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance. At the time, the Sears Tower held first place in the second and third categories, the Petronas Towers held the first category and the original World Trade Towers held the fourth. Within months, however, a new antenna mast was placed on the Sears Tower, giving it hold of the fourth category.On April 20, 2004, Taipei 101marker in Taipeimarker, Taiwanmarker, was completed. Its completion gave it the world record for the first three categories. On July 21, 2007 it was announced that Burj Dubaimarker had surpassed Taipei 101marker in height, reaching . Burj Dubai was topped-out in early 2009 but is not yet completed.

Today, Taipei 101 leads in the first category with , but has been surpassed in the second two categories by the Shanghai World Financial Centermarker whose roof height is and whose highest occupied floor is at . Before either of these buildings were completed, the first category was held by the Petronas Twin Towers with , and before that by Willis Tower with . The second and third categories were held by Willis Tower, with and respectively.

Willis Tower still leads in the fourth category with , previously held by the World Trade Centermarker until the extension of the Chicago tower's western broadcast antenna in 2000, over a year prior to the World Trade Center's destruction in 2001. Its antenna mast included, One World Trade Center measured . The World Trade Center became the world's tallest buildings to be destroyed or demolished; indeed, its site entered the record books twice on September 11, 2001, in that category, replacing the Singer Buildingmarker, which once stood a block from the WTC site.

Structures such as the CN Towermarker, the Ostankino Towermarker and the Oriental Pearl Towermarker are excluded from these categories because they are not "habitable buildings", which are defined as frame structures made with floors and walls throughout.

History of record holders in each CTBUH category

Date (Event) Architectural top Highest occupied floor Roof Tip
2009: CTBUH omits Height to Roof category Taipei 101 Shanghai World Financial Center Willis Tower
2008: Shanghai World Financial Centermarker completed Taipei 101 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai World Financial Center Willis Tower
2003: Taipei 101marker completed Taipei 101 Taipei 101 Taipei 101 Willis Tower
2000: Willis Towermarker antenna extension Petronas Towers Willis Tower Willis Tower Willis Tower
1998: Petronas Towersmarker completed Petronas Towers Willis Tower Willis Tower World Trade Center
1996: CTBUH defines categories Willis Tower Willis Tower Willis Tower World Trade Center


World's tallest freestanding structure on land

Freestanding structures include observation towers, monuments and other structures not generally considered to be "Habitable buildings", but excludes supported structures such as guyed masts and ocean drilling platforms.(See also history of tallest skyscrapers.)

The world's tallest freestanding structure on land is defined as the tallest self-supporting man-made structure that stands above ground. This definition is different from that of world's tallest building or world's tallest structure based on the percent of the structure that is occupied and whether or not it is self-supporting or supported by exterior cables. Likewise, this definition does not count structures that are built underground or on the seabed, such as the Petronius Platformmarker in the Gulf of Mexicomarker. Visit world's tallest structure by category for a list of various other definitions.

As of 12 May 2008, the tallest freestanding structure on land is the Burj Dubaimarker in Dubaimarker, United Arab Emiratesmarker. The building, which now stands at , surpassed the height of the previous record holder, the CN Towermarker in Torontomarker, Ontariomarker, on September 12, 2007. It is scheduled to be completed in 2009, and was topped out at in January 2009.

History

The following is a list of structures that have held the title as the tallest freestanding structure on land. (See also Timeline of three tallest structures in the world until Empire State Building).

tallest historical structures
record from record to Name and Location Constructed Height (m) Height (ft) Notes
c. 2700 BC c. 2600 BC Pyramid of Djosermarker, Egyptmarker c. 2700 BC 62 203  
c. 2600 BC c. 2570 BC Red Pyramidmarker of Sneferu, Egyptmarker c. 2600 BC 105 345  
c. 2570 BC c. AD 1311 Great Pyramid of Gizamarker in Egyptmarker c. 2570 BC 146 481 By AD 1439, the Great Pyramid had eroded to a height of approximately 139 m (455 ft).
 1311 1549 Lincoln Cathedralmarker in Englandmarker 1092–1311 160 525 The central spire was destroyed in a storm in 1549. While the reputed height of is doubted by A.F. Kendrick, other sources agree on this height.
1549 1625 St. Olaf's Churchmarker in Tallinnmarker, Estoniamarker 1438–1519 159 522 The spire burnt down after a lightning strike in 1625 and was rebuilt several times. The height is 123 m.
1625 1647 St. Mary's Churchmarker in Stralsundmarker, Germanymarker 1384–1478 151 495 The spire burnt down after a lightning strike in 1647. The height is 104 m.
1647 1874 Strasbourg Cathedralmarker in Francemarker 1439 142 469
1874 1876 St. Nikolaimarker in Hamburgmarker, Germanymarker 1846–1874 147 483
1876 1880 Cathédrale Notre Damemarker in Rouenmarker, Francemarker 1202–1876 151 495  
1880 1884 Cologne Cathedralmarker in Germanymarker 1248–1880 157 515
1884 1889 Washington Monument in Washington D.C.marker, United Statesmarker 1884 169 555  
1889 1930 Eiffel Towermarker in Parismarker, Francemarker 1889 300 986 First structure to exceed 300 metres in height. The addition of a telecommunications tower in the 1950s brought the overall height to 324 m.
1930 1931 Chrysler Buildingmarker in New Yorkmarker, United Statesmarker 1928–1930 319 1,046
1931 1967 Empire State Buildingmarker in New Yorkmarker, United Statesmarker 1930–1931 381 1,250 First building with 100+ stories. The addition of a pinnacle and antennas later increased its overall height to 1,472 ft/448.7 m. This was subsequently lowered to 1,454 ft/443.1 m.
1967 1975 Ostankino Towermarker in Moscowmarker, Russiamarker 1963–1967 537 1,762 Remains the tallest in Europe. Fire in 2000 led to extensive renovation.
1975 2007 CN Towermarker in Torontomarker, Canadamarker 1973–1976 553 1,815 Remains the tallest in the Americas
2007 present Burj Dubaimarker in Dubaimarker, United Arab Emiratesmarker 2004–2009 818 2,684 Holder of world's tallest freestanding structure. Topped out at .
Graph of height in feet since 1874


Diagram of the Principal High Buildings of the Old World, 1884.
Notable mentions include the Pharos of Alexandriamarker, built in the third century BC, and estimated between 115 to 135 m (383–440 ft). It was the world's tallest non-pyramidal building for many centuries. Another notable mention includes the Jetavanaramayamarker stupa in Anuradhapuramarker, Sri Lankamarker, which was built in the third century, and was similarly tall at 122 m (400 ft). These were both the world's tallest or second tallest non-pyramidal buildings for over a thousand years.

The tallest secular building between the collapse of the Pharosmarker and the erection of the Washington Monument may have been the Torre del Mangiamarker in Sienamarker, which is 102 m tall, and was constructed in the first half of the fourteenth century, and the 97 m tall Torre degli Asinelli in Bolognamarker, also Italy, built between 1109 and 1119.

World's highest observation deck

Timeline of development of world's highest observation deck since inauguration of Eiffel Tower.



Held record Name and Location Constructed Height of highest observation deck (m) Height of highest observation deck (ft) Notes
From To
 1889  1931 Eiffel Towermarker, Parismarker, Francemarker  1889 275 902 Two further observation decks 57 and 115 metres above ground.
 1931  1973 Empire State Buildingmarker, New York Citymarker, USAmarker  1931 369 1211 A second observation deck is located on the 86th floor at 320 metres above ground.
 1973  1976 World Trade Centermarker, New York Citymarker, USAmarker  1973 420 1378 Destroyed during the September 11, 2001 attacks
 1976  2008 CN Towermarker, Torontomarker, Canadamarker  1976 446.5 1464.9 Two further observation decks 342 and 346 metres above ground.
 2008  present Shanghai World Financial Centermarker, Shanghai, Chinamarker  2008 474 1555 Other observation decks are 423 and 439 metres above ground.


Higher observation decks have existed on mountain peaks or cliffs, rather than on tall structures. For example, the Royal Gorge Bridgemarker in Cañon City, Coloradomarker, USAmarker, was constructed in 1929 spanning the Royal Gorge at a height of 321 m (1095 ft.) above the Arkansas Rivermarker.

Timeline of guyed structures on land

As most of the tallest structures are guyed masts and the absolute height record of architectural structures on land is since 1954 kept by them, here is a timeline of world's tallest guyed masts, since the beginning of radio technology.

As many large guyed masts were destroyed at the end of World War II, the dates for the years between 1945 and 1950 may be incorrect. If Wusung Radio Tower survived World War II, it was the tallest guyed structure shortly after World War II.

Held record Name and Location Constructed Height (m) Height (ft) Notes
From To
 1913  1920 Central mast of Eilvese transmittermarker, Eilvese, Germanymarker  1913 250 820 Mast was divided in 145 m by an insulator, demolished in 1931
 1920  1923 Central masts of Nauen Transmitter Stationmarker, Nauenmarker, Germanymarker  1920 260 853 2 masts, demolished in 1946
 1923  1933 Masts of Ruiselede transmitter, Ruiseledemarker, Belgiummarker  1923 287 942 8 masts, destroyed in 1940
 1933  1939 Lakihegy Towermarker, Lakihegy, Hungarymarker  1933 314 1,031 Blaw-Knox Tower, insulated against ground, destroyed in 1945, afterwards rebuilt
 1939  1946 Deutschlandsender Herzberg/Elstermarker, Herzberg marker, Germanymarker  1939 335 1,099 Insulated against ground, dismantled 1946/1947
 1946  1948 Lakihegy Towermarker, Lakihegy, Hungarymarker  1946 314 1,031 Blaw-Knox Tower, Insulated against ground, rebuilt after destruction in 1945
 1948  1949 WIVB-TV Towermarker, Colden, New Yorkmarker, USAmarker  1948 321.9 1,056
 1949  1950 Longwave transmitter Raszynmarker, Raszynmarker, Polandmarker  1949 335 1,099 Insulated against ground
 1950  1954 Forestport Towermarker, Forestport, New Yorkmarker, USAmarker  1950 371.25 1,218 Insulated against ground
 1954  1959 Griffin Television Tower Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahomamarker, USAmarker  1954 480.5 1,576  
 1956  1959 KOBR-TV Towermarker, Caprock, New Mexicomarker, USAmarker  1956 490.7 1,610 Collapsed in 1960
 1959  1960 WGME TV Tower, Raymond, Mainemarker, USAmarker  1959 495 1,624
 1960  1962 KFVS TV Mastmarker, Cape Girardeau County, Missourimarker, USAmarker  1960 511.1 1,677
 1962  1963 WTVM/WRBL-TV & WVRK-FM Towermarker, Cusseta, Georgiamarker, USAmarker  1962 533 1,749
 1963  1963 WIMZ-FM-Tower, Knoxville, Tennesseemarker, USAmarker  1963 534.01 1,752
 1963  1974 KVLY-TV mastmarker, Blanchard, North Dakotamarker, USAmarker  1963 628.8 2,063
 1974  1991 Warsaw Radio Mastmarker, Gąbinmarker, Polandmarker  1974 646.4 2,121 Mast radiator insulated against ground, collapsed in 1991
 1991   KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, USA  1963 628.8 2,063


Tallest structures, freestanding structures, and buildings

See also: Timeline of three tallest structures in the world

The list categories are:
  • The structures (supported) list uses pinnacle height and includes architectural structures of any type that might use some external support constructions like cables and are fully built in air. Only the three tallest are listed, as more than fifty US TV masts have stated heights of 600-610m (1969–2000 ft).
  • The structures (media supported) list uses pinnacle height and includes architectural structures of any type that are not totally built in the air but are using support from other, denser media like salt water. All structures greater than are listed.
  • The freestanding structures list uses pinnacle height and includes structures over that do not use guy-wires or other external supports. This means truly free standing on its own or, in similar sense, non-supported structures.
  • The building list uses architectural height (excluding antennas) and includes only buildings, defined as consisting of habitable floors. Both of these follow CTBUH guidelines. All supertall buildings (300 m and higher) are listed.


Notes:
  • Seven buildings appear on the freestanding structures category list with different heights than of another category. This is due to the different measurement specifications of those lists.
  • Only current heights and where reasonable target heights are listed. Historical heights of structures that e.g. did collapse are excluded.


Rank Name and location Year

completed
Architectural top Floors
Structures (supported)
1 KVLY-TV mastmarker, Blanchard, North Dakotamarker, United Statesmarker 1963
2 KXJB-TV mastmarker, Galesburg, North Dakotamarker, United Statesmarker 1998
3 KXTV/KOVR Towermarker, Walnut Grove, Californiamarker, United Statesmarker 2000
Structures (media supported)
1 Petronius Platformmarker, Gulf of Mexicomarker 2000
2 Baldpate Platform, Gulf of Mexico 1998
3 Bullwinkle Platform, Gulf of Mexico 1989
Freestanding structures
1 Burj Dubaimarker, Dubaimarker, United Arab Emiratesmarker (topped out) 2009 160
2 Guangzhou TV & Sightseeing Towermarker, Guangzhoumarker, Chinamarker (topped out) 2009
3 CN Towermarker, Torontomarker, Ontariomarker, Canadamarker 1976
4 Ostankino Towermarker, Moscowmarker, Russiamarker 1967
5 Willis Towermarker, Chicagomarker, United Statesmarker 1974 108
6 Taipei 101marker, Taipeimarker, Taiwanmarker 2003 101
7 Shanghai World Financial Centermarker, Shanghai, People's Republic of Chinamarker 2008 101
8 Oriental Pearl Towermarker, Shanghai, People's Republic of Chinamarker 1996
9 John Hancock Centermarker, Chicagomarker, United Statesmarker 1969 457 m (1,500 ft) 100
10= Petronas Tower Imarker, Kuala Lumpurmarker, Malaysiamarker 1998 88
10= Petronas Tower IImarker, Kuala Lumpurmarker, Malaysiamarker 1998 88
12 Nanjing Greenland Financial Centermarker, Nanjingmarker, People's Republic of Chinamarker 2009 89
13 Empire State Buildingmarker, New York Citymarker, United Statesmarker 1931 443 (1,454 ft) 102
14 Milad Towermarker, Tehranmarker, Iranmarker 2007
15 Kuala Lumpur Towermarker, Kuala Lumpurmarker, Malaysiamarker 1995
16 Jin Mao Buildingmarker, Shanghai, People's Republic of Chinamarker 1998 88
17 Chimney of GRES-2 Power Stationmarker, Ekibastuzmarker, Kazakhstanmarker 1987
18 Two International Finance Centremarker, Hong Kongmarker 2003 88
19 Tianjin Radio and Television Towermarker, Tianjinmarker, People’s Republic of Chinamarker 1991
20 Central TV Towermarker, Beijing, People’s Republic of Chinamarker 1992
Buildings
1 Taipei 101marker, Taipeimarker, Taiwanmarker 2003 101
2 Shanghai World Financial Centermarker, Shanghai, People's Republic of Chinamarker 2008 101
3= Petronas Tower Imarker, Kuala Lumpurmarker, Malaysiamarker 1998 88
3= Petronas Tower IImarker, Kuala Lumpurmarker, Malaysiamarker 1998 88
5 Nanjing Greenland Financial Centermarker, Nanjingmarker, People's Republic of Chinamarker 2009 89
6 Willis Towermarker, Chicagomarker, United Statesmarker 1974 108
7 Jin Mao Buildingmarker, Shanghai, People's Republic of Chinamarker 1998 88
8 Two International Finance Centremarker, Hong Kongmarker 2003 88
9 CITIC Plazamarker, Guangzhoumarker, People's Republic of Chinamarker 1997 80
10 Shun Hing Squaremarker, Shenzhenmarker, People's Republic of Chinamarker 1996 69
11 Empire State Buildingmarker, New York Citymarker, United Statesmarker 1931 102
12 Central Plazamarker, Hong Kongmarker 1992 78
13 Bank of China Tower, Hong Kongmarker 1990 70
14 Bank of America Towermarker, New York Citymarker, United Statesmarker 2008 54
15 Almas Towermarker, Dubaimarker, United Arab Emiratesmarker 2008 74
16 Emirates Office Towermarker, Dubaimarker, United Arab Emiratesmarker 2000 54
17 Tuntex Sky Towermarker, Kaohsiungmarker, Taiwanmarker 1997 85
18 Aon Centermarker, Chicagomarker, United Statesmarker 1973 83
19 The Centermarker, Hong Kongmarker 1998 73
20 John Hancock Centermarker, Chicagomarker, United Statesmarker 1969 100
21= Rose Towermarker, Dubaimarker, United Arab Emiratesmarker 2007 72
21= Shimao International Plazamarker, Shanghai, People's Republic of Chinamarker 2006 60
23 Minsheng Bank Buildingmarker, Wuhanmarker, People's Republic of Chinamarker 2007 68
24= Ryugyong Hotelmarker, Pyongyangmarker, North Koreamarker (topped out) 1992 105
24= China World Trade Center Tower 3marker, Beijing, People's Republic of Chinamarker 2008 74
26 Q1marker, Gold Coast, Australia 2005 78
27 Burj Al Arabmarker, Dubaimarker, United Arab Emiratesmarker 1999 60
28= Chrysler Buildingmarker, New York Citymarker, United Statesmarker 1930 77
28= Nina Tower Imarker, Hong Kongmarker 2007 80
28= New York Times Buildingmarker, New York Citymarker, United Statesmarker 2007 52
31 Bank of America Plazamarker, Atlantamarker, United Statesmarker 1992 55
32 Kingdom Centremarker, Riyadhmarker, Saudi Arabiamarker 2000 41
33 U.S.marker Bank Towermarker, Los Angelesmarker, United Statesmarker 1989 73
34 Menara Telekommarker, Kuala Lumpurmarker, Malaysiamarker 2001 55
35 Jumeirah Emirates Towers Hotelmarker, Dubaimarker, United Arab Emiratesmarker 2000 56
36 One Island Eastmarker, Hong Kongmarker 2008 70
37 AT&T Corporate Centermarker, Chicagomarker, United Statesmarker 1989 60
38 The Address Downtown Burj Dubaimarker, Dubaimarker, United Arab Emiratesmarker 2008 63
39 JPMorgan Chase Towermarker, Houstonmarker, United Statesmarker 1982 75
40 Baiyoke Tower IImarker, Bangkokmarker, Thailandmarker 1997 85


Source: Emporis

Under construction

Numerous supertall skyscrapers are in various stages of proposal, planning, or construction. Each of the following are under construction and, depending on the order of completion, could become the world's tallest building or structure in at least one category:
  • Burj Dubaimarker , under construction in Dubai, UAEmarker, is topped-out at with 160 floor. It is taller than the CN Towermarker, the tallest completed freestanding structure. It became the tallest manmade structure of any kind in history when it passed the Warsaw radio mastmarker in September 2008. Construction began in September 2004 and completion is expected in December 2009.
  • The Digital Media City Landmark Buildingmarker, under construction in Digital Media Citymarker, Seoulmarker in South Koreamarker, is expected to be tall and have 133 floors. If completed, it would be the second tallest building in the world with the tallest observatory and hotels in the world. Construction began in October 2009 and completion is expected in April 2015.
  • The Tokyo Sky Treemarker under construction in Tokyo's Sumida district, is expected to be 634m (2,080 ft) tall. It will be a broadcasting tower to replace the old Tokyo Towermarker. Construction began in 2008 and completion is expected in 2011, with public access in the spring of 2012.
  • The Shanghai Towermarker, under construction in Shanghai, next to the Shanghai World Financial Centermarker and the Jin Mao Buildingmarker, is expected to be 632m (2,073 ft). It will be the second tallest building in the world. Completion is expected in 2014.
  • The Pentominiummarker, under construction in Dubaimarker, is expected to be tall and have 120 floors. If completed, it would be the tallest all-residential building in the world. Construction began in 2007 and completion is expected in 2011.
  • The Russia Towermarker, was under construction in Moscowmarker's International Business Centremarker. It was expected to be 612.2 m (2,009 ft) tall and have 118 floors; making it the tallest building in Europe. Construction began in September 2007 and completion was expected in 2012, however, construction was halted in November 2008 due to financial difficulties and it is now unlikely to be completed.
  • Incheon Tower is a 151-floor, twin tower under construction in Incheonmarker, South Koreamarker. If completed, it will stand as the tallest twin towers in the world, surpassing the Petronas Twin Towersmarker. It is estimated to be completed in 2012.
  • The Guangzhou TV & Sightseeing Towermarker, under construction in Guangzhou, Chinamarker, is topped-out at . Construction began in November 2005 and completion is expected in 2009.
  • The Chicago Spiremarker (formerly Fordham Spire), under construction in Chicagomarker, is expected to be and have 150 floors. If completed, it would surpass the CN Tower as the tallest freestanding building in North America, and would be the second tallest all-residential building in the world (behind the aforementioned Pentominiummarker). Construction began in June 2007 and completion is expected in early 2012, however, construction is on hold.
  • The Abraj Al Bait Towersmarker are under construction in Meccamarker, Saudi Arabiamarker. The tallest tower is expected to be tall when completed in 2010, becoming second-tallest building in the world when completed. It will also be the largest building in the world with a floor area of 1,500,000 m2 (16,137,600 sq ft) and the tallest hotel in the world.
  • The Jakarta Tower (Menara Jakarta) is on-hold in Jakartamarker, Indonesia. It is expected to be 558 m (1,831 ft) tall up to the antenna, thus may be tallest concrete tower. It is expected to be completed in 2011.
  • The Federation Tower Eastmarker, under construction in Moscowmarker's International Business Centremarker, is expected to be 506 m (1,660 ft) tall (to the tip of the spire) and have 93 floors. If completed, it would become the tallest building in Europe. Construction began in 2003 and completion is expected in 2009.


Proposed

Many proposed structures have not yet been built, and many probably never will be built. See proposed tall buildings and structures for structures that have been or are being proposed.

See also



References

External links




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