South Atlantic basin
cyclones rarely form in the South Atlantic Basin.
Only three South Atlantic tropical
in the area have been confirmed.
Eastern Pacific basin
These records are held by Pacific
Western Pacific basin
These records are held by: Pacific
Names retired before 2000 were done so by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center
Names during and after that year were retired by the Japan Meteorological
||Damage (in million $US as of the year of damage)
||Philippines, southern China
||Philippines, Vietnam, southern
||Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan
||Singapore, Malaysia, and Sumatra
||Ryukyu Islands and South
||Taiwan, Okinawa, Northeastern
||Mariana Islands, Japan, South Korea
||The Philippines, Taiwan, southeast
China and Japan
||The Philippines, Taiwan, southeast
||Mariana Islands, The
Philippines, Taiwan, southeast
||Philippines, Hainan, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand
||Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand
Two names, Yanyan and Tingting, were replaced as requested by Hong
Kong. Another two names, Kodo and Hanuman, were replaced before
also retires names for typhoons and tropical storms that
affect the Philippines.
Significant typhoons with special names
Eight especially significant typhoons were named by Japan Meteorological Agency
according to the area where they caused most damage.
Other notable named storms
- Wanda, 1962,
Kong - Often cited by Hong Kong residents as an example
of a deadly storm. Although it ranked only as
Category 2 on the Saffir-Simpson scale, the deficient warning
system at the time led to many deaths in the villages of the
New Territories unaware of the storm
Ruby, 1964 - the strongest and worst named typhoon to hit Hong
Kong in recorded history. killed over 700 and caused widespread
1975 - Dropped rain over eastern China,
contributing to the collapse of the Banqiao Dam which killed at least 170,000
- Tip, 1979,
Japan - Most intense and largest tropical cyclone on
- Typhoon Gay, 1989 - Rare
typhoon that crossed Thailand as a cat 3 typhoon; crossed into
North Indian Ocean Basin and hit India as a cat. 5, killing
- Herb, 1996,
Taiwan and China - The
strongest and the largest storm of this year, dropped heavy rain
over Taiwan and China, killing hundreds.
and Joan, 1997 -
two of the most intense cyclones ever recorded at 872 mb; reached
extreme intensities at close distance to each other.
- Typhoon Zeb, 1998 cat. 5 with 872
milibars of pressure; caused severe damage in the Philippines,
killing nearly 100.
- Maggie, Sam, York and Cam 1999,
Kong - Four storms to directly strike the vicinity of
Hong Kong within one typhoon season
2007, the strongest typhoon to affect Japan in the month
of July in recorded history.
Fengshen - is a typhoon that struck the Philippines with an unusual path hence was poorly forecasted
throughout its lifetime. 800 of the 856 people on board the
MV Princess of the Stars
were killed when the ship capsized at the height of the typhoon.
Testimonies from survivors of the maritime tragedy suggest that the
ferry have actually passed the typhoon's eye directly. There is a
total of 1371 direct fatalities and 87 people missing during the
- Tropical Storm Nangka - while
not a strong storm, it managed to spawn a tornado and a hail with the
latter being extremely rare in the Philippines.
- Typhoon Parma - is another
unusual typhoon to strike Philippines. It made an
unprecedented three consecutive landfalls in the same area in
Northern Luzon, Philippines alone and had moved very slowly and at times,
almost stationary in its second and third landfalls which resulted
in heavy flooding and constant wind damage. Ilocos provinces and Abra reportedly
experienced typhoon-force winds and heavy rains for 15 hours
Notable unnamed storms
Kamikaze, 1281, destroyed a
Mongol invasion fleet
system of unknown intensity that hit Haiphong in 1881, killing 300,000 people.
1922 Swatow Typhoon, a system of
unknown intensity that struck Swatow, China late on
August 2, 1922, killing more than 50,000 people.
- 1934 Muroto Typhoon - killing at least 3,036, another 15,361
are injured, with 92,323 houses are lost.
- The Great Hong Kong
Typhoon of 1937 - killed 11,000
- Typhoon Cobra (Typhoon of
1944), 17-18 December, three US destroyers lost
- 1945 Makurazaki Typhoon - killing at least 3,756, another 2,452
are injured, with 116,491 houses are lost.
- Typhoon of July 1949 - killed 1,600 in Shanghai, making it the deadliest typhoon in
the city's history.
Most active West Pacific seasons
The following are the most active Western Pacific seasons,
according to the Joint
Typhoon Warning Center
best track. Only seasons with at least
30 storms are included.
Northern Indian Ocean
This region has had some of the world's deadliest cyclones, but
there is a shortage of organized information about them. Only
cyclones which caused fatalities over 3000 people have been
Cyclone killed around 200,000 people.
Calcutta cyclone, caused death and destruction around Calcutta, India.
Indian Cyclone, killed 20,000 in Coringa, India.
Indian Cyclone - caused a massive storm surge hit Coringa,
India on November 25 killed
1864 Calcutta Cyclone, killed around 60,000 people in
- 1876 Great Backerganj
Cyclone hit the Meghna
River Delta area of
India, the storm surge killed 100,000, and the disease after the
storm killed another 100,000.
Great Bombay Cyclone killed around 200,000 people in Bombay,India.
Chittagong cyclone killed around 175,000 in Chittagong,Bangladesh.
Bengal Cyclone hit near the India/Bangladesh border, resulting in around 40,000
1960 East Pakistan I Cyclone 6,000 deaths can be attributed to
a cyclone that hit the eastern portion of Pakistan what was known then as East Bengal state on October 10
1963 East Pakistan II Cyclone on May 23, a cyclone hit
present-day Bangladesh (then known as East Pakistan province),
causing 22,000 fatalities due to storm surge and flooding.
1965 Pakistani Bengali Cyclones Two cyclones that hit on May 11
and June 1 killed a total of 47,000 people.
1965 Pakistani Cyclone hit near Karachi, Pakistan on December 15, causing about 10,000
- 1970 Bhola
cyclone, killed between 300,000 to 500,000 people in
East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).
Orissa Cyclone killed around 10,000 people in Cuttack, India.
1977 Andhra Pradesh Cyclone, killed 10,000 people in
1985 Cyclone 01B on May 25. Bangladesh, Meghna River
Delta a cyclone created a surge 15-to 20-foot high
killing around 6,000 - 10,000 people.
1988 Cyclone 04B on November 26 the cyclone hit the Sundarbans part of Bangladesh. Heavy storm surge killed
2000 people (with 6000 missing). In addition, the storm
caused 1000 fatalities in Malaysia, Thailand, and western
Bangladesh cyclone, killed 138,000 people in the Chittagong region of Bangladesh.
- 1999 Orissa
cyclone, killed around 10,000 people in the Orissa state of
- 2007: Cyclone Sidr, struck
Bangladesh on 15 November, has killed at
least 3,500 people.
Cyclone Nargis, struck the Irrawaddy Delta in Burma killing
over 145,000 people and devastating the country's former
capital and largest city, Rangoon, making it Burma's deadliest natural disaster in history, the
costliest North Indian cyclone on record, and the second deadliest
North Indian cyclone in recorded history.
Most active seasons
||Tropical Cyclones (>64kt)
Australian tropical cyclones
SeeSee also Australian Bureau of Meteorology - Severe Weather
- Cyclone Mahina, March 4, 1899 -
410 people died.
- 1918 Mackay cyclone, 1918 -
30 dead, extensive damage.
1949 Rockhampton cyclone, 1949 - 6 dead, 1,000 houses damaged
and 500 totally wrecked.
Cyclone Ada, 1970 - struck Whitsunday Island resorts and Whitsunday
coast mainland. 14 people died and cost approximately
Cyclone Althea, 1971 - struck Magnetic Island and Townsville, Queensland on Christmas
Cyclone Wanda, 1974 - caused extensive flooding in
south-eastern Queensland and north-eastern New South Wales
- Cyclone Tracy,
1974 - 71 people died when the city of Darwin, Northern Territory, was devastated on Christmas Day. It was the costliest
Australian cyclone on record; the smallest cyclone on record in
terms of size & wind field.
Cyclone Alby, 1978 - 5 people died in south-western parts
Australia. Albany recorded one of the strongest wind gusts on
- Cyclone Bobby,
1995 - 7 people died on two fishing trawlers sunk off the
coast of Onslow; the cyclone then became a depression which caused
heavy rain and flooding in inland WA, washing out the Eyre Highway and the Trans-Australian Railway for
- Cyclone Justin, 1997 -
7 people died and damage came to approximately
190 million AUD.
Thelma, 1998 - intense Category 5 system that hit the
Kimberley region of Western Australia causing extensive damage and flooding near Darwin.
- Cyclone Vance,
1999 - Category 5 system that caused extensive damage to the
Australian towns of Exmouth and Onslow.
- Cyclone Steve,
2000 - A long-lived Category 2 storm, causing flooding in
Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia.
Rosita, 2000 - Category 5, made a destructive landfall
- Cyclone Ingrid, 2005 -
Category 5 cyclone which took a long track over Northern
- Cyclone Larry,
2006 - Category 4 which crossed the Queensland coast at
Innisfail, causing $1 billion in damage.
Glenda, 2006 - Category 5 which crossed the West
Australian coast as Category 3 near Onslow
- Cyclone Monica, 2006 -
Category 5; strongest cyclone ever recorded in the Southern
Hemisphere (in terms of wind speed). Arguably the world's strongest
cyclone, based on a Dvorak estimation, which suggested central
pressure reached a low of 869 hPa. The official JTWC pressure was 879hPa.
- Cyclone George, 2007 -
Category 5 which struck east of Port Hedland causing 3
- Cyclone Guba,
2007 - Category 1 cyclone (SSHS) which
struck Papua New
Guinea causing over 170 fatalities.
Most intense storms on record
This list includes Western Pacific storms with pressures of less
than 885 mb and Atlantic, Eastern Pacific and South Pacific storms
with pressure of less than 915 mb. Additional Western Pacific
storms with pressures between 885 and 915 mb have been recorded,
but these storms are neither exceptional for that basin nor all
reliably measured. As for Indian Ocean storms, pressure readings
are too scarce or too inaccurate to make a list reliable.
As a result of the omissions of many Western Pacific storms, many
storms near the bottom of the list are not numerically
- *Minimum central pressure of these storms was estimated based
on satellite data rather than directly measured.
- **Official estimate. JTWC estimated 879 mbar.
- ***Official estimate. JTWC estimated 879 mbar and
unofficial estimates were 869 mbar (which would make it the
most intense recorded tropical cyclone).
- ****Official estimate. JTWC estimated 898 mbar.
The relative sizes of Typhoon Tip, Tropical Cyclone Tracy, and the
- Typhoon Tip is the largest tropical
cyclone on record at 1350 miles (2170 km) wide, October
- Tropical Storm Marco
is the smallest significant tropical cyclone on record at
10 miles (20 km) wide, October (2008)
These sizes indicate the distance from the center at which
gale-force winds could be found.
Highest storm surge
The three powerful hurricanes listed below caused very high storm
surge. Hurricane Katrina
highest recorded storm surge of any Atlantic hurricane and Hurricane Camille
had the second-highest.
Worldwide storm surge data is sparse. Cyclone Mahina
is generally regarded as
having had the highest storm surge ever recorded, although
measurements from before modern times must be viewed with some
is enhanced by high winds
and greater storm size. The shape of the coastline and the contour
of the bottom near the coast are also significant factors.
Hurricane Katrina was the largest Category 5 hurricane
recorded in the Atlantic, and Hurricane Camille tied for the
highest recorded windspeed; both struck an area vulnerable to high
storm surge because of the shallow coastal waters.
For unusual landfalls
Atlantic basin, see List of
notable Atlantic hurricanes
- October, 1948 - Tropical Cyclone struck
Salalah in Oman.
- May, 1959 - Tropical Cyclone struck Salalah in Oman
- June, 1977 - Tropical Storm struck Oman
- 1983 - Tropical Storm Aurora struck Oman.
- May, 1984 - Tropical Storm 01-A transited the Gulf of Aden and
made landfall in northwest Somalia, the first tropical cyclone on
record to do so.
- October, 1992 - Tropical Storm 06-A struck Oman.
- June, 1996 - Tropical Storm 02-A struck Oman.
- May, 2002 - Tropical Storm struck Salalah in Oman.
- June, 2007 - Cyclone Gonu struck
parts of Oman, causing catastrophic damage.
October, 2008 - Cyclone 03B struck southeast of Yemen, killing 184
- April, 1968 - Cyclone Giselle struck New Zealand causing the
March, 1988 - Cyclone Bola killed
3 people in New
Zealand receiving up to 1m of rain causing vast numbers of
slips on the eastern side of the country.
- A tropical storm struck Somalia,
- A late season cyclone slammed Somalia.
- 1994 - Somalia was hit by a tropical storm that brought winds
and heavy rains.
- A weak November storm made landfall in Eastern Somalia.
- 2005 - Hurricane Vince Made
landfall in southwestern Spain as a tropical depression. Vince is
the only recorded tropical system to make landfall on Spain.
Southern Western Australia
- A cyclone made a close track along the whole Western
Australian coast, and made a near landfall near Perth.
Cyclone Alby made a close encounter to the south-west of
Australia as a strong extratropical system in the vicinity of
Perth and Albany, causing extensive damage and five deaths.
Albany recorded one of its highest wind gusts on record from
Cyclone Ned passed almost directly over Perth.
This list contains tropical
that formed or moved to an extraordinary latitude. It
can be extreme north (or south) latitude, or very equatorial
- 1966 - Hurricane Faith reached
an unprecedented northerly latitude of 62.5 degrees, just
north of the Faroe Islands in the Norwegian Sea. Faith degenerated
over Scandinavia, and the remnant low pressure area eventually
reached Franz Josef
Land, only from the North Pole.
- 1975 - A central Pacific
unnamed hurricane formed at a record north latitude for the
Central and East Pacific (tropical storm at 32N and hurricane at
- 2000 - Hurricane
Alberto persisted north while tropical until a latitude of
- 2001 - Typhoon Vamei formed
from the equator, the closest recorded formation location of a
storm of hurricane strength.
- 2004 - Cyclone Agni reached a
location of only from the equator, the closest to the equator any
tropical cyclone has been recorded to have reached. However, Vamei
retained the record for the most equatorial formation as Agni
formed farther from the equator than Vamei and moved towards
Year-crossing Northern Hemisphere storms
This is a
list of Northern
Hemisphere storms that have crossed two calendar years.
Hemisphere cyclone season runs across the New Year, Southern Hemisphere storms that
cross calendar years are not unusual, so they are not included
|Tropical Storm Zeta
||December 30, 2005-January 6, 2006
||December 26, 2001-January 1, 2002
||December 29, 2000-January 4, 2001
||December 20, 1977-January 3, 1978
||December 24, 1959-January 2, 1960
||December 30, 1954-January 6, 1955
||December 27, 1952-January 4, 1953
Different storms with same name in same year
- 1954 - There were two Hurricane Alices in 1954. One formed in
June and struck Mexico. The other one formed on December 30 and lasted though January,1955. They
were thought to have been in two separate years, but post-storm
analysis showed the second was to have formed in December 1954, so
they were both named Alice.
- 1970 - There were two tropical storms named Ione, one of which
hit the Mexican coastline with winds.
- 1986 - There were two storms named Vera. One was a typhoon
while another was a weak tropical storm. Operationally, Vera was
treated as one storm until post storm analysis found that it was
actually two separate storms.
- 1997 - In north Pacific, two storms were named Linda, one
typhoon and one hurricane
- 2003 - In the Southern Hemisphere, two storms were named Beni,
one in the South Pacific in February, one in the South Indian in
- BBC NEWS | Asia-Pacific | Japan typhoon Man-yi
- Monthly Weather Review. Particulars About the Typhoon From July 31-August
3, 1922. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
- Queensland Government State Disaster Management Group History - Australia's worst cyclone disasters.
Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
- Weather Watchers. Hurricane Mitch. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
- NOAA  Retrieved 2007-12-18
- JetStream. Tropical Cyclone Structure. Retrieved on
- National Hurricane Center. Hurricane Katrina. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
- Unisys. Soulik Track (2000). Retrieved on
- Unisys. Soulik Track (2001). Retrieved on
- Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Typhoon Mary. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
- Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Typhoon Harriet. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.