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Lithuania ( ; ), officially the Republic of Lithuania ( ) is a country in Northern Europe, the southernmost of the three Baltic states. Situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Seamarker, it shares borders with Latviamarker to the north, Belarusmarker to the southeast, Polandmarker, and the Russianmarker exclave of Kaliningradmarker to the southwest. Lithuania is a member of NATOmarker, the Council of Europe, and the European Union. Lithuania became a full member of the Schengen Agreement on 21 December 2007. Its population is 3.6 million. Its capital and the largest city is Vilniusmarker. In 2009, Vilnius is the European Capital of Culture and Lithuania celebrates the millennium of its name.

During the 14th century, Lithuania was the largest country in Europe: present-day Belarusmarker, Ukrainemarker, and parts of Polandmarker and Russiamarker were territories of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. With the Lublin Union of 1569 Polandmarker and Lithuania formed a new state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighboring countries systematically dismantled it from 1772 to 1795, with the Russian Empiremarker annexing most of Lithuania's territory. In the aftermath of World War I, Lithuania's Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, declaring the re-establishment of a sovereign state. Starting in 1940, Lithuania was occupied first by the Soviet Unionmarker then Nazi Germany. As World War II neared its end in 1944 and the Nazis retreated, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first Soviet republic to declare its renewed independence. Prior to the global financial crisis of 2008–2009, post-Soviet Lithuania had one of the fastest growing economies in the European Union.


The first people settled in the territory of Lithuania after the last glacial period in the 10th millennium BC. Over a millennium the Proto-Indo-Europeans, who arrived in the 3rd – 2nd millennium BC, mixed with local population and formed various Baltic tribes. The first written mention of Lithuania is found in a medieval German manuscript, the Quedlinburg Chronicle, on 14 February 1009. Initially inhabited by fragmented Baltic tribes, in 1230s the Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas, who was crowned as King of Lithuania on 6 July 1253. After his assassination in 1263, pagan Lithuania was a target of Christian crusades of the Teutonic Knights and Livonian Order. Despite devastating century-long struggle with the Orders, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania expanded rapidly overtaking former Slavic principalities of Kievan Rus'. By the end of the 14th century, Lithuania was the largest country in Europe and included present-day Belarusmarker, Ukrainemarker, and parts of Polandmarker and Russiamarker. Geopolitical situation between the west and the east determined multi-cultural and multi-confessional character the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Lithuanian ruling elite practiced religious tolerance and borrowed Slavic state traditions, such as using Chancery Slavonic language for official documents.

In 1385, Grand Duke Jogaila accepted Poland's offer to become its king. He converted Lithuania into Christianity and established a personal union between Poland and Lithuania. After two civil wars Vytautas the Great became the Grand Duke of Lithuania in 1392. During his reign Lithuania reached peak of its territorial expansion, centralization of the state was begun, and Lithuanian nobility became increasingly prominent in state politics. Thanks to close cooperation, the armies of Poland and Lithuania achieved a great victory over the Teutonic Knights in 1410 at the Battle of Grunwaldmarker, one of the largest battles of medieval Europe.

After deaths of Jogaila and Vytautas, Lithuanian nobility attempted to break the union between Poland and Lithuania independently selecting Grand Dukes from the Jagiellon dynasty. However, Lithuania was forced to seek closer alliance with Poland when at the end of the 15th century growing power of the Grand Duchy of Moscow threatened Lithuania's Russian principalities and sparked the Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars and the Livonian War. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was created in 1569. As a member of the Commonwealth, Lithuania retained its institutions, including a separate army, currency and statutory laws. However, eventually Polonization affected all aspects of Lithuanian life: politics, language, culture, even national identity. From mid-16th to mid-17th centuries culture, arts, and education flourished, fueled by Renaissance and Protestant Reformation. From 1573, Kings of Poland and Grand Dukes of Lithuania were elected by the nobility, who were granted ever increasing Golden Liberties. These liberties, especially liberum veto, led to anarchy and eventual dissolution of the state.

During the Northern Wars (1655–1661), the Lithuanian territory and economy and was devastated by the Swedish army. Before it could fully recover, Lithuania was again ravaged during the Great Northern War (1700–1721). The war, plague, and famine resulted in loss of approximately 40% of the country's inhabitants. Foreign powers, especially Russia, became dominant players in domestic politics of the Commonwealth. Numerous nobility fraction used the Golden Liberties to prevent any reforms. Eventually, the Commonwealth was partitioned in 1772, 1792 and 1795 by the Russian Empiremarker, Prussia, and Habsburg Austria. Majority of the Lithuanian territory became part of Russia. After unsuccessful uprisings in 1831 and 1863, the Tsarist authorities implemented a number of Russification policies, including the ban on Lithuanian press and close-down of cultural or educational institutions. Between 1868 and 1914, approximately 635,000 people, almost 20% of the population, left Lithuania. Large numbers of Lithuanians first came to the United States in 1867-1868 after a famine in Lithuania. Nevertheless, the Lithuanian National Revival laid the foundations of the modern Lithuanian nation and independent Lithuania.

During World War I, the Council of Lithuania declared independence of Lithuania on 16 February 1918. Lithuania's foreign policy was dominated by territorial disputes with Poland and Germany. Vilnius Region, including Vilnius, the designated capital in the Constitution of Lithuania, was taken over by Polish forces during the Żeligowski's Mutiny in October 1920 and remained under Polish control until the outbreak of World War II. Acquired during the Klaipėda Revolt of 1923, the Klaipėda Region was ceded back to Germany after a German ultimatum in March 1939. The domestic affairs were controlled by authoritarian Antanas Smetona and his Lithuanian National Union, who came to power after the coup d'état of 1926.

Map showing changes in the territory of Lithuania from the 13th century to the present day.
In June 1940, the Soviet Union occupied and annexed Lithuania in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. A year later Russia was attacked by Nazi Germany leading to Nazi occupation of Lithuania. The Nazis and their Lithuanian collaborators murdered around 190,000 Lithuanian Jews (91% of the pre-war Jewish community) during the Holocaust. After the retreat of the German armed forces, the Soviets re-established the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1944. From 1944 to 1952 approximately 100,000 Lithuanian partisans fought a guerrilla war against the Soviet system. An estimated 30,000 partisans and their supporters were killed and many more were arrested and deported to Siberianmarker GULAGs. Population losses of Lithuania during World War II are estimated at 780,000.

The advent of perestroika and glasnost in the late 1980s allowed establishment of Sąjūdis, an anti-communist independence movement. After a landslide victory in elections to the Supreme Soviet, members of Sąjūdis proclaimed Lithuania's renewed independence on 11 March 1990 becoming the first Soviet republic to do so. The Soviet Union imposed economic blockade attempting to suppress this secession. The Soviet troops attacked the Vilnius TV Towermarker and killed 13 Lithuanian civilians on the night of 13 January 1991. On 4 February 1991, Iceland became the first country to recognize Lithuanian independence. After the Soviet August Coup, independent Lithuania received wide recognition and joined the United Nations on 17 September 1991. The last Soviet troops left Lithuania on 31 August 1993 – even earlier than they departed from East Germanymarker. Lithuania, seeking closer ties with the West, applied for NATOmarker membership in 1994. After a difficult transition from planned economy to the free market, Lithuania became a full member of NATO and the European Union in spring 2004.


Constitutional system

Since Lithuania declared independence on 11 March 1990, it has maintained strong democratic traditions. In the first general elections after the independence on 25 October 1992, 56.75% of the total number of voters supported the new constitution. There were intense debates concerning the constitution, especially the role of the president. A separate referendum was held on 23 May 1992 to gauge public opinion on the matter and 41% of all the eligible voters supported the restoration of the President of Lithuania. Eventually a semi-presidential system was agreed upon.

The Lithuanian head of state is the President, elected directly for a five-year term, serving a maximum of two consecutive terms. The post of president is largely ceremonial; main policy functions however include foreign affairs and national security policy. The president is also the military commander-in-chief. The President, with the approval of the parliamentary body, the Seimas, also appoints the Prime Minister and, on the latter's nomination, the rest of the cabinet, as well as a number of other top civil servants and the judges for all courts. The judges of the Constitutional Courtmarker (Konstitucinis Teismas), who serve nine-year terms, are appointed by the President (three judges), the Chairman of the Seimas (three judges) and the Chairman of the Supreme Court (three judges). The unicameral Lithuanian parliament, the Seimas, has 141 members who are elected to four-year terms. 71 of the members of this legislative body are elected in single constituencies, and the other 70 are elected in a nationwide vote by proportional representation. A party must receive at least 5% of the national vote to be represented in the Seimas.

Administrative division

The current administrative division was established in 1994 and modified in 2000 to meet the requirements of the European Union. Lithuania has a three-tier administrative division: the country is divided into 10 counties (Lithuanian: singular – apskritis, plural – apskritys) that are further subdivided into 60 municipalities (Lithuanian: singular – savivaldybė, plural – savivaldybės) which consist of over 500 elderships (Lithuanian: singular – seniūnija, plural – seniūnijos).

The counties are ruled by county governors (Lithuanian: apskrities viršininkas) appointed by the central government. They ensure that the municipalities adhere to the laws of Lithuania and the constitution. County government oversees local governments and their implementation of the national laws, programs and policies. As the counties have limited functions, there are numerous proposals to reduce their number and organize the new counties around the ethnographic regions of Lithuania or five major cities with population over 100,000.

Municipalities are the most important administrative unit. Some municipalities are historically called "district municipalities", and thus are often shortened to "district"; others are called "city municipalities", sometimes shortened to "city". Each municipality has its own elected government. In the past, the election of municipality councils occurred once every three years, but it now takes place every four years. The council elects the mayor and appoints elders to govern the elderships. There is currently a proposal for direct election of mayors and elders, however that would require an amendment to the constitution.

Elderships, numbering over 500, are the smallest units and they do not play a role in national politics. They provide necessary public services close to their homes; for example, in rural areas the elderships register births and deaths. They are most active in the social sector: they identify needy individuals or families and distribute welfare or organise other forms of relief. While the elderships have a potential of becoming source of local initiative to tackle rural problems, complains are made that elderships have no real power and receive too little attention.


Physical features

Physical map of Lithuania
Lithuania is situated in Northern Europe. It has around of sandy coastline, of which only about face the open Baltic Seamarker and which is the shortest among the Baltic Sea countries; the rest of the coast is sheltered by the Curonian sand peninsulamarker. Lithuania's major warm-water port, Klaipėdamarker, lies at the narrow mouth of the Curonian Lagoonmarker (Lithuanian: Kuršių marios), a shallow lagoon extending south to Kaliningradmarker. The main river, the Neman Rivermarker, and some of its tributaries carry international shipping vessels.

The Lithuanian landscape has been smoothed by glaciers. The highest areas are the moraines in the western uplands and eastern highlands, with the maximum elevation being Aukštojas Hillmarker at . The terrain features numerous lakes, Lake Vištytismarker for example, and wetlands; a mixed forest zone covers nearly 33% of the country. The climate lies between maritime and continental, with wet, moderate winters and summers. According to one geographical computation method, Lithuania's capital, Vilniusmarker, lies only a few kilometres south of the geographical centre of Europe.

Phytogeographically, Lithuania is shared between the Central European and Eastern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the territory of Lithuania can be subdivided into two ecoregions: the Central European mixed forests and Sarmatic mixed forests.


Lithuania's climate, which ranges between maritime and continental, is relatively mild. Average temperatures on the coast are -2.5 °C in January and 16 °C in July. In Vilnius the average temperatures are -6 °C in January and 16 °C in July. Simply speaking, 20 °C is frequent on summer days and 14 °C at night although temperatures can reach 30 or 35 °C. Some winters can be very cold. -20 °C occurs almost every winter. Winter extremes are -34 °C in coastal areas and -43 °C in the east of Lithuania. The average annual precipitation is 800 millimeters on the coast, 900 mm in the Samogitia highlands and 600 millimeters in the eastern part of the country. Snow occurs every year, it can snow from October to April. In some years sleet can fall in September or May. The growing season lasts 202 days in the western part of the country and 169 days in the eastern part. Severe storms are rare in the eastern part of Lithuania but common in the coastal areas.

The longest measured temperature records from the Baltic area cover about 250 years. The data show that there were warm periods during the latter half of the 18th century, and that the 19th century was a relatively cool period. An early 20th century warming culminated in the 1930s, followed by a smaller cooling that lasted until the 1960s. A warming trend has persisted since then.

Lithuania experienced a drought in 2002, causing forest and peat bog fires. The country suffered along with the rest of Northwestern Europe during a heat wave in the summer of 2006.

Reported extreme temperatures in Lithuania by month are following:

Extreme temperatures in Lithuania (°C)
Highest Temperatures
Lowest Temperatures


In 2003, before joining the European Union, Lithuania had the highest economic growth rate amongst all candidate and member countries, reaching 8.8% in the third quarter. In 2004 – 7.4%; 2005 – 7.8%; 2006 – 7.8%; 2007 – 8.9%, 2008 Q1 — 7.0% growth in GDP reflects the impressive economic development. Most of the trade Lithuania conducts is within the European Union.

By UN classification, Lithuania is a country with high average income. The country boasts a well developed modern infrastructure of railways, airports and four-lane highways. As of October 2008, the unemployment rate is 4.7%. According to officially published figures, EU membership fueled a booming economy, increased outsourcing into the country, and boosted the tourism sector. The litas, the national currency, has been pegged to the euro since 2 February 2002 at the rate of EUR 1.00 = LTL 3.4528, and Lithuania is expecting to switch to the euro on 1 January 2013. There is gradual but consistent shift towards a knowledge-based economy with special emphasis on biotechnology (industrial and diagnostic) – major biotechnology producers in the Baltic countries are concentrated in Lithuania – as well as laser equipment. Also mechatronics and information technology (IT) are seen as prospective knowledge-based economy directions in Lithuania.

Lithuania has a flat tax rate rather than a progressive scheme. Lithuanian income levels are lower than in the older EU Member States. According to Eurostat data, Lithuanian PPS GDP per capita stood at 61 per cent of the EU average in 2008. Lower wages have been a factor that in 2004 fueled emigration to wealthier EU countries, something that has been made legally possible as a result of accession to the European Union. In 2006, personal income tax was reduced to 27% and a reduction to 24% was made in October 2007. Income tax reduction and 19.1% annual wage growth is starting to make an impact with some emigrants gradually beginning to come back. The latest official data show emigration in early 2006 to be 30% lower than the previous year, with 3,483 people leaving in four months.

Corporate tax rate in Lithuania is 20%. The government offers special incentives for investments into the high-technology sectors and high value-added products.

Lithuania has the highest rating of Baltic states in the Economist Intelligence Unit’s quality of life index.


According to Invest in Lithuania, Lithuania has twice as many people with higher education than the EU-15 average and the proportion is the highest in the Baltic. Also, 90% of Lithuanians speak at least one foreign language and half of the population speaks two foreign languages, mostly Russian, English, and Polish.

Vilnius Universitymarker is one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe and the largest university in Lithuania. Kaunas University of Technologymarker is the largest technical university in the Baltic States and the second largest university in Lithuania. Other universities include Kaunas University of Medicinemarker, Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatremarker,Vilnius Pedagogical Universitymarker, Vytautas Magnus Universitymarker, Mykolas Romeris Universitymarker, Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, The General Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, Klaipėda University, Lithuanian Veterinary Academy, Lithuanian University of Agroculture, Siauliai University and Vilnius Academy of Arts.


Major highways in Lithuania

  • Ignalina Nuclear Power Plantmarker is a Soviet-era nuclear station.
    • Unit #1 was closed in December 2004, as a condition of Lithuania's entry into the European Union; the plant is similar to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plantmarker in its lack of a robust containment structure. The remaining unit, as of 2006, supplied about 70% of Lithuania's electrical demand.
    • Unit #2 is tentatively scheduled for closure in 2009. Proposals have been made to construct another nuclear power plant in Lithuania.

According to the study carried out by, Lithuania has the fastest internet upload speed in the world and is fourth by download speed.


Ethnic composition

The population of Lithuania stands at 3.3662 million, 84.6% of whom are ethnic Lithuanians who speak Lithuanian which is the official language of the country. Several sizable minorities exist, such as Poles (6.3%), Russians (5.1%), and Tatars (1.1%).

Poles are the largest minority, concentrated in southeast Lithuania (the Vilnius region). Russians are the second largest minority, concentrated mostly in two cities. They constitute sizeable minorities in Vilniusmarker (14%) and Klaipėdamarker (28%), and a majority in the town of Visaginasmarker (52%). About 3,000 Roma live in Lithuania, mostly in Vilnius, Kaunasmarker, and Panevėžys; their organizations are supported by the National Minority and Emigration Department.

According to the Lithuanian population census of 2001, about 84% of the country's population speak Lithuanian as their native language, 8.2% are the native speakers of Russian, 5.8% – of Polish. More than 60% are fluent in Russian, while only about 16% say they can speak English. According to the Eurobarometer survey conducted in 2005, 80% of Lithuanians can speak Russian and 32% can speak English. Most Lithuanian schools teach English as a first foreign language, but students may also study German, or, in some schools, French or Russian. Schools where Russian and Polish are the primary languages of education exist in the areas populated by these minorities.

Largest cities

2008 data
City Region Population Density* (/km²) Area (km²)
Vilniusmarker East 401
Kaunasmarker Middle 157
Klaipėdamarker West 98
Šiauliaimarker North 81
Panevėžysmarker North 52
Alytusmarker South 40
Marijampolėmarker South 21
Mažeikiaimarker North 14
Jonavamarker Middle n/d
Utenamarker East 15,1
Kėdainiaimarker Middle 44

Health and welfare

As of 2007 Lithuanian life expectancy at birth was 65 years for males and 77 for females – the largest gender difference and the lowest male life expectancy in the European Union. As of 2008 The infant mortality rate was 5.9 per 1,000 births. The annual population growth rate increased by 0.3% in 2007. Less than 2% of the population live beneath the poverty line, and the adult literacy rate is 99.6%. At 38.6 people per 100,000, Lithuania has seen a dramatic rise in suicides in recent years, and now records the highest suicide rate in the world. Lithuania also has the highest homicide rate in the EU.


Both male and female same-sex sexual activity is legal in Lithuania, but households headed by same-sex couples are not eligible for the same legal protections available to opposite-sex married couples.

Age structure

According to 2009 estimates, the age structure of the population was as follows: 0–14 years, 14.2% (male 258,423/female 245,115); 15–64 years: 69.6% (male 1,214,743/female 1,261,413); 65 years and over: 16.2% (male 198,714/female 376,771). The median age was 39.3 years (male: 36.8, female: 41.9).


In 2005, 79% of Lithuanians belonged to the Roman Catholic Church. The Church has been the majority denomination since the Christianisation of Lithuania in the end of fourteenth century and beginning of fifteenth century. Some priests actively led the resistance against the Communist regime (symbolised by the Hill of Crossesmarker).

In the 16th century, Protestantism started to spread from Western Europe. A united reformed church organization in Lithuania's church province can be counted from the year 1557 at the Synod in Vilnius on December 14 of that year. From that year the Synod met regularly forming all the church provinces of The Grand Duchy of Lithuania, at first from two and later growing to six districts and representative district synods. The abbreviated name for the church is in Latin, Unitas Lithuaniae or in Polish, Jednota Litewska (Lithuanian church provincial union). It sent its representatives to the General Polish/Lithuanian Synods; however in its administration it was in fact a self-governing Church. The first Superintendent was Simonas Zacijus (Szymon Zacjusz, approx 1507–1591). In 1565 the anti- Trinitarian Lithuanian Brotherhood who rejected the learning of the Trinity separated from UL. The UL parish network covered nearly all of The Grand Duchy. Its district centers were Vilnius, Kedainai, Biržai, Slucke, Kojdanove and Zabludove later Izabeline.

In the first half of 20th century, the Lutheran Protestant church had around 200,000 members, 9% of total population, although Lutheranism has declined since 1945. Small Protestant communities are dispersed throughout the northern and western parts of the country. Believers and clergy suffered greatly during the Soviet occupation, with many killed, tortured or deported to Siberia. Various Protestant churches have established missions in Lithuania since 1990. 4.9% are Eastern Orthodox (mainly among the Russian minority), 1.9% are Protestant and 9.5% have no religion.

Lithuania was historically home to a large and influential Jewish community that was almost entirely eliminated during the Holocaust. The first noticeable presence of Islam in Lithuania began in the 14th century. From this time it was primarily associated with the Lipka Tatars (also known as Lithuanian Tatars), many of whom settled in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth while continuing their traditions and religious beliefs.

According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005, 12% said that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force" , 36% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 49% of Lithuanian citizens responded that "they believe there is a God".


Culturally Lithuania (and some of neighboring territory) is divided into the following regions:

Art and Museums

The Lithuanian Art Museummarker was founded in 1933 and is the largest museum of art conservation and display in Lithuania. Among other important museums is the Palanga Amber Museummarker, where amber pieces comprise a major part of the collection.

Perhaps the most renowned figure in Lithuania's art community was the composer Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis (1875–1911), an internationally renowned musician. The 2420 Čiurlionis asteroid, identified in 1975, honors his achievements. The M.marker K.marker Čiurlionis National Art Museummarker is located in Kaunas.

A future museum, Vilnius Guggenheim Hermitage Museummarker, will present exhibitions of new media art, parts of the New York Citymarker anthology film archive, and Fluxus art. The museum is scheduled to open in 2011.


A wealth of Lithuanian literature was written in Latin, the main scholarly language in the Middle Ages. One of the first instances of such, was the edicts of Lithuanian King Mindaugas. Letters of Gediminas is another important monument of Lithuanian Latin writings.

Lithuanian literary works in the Lithuanian language were first published in the 16th century. In 1547 Martynas Mažvydas compiled and published the first printed Lithuanian book The Simple Words of Catechism, which marks the beginning of printed Lithuanian literature. He was followed by Mikalojus Daukša in Lithuania Propria with his Katechizmas. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Lithuanian literature was primarily religious. Development of the old Lithuanian literature (14th–18th centuries) ends with Kristijonas Donelaitis, one of the most prominent authors of the Age of Enlightenment. Donelaitis poem "The Seasons" is a national epos and is a cornerstone of Lithuanian fiction literature.

Lithuanian literature of the first half of the 19th century with its mix of Classicism, Sentimentalism, and Romanticism features is represented by Antanas Strazdas, Dionizas Poška, Silvestras Valiūnas, Maironis, Simonas Stanevičius, Simonas Daukantas, and Antanas Baranauskas. During Tsarist annexation of Lithuania, Lithuanian press ban was implemented, which lead to a formation of the Knygnešiai (Book smugglers) movement.

20th century Lithuanian literature is represented by Juozas Tumas-Vaižgantas, Antanas Vienuolis, Bernardas Brazdžionis, Vytautas Mačernis and others.


Lithuanian musical tradition traces its history to pagan times, connected with neolithic corded ware culture. Lithuanian folk music is archaic, evolved for ritual purposes.


Among all the sports personalities of Lithuania, the most popular individual known to the Western world is basketball player Žydrūnas Ilgauskas who plays as center for the Cleveland Cavaliers of the NBA. Another popular individual is professional ice hockey player Darius Kasparaitis who played for the New York Islanders, Pittsburgh Penguins, Colorado Avalanche, and New York Rangers of the NHL. Also Arvydas Sabonis, played in the NBA for a long time. Ignatas Konovalovas is a 23 year old professional cyclist with, in 2009, the Cervelo Test Team; he also has ridden for the French Credit Agricole team. Konovalovas won the final stage of the 2009 Giro d'Italia. Also, professional mixed martial artist Marius Žaromskis is from Lithuania.

See also

Notes and references

  1. Tomas Baranauskas. Lietuvos karalystei – 750. 2001.
  2. Paul Magocsi. History of the Ukraine. University of Toronto Press, 1996. p.128
  3. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: .v. 17, 1998 p.545
  4. R. Fawn Ideology and National Identity in Post-communist Foreign Policies. p. 186]
  5. Stone, Daniel. The Polish-Lithuanian state: 1386–1795. University of Washington Press, 2001. p. 63
  6. " The Roads to Independence". Lithuania in the World.
  7. I. Žiemele. Baltic Yearbook of International Law, 2001. 2002, Vol.1 p.10
  8. K. Dawisha, B. Parrott. The Consolidation of Democracy in East-Central Europe. 1997 p. 293.
  9. Lithuania: Back to the Future. Retrieved 2009-02-11.
  10. US Department of State Bureau of Public Affairs, August 2006
  11. BBC Story
  12. Nuo 1991 m. iki šiol paskelbtų referendumų rezultatai, Microsoft Word Document, Seimas. Retrieved 4 June 2006.
  13. Lina Kulikauskienė, Lietuvos Respublikos Konstitucija (Constitution of Lithuania), Native History, CD, 2002. ISBN 9986-9216-7-8
  14. Lietuvos Respublikos apskrities valdymo įstatymas (Republic of Lithuania Law on County Governing), Seimas law database, 15 December 1994, Law no. I-707. Retrieved 3 June 2006.
  15. Dr. Žilvytis Bernardas Šaknys Lietuvos Respublikos administracinio teritorinio suskirstymo perspektyvos: etnografiniai kultūriniai regionai, The Council for the Protection of Ethnic Culture, Seimas, 12 December 2002. Retrieved 4 June 2006.
  16. Dr. Antanas Tyla, Pastabos dėl Apskričių valdymo reformos koncepcijos, The Council for the Protection of Ethnic Culture, Seimas, 16 May 2001. Retrieved 4 June 2006.
  17. Justinas Vanagas, Seimo prioritetai šią sesiją – tiesioginiai mero rinkimai, gyventojų nuosavybė ir euras,, 5 September 2005. Retrieved 3 June 2006.
  18. Lietuvos Respublikos vietos savivaldos įstatymo pakeitimo įstatymas, Seimas law database, 12 October 2000, Law no. VIII-2018. Retrieved 3 June 2006.
  19. Indrė Makaraitytė, Europos Sąjungos pinigai kaimo neišgelbės, Atgimimas,, 16 December 2004. Retrieved 4 June 2006.
  20. Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin - The BACC Project - 22-23 May 2006, Göteborg, Sweden
  21. Effects of 2002 drought in Lithuania
  22. Records of Lithuanian climate
  23. Department of Statistics to the Government of the Republic of Lithuania. National Accounts of Lithuania 2006, p. 20
  24. Lietuvos Bankas
  25. Lithuanian News
  26. Lithuanian News
  27. Invest in Lithuania
  28. Department of Statistics to the Government of the Republic of Lithuania. . Updated in 2007.
  29. Lithuanian Security and Foreign Policy.
  30. Statistics Lithuania.
  31. WHO statistical database.
  32. See List of countries by suicide rate.
  33. More people are killed in Lithuania than anywhere in the EU
  34. Department of Statistics to the Government of the Republic of Lithuania. . Updated in 2005.
  35. United Methodists evangelize in Lithuania with ads, brochures
  36. History of the Lithuanian Art Museum. Lithuanian Art Museum. Retrieved on 10 October 2008.
  37. Institute of Lithuanian Scientific Society. Lithuanian Classic Literature. Retrieved on 2009-02-16

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