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Liverpool ( ) is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, Englandmarker, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuarymarker. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880. Liverpool has a population of 435,500, and lies at the centre of the wider Liverpool Urban Areamarker, which has a population of 816,216.

Historically a part of Lancashiremarker, the urbanisation and expansion of Liverpool were largely brought about by the city's status as a major port. By the 18th century, trade from the West Indiesmarker, Ireland and mainland Europe coupled with close links with the Atlantic Slave Trade furthered the economic expansion of Liverpool. By the early 19th century, 40% of the world's trade passed through Liverpool's docks, contributing to Liverpool's rise as a major city.

Inhabitants of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians but are also known as "Scousers", in reference to the local dish known as "scouse", a form of stew. The word "Scouse" has also become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. Liverpool's status as a port city has contributed to its diverse population, which, historically, were drawn from a wide range of peoples, cultures, and religions, particularly those from Ireland.

The popularity of The Beatles and the other groups from the Merseybeat era contributes to Liverpool's status as a tourist destination; tourism forms a significant part of the city's modern economy. In 2007 the city celebrated its 800th anniversary, and in 2008 it held the European Capital of Culture title together with Stavangermarker, Norway.

In 2004, several areas throughout the city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCOmarker. Referred to as the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile Citymarker, the site comprises six separate locations in the city including the Pier Headmarker, Albert Dockmarker and William Brown Streetmarker and includes many of the city's most famous landmarks.

History

A map of Liverpool from 1947
King John's letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool, but by the middle of the 16th century the population was still only around 500. The original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough.The original seven streets were laid out in a H shape:
  • Bank Street (now Water Street)
  • Castle Street
  • Chapel Street
  • Dale Street
  • Juggler Street (now High Street)
  • Moor Street (now Tithebarn Street)
  • Whiteacre Street (now Old Hall Street)


In the 17th century there was slow progress in trade and population growth. Battles for the town were waged during the English Civil War, including an eighteen-day siege in 1644. In 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. As trade from the West Indiesmarker surpassed that of Ireland and Europe, and as the River Dee silted up, Liverpool began to grow. The first commercial wet dock was built in Liverpool in 1715. Substantial profits from the slave trade helped the town to prosper and rapidly grow. By the close of the century Liverpool controlled over 41% of Europe's and 80% of Britain's slave commerce.

By the start of the 19th century, 40% of the world's trade was passing through Liverpool and the construction of major buildings reflected this wealth. In 1830, Liverpool and Manchestermarker became the first cities to have an intercity rail link, through the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. The population continued to rise rapidly, especially during the 1840s when Irish migrants began arriving by the hundreds of thousands as a result of the Great Famine. By 1851, approximately 25% of the city's population was Irish-born. During the first part of the 20th century, Liverpool was drawing immigrants from across Europe.
The Housing Act 1919 resulted in mass council housing building across Liverpool during the 1920s and 1930s. Thousands of families were rehoused from the inner-city to new suburban housing estates, based on the pretext that this would improve their standard of living, though this is largely subjective. A large number of private homes were also built during this era. The process continued after the Second World War, with many more new housing estates being built in suburban areas, while some of the older inner city areas where also redeveloped for new homes.

During the Second World War there were 80 air-raids on Merseyside, killing 2,500 people and causing damage to almost half the homes in the metropolitan area. Significant rebuilding followed the war, including massive housing estates and the Seaforth Dockmarker, the largest dock project in Britain. Much of the immediate reconstruction of the city centre has been deeply unpopular, and was as flawed as much town planning renewal in the 1950s and 1960s - the portions of the city's heritage that survived German bombing could not withstand the efforts of urban renewal. Since 1952 Liverpool has been twinned with Cologne, Germany, a city which also experienced aerial bombing during the war.

In the 1960s Liverpool was the centre of the "Merseybeat" sound which became synonymous with The Beatles and fellow Liverpudlian rock bands.

From the mid-1970s onwards Liverpool's docks and traditional manufacturing industries went into sharp decline. The advent of containerization meant that the city's docks became largely obsolete. In the early 1980s unemployment rates in Liverpool were among the highest in the UK. In recent years, Liverpool's economy has recovered and has experienced growth rates higher than the national average since the mid-nineties.


Previously part of Lancashiremarker, and a county borough from 1889, Liverpool became in 1974 a metropolitan borough within the newly created metropolitan county of Merseyside.

At the end of the 20th century Liverpool was concentrating on regeneration, a process which still continues today.To celebrate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II in 2002, the conservation charity Plantlife organised a competition to choose county flowers; the sea-holly was Liverpool's final choice.

Capitalising on the popularity of 1960s rock groups, such as The Beatles, as well as the city's world-class art galleries, museums and landmarks, tourism has also become a significant factor in Liverpool's economy.

In 2004, property developer Grosvenor started the Paradise Projectmarker, a £920 m development centered on Paradise Street, which involved the most significant changes to Liverpool's city centre since the post-war reconstruction. Renamed 'Liverpool 1', the centre opened in May 2008.

In 2007 the city celebrated the 800th anniversary of the foundation of the borough of Liverpool, for which a number of events were planned. Liverpool is a joint European Capital of Culture for 2008. The main celebrations, in September 2008, included La Princesse, a large mechanical spider which is 20 metres high and weighs 37 tonnes, and represents the "eight legs" of Liverpool: honour, history, music, the Mersey, the ports, governance, sunshine and culture. La Princesse roamed the streets of the city during the festivities, and concluded by entering the Queensway Tunnelmarker.

Second city of Empire

Liverpool was described as such by Disraeli, the Prime Minister associated with the height of Britain's Imperial ambition. For periods during the 19th century the wealth of Liverpool exceeded that of London itself, and Liverpool's Custom House was the single largest contributor to the British Exchequer. Liverpool's status can be judged from the fact that it was the only British city ever to have its own Whitehall office.

The first United States consulmarker anywhere in the world, James Maury, was appointed to Liverpool in 1790, and remained in office for 39 years.

As early as 1851 the city was described as "the New York of Europe" and its buildings, constructed on a heroic, even megalomaniacal scale, stand witness to the supreme confidence and ambition of the city at the turn of the 20th century. Liverpool was also the site of the UK's first provincial airport, operating from 1930.

Elgar's Pomp and Circumstance March No.1, often seen as Britain's Imperial anthem, was dedicated by the composer to the Liverpool Orchestral Society and had its premiere in the city in October 1901.

During the Second World War, the critical strategic importance of Liverpool was recognised by both Hitler and Churchill, with the city suffering a blitz second only to London's, and the pivotal Battle of the Atlantic being planned, fought and won from Liverpool.

Inventions and innovations

Ferriesmarker, railways, transatlantic steamships, municipal trams, electric trains and the helicopter were all pioneered in Liverpool as modes of mass transit.

The first School for the Blind, High School for Girls, council house and Juvenile Court were all founded in Liverpool. The RSPCA, NSPCC, Age Concern, Relate, Citizen's Advice Bureau and Legal Aid all evolved from work in the city.

In the field of public health, the first lifeboat station, public baths and wash-houses, sanitary act, medical officer for health, district nurse, slum clearance, purpose-built ambulance, X-ray medical diagnosis, school of tropical medicinemarker, motorised municipal fire-engine,free school milk and school meals, cancer research centre, and zoonosis research centre all originated in Liverpool. The first British Nobel Prize was awarded in 1902 to Ronald Ross, professor at the School of Tropical Medicine. Modern medical anaesthetics were pioneered in Liverpool by Thomas Cecil Gray.

In finance, Liverpool founded the UK's first Underwriters' Association and the first Institute of Accountants. The Western world's first financial derivatives (cotton futures) were traded on the Liverpool Cotton Exchange in the late 1700s.

In the arts, Liverpool was home to the first lending librarymarker, athenaeum society, arts centremarker and public art conservation centremarker.

In 1897, the Lumière brothers filmed Liverpool, including what is believed to be the world's first tracking shot, taken from the Liverpool Overhead Railway.

In 1999, Liverpool was the first city outside the capital to be awarded blue plaques by English Heritage in recognition of the "significant contribution made by its sons and daughters in all walks of life."

Governance

Liverpool has three tiers of governance; the Local Council, the National Government and the European Parliament. Liverpool is officially governed by a Unitary Authority, as when Merseyside County Councilmarker was disbanded civic functions were returned to a district borough level. However several services such as the Police and Fire and Rescue Service, continue to be run at a county-wide level.

Local Council

See also: Liverpool City Council
The City of Liverpool is governed by Liverpool City Council, and is one of five metropolitan boroughs that combine to make up the metropolitan county of Merseyside. The council consists of 90 elected councillors who represent local communities throughout the city, as well as a five man executive management team who are responsible for the day to day running of the council. Part of the responsibility of the councillors is the election of a council leader and Lord Mayor. The council leader's responsibility is to provide directionality for the council as well as acting as medium between the local council, central government and private & public partners. The Lord Mayor acts as the 'first citizen' of the city and is responsible for promoting the city, supporting local charities & community groups as well as representing the city at civic events The current council leader is Warren Bradley, and current Lord Mayor is Councillor Mike Storey.

For local elections the city is split into 30 local council wards, which in alphabetical order are:

  1. Knotty Ashmarker
As of September 2008 the council is controlled by the Liberal Democrats who took 45 seats to Labour's 39 in the most recent local election. Of the remaining seats the Liberal Party won three, the Green Party claimed two and the last one went to an independent councillor. The Conservative Party, one of the three major political parties in the UK had no representation on Liverpool City Council. Officially the result was classified as no overall control in the city, however following the defection of Croxteth Independent Councillor Nadia Stewart, the Lib Dems increased their number of seats to 46 allowing the current administration to continue. In February 2008, Liverpool City Council was revealed to be the worst performing council in the country, receiving just a one star rating (classified as inadequate). The main cause of the poor rating was attributed to the councils poor handling of tax-payer money, including the accumulation of a £20m shortfall on Capital of Culture funding.

Parliamentary constituencies and MPs

See also: List of Parliamentary constituencies on Merseyside
Within Liverpool there are five parliamentary constituencies through which Members of Parliament (MPs) are elected to represent the city in Westminstermarker: Liverpool Garstonmarker, Liverpool Riversidemarker, Liverpool Waltonmarker, Liverpool Wavertree and Liverpool West Derbymarker. At the last General Election all were won by Labour with representation being from Maria Eagle, Louise Ellman, Peter Kilfoyle, Jane Kennedy and Bob Wareing respectively. In proposed constituency boundary changes for the next UK election, Liverpool will only have four seats completely within the city boundaries after the announcement of plans to merge Liverpool Garstonmarker with Halewood (which was previously part of Knowsley Southmarker), creating a cross-boundary seatmarker. The Conservative party has not won a city constituency since 1979, and at the last election in 2005 scored less than 10% in every seat.

Geography

Liverpool has been described as having "the most splendid setting of any English city." At (53.4, -2.98), northwest of London, the city of Liverpool is built across a ridge of sandstone hills rising up to a height of around 230 feet (70 metres) above sea-level at Everton Hill, which represents the southern boundary of the West Lancashire Coastal Plainmarker. Liverpool Urban Areamarker runs directly into Bootlemarker, Crosbymarker and Maghullmarker in south Sefton to the north, and Kirkbymarker, Huytonmarker, Prescotmarker and Halewoodmarker in Knowsleymarker to the east. It faces Wallaseymarker and Birkenheadmarker across the River Merseymarker to the west.

Climate

Liverpool experiences a temperate maritime climate, like much of the British Isles, with relatively cool summers and mild winters.

Demography

Population of Liverpool, 1801-2001
As with other major British cities, Liverpool has a large and diverse population. At the 2001 UK Census the recorded population of Liverpool was 441,900, whilst a mid-2007 estimate by the ONS had the city's population as 435,500, which would make it the sixth largest district in the UK (N.B. This figure includes only those areas officially within the city boundaries). Liverpool’s population peaked in 1930s with 846,101 recorded in the 1931 census. Since then the city has experienced negative population growth every decade, with at its peak over 100,000 people leaving the city between 1971 and 1981. Between 2001 and 2006 it experienced the ninth largest percentage population loss of any UK unitary authority, although it has been suggested that overall the city's population is now stabalising after rapid decline in the 1980s and 1990s.

In common with many cities, Liverpool's population is younger than that of England as a whole, with 42.3 per cent of its population under the age of 30, compared to an English average of 37.4 per cent. 65.1 per cent of the population is of working age.

Liverpool is home to Britain's oldest Black community, dating to at least the 1730s, and some Black Liverpudlians are able to trace their ancestors in the city back ten generations. Early Black settlers in the city included seamen, the children of traders sent to be educated, and freed slaves, since slaves entering the country after 1722 were deemed free men.

The city is also home to the oldest Chinese community in Europe; the first residents of the city's Chinatownmarker arrived as seamen in the nineteenth century. The gateway in Chinatown, Liverpoolmarker is also the largest gateway outside of China. The city is also known for its large Irish and Welsh populations. In 1813, 10 per cent of Liverpool's population was Welsh, leading to the city becoming known as "the capital of North Wales". Following the start of the Irish Potato Famine, two million Irish people migrated to Liverpool in the space of one decade, many of them subsequently departing for the United States. By 1851, more than 20 per cent of the population of Liverpool was Irish. At the 2001 Census, 1.17 per cent of the population were Welsh-born and 0.75 per cent were born in the Republic of Irelandmarker, while 0.54 per cent were born in Northern Irelandmarker, but many more Liverpudlians are of Welsh or Irish ancestry.

As of 2005, an estimated 92.3 per cent of Liverpool's population was White, 1.9 per cent Asian or Asian British, 1.8 per cent Black or Black British, 1.9 per cent mixed-race and 2.1 per cent Chinese and other.

Economy

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added (GVA) of Liverpool at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of pounds sterling.
Year Regional Gross Value Added Agriculture Industry Services
1995 4,394 3 950 3,440
2000 5,681 4 1,033 4,644
2003 6,595 6 953 5,636


Liverpool One Shopping Complex


The economy of Liverpool is beginning to recover from its long, post-World War II decline. Between 1995 and 2001 GVA per head grew at 6.3% annum. This compared with 5.8% for inner London and 5.7% for Bristolmarker. The rate of job growth was 9.2% compared with a national average of 4.9% for the same period, 1998-2002. However, Liverpool is still comparatively deprived; a 2001 report by CACI showed that Liverpool still had four of the ten poorest postcode districts in the country, and almost 30% of people aged 65 or over are without central heating.

Like the rest of the United Kingdom the city has seen a large growth in the service sector, both public and private. Government offices include parts of the National Health Service, Revenue and Customs and Home Office agencies such as the Criminal Records Bureau and the Identity and Passport Service, formerly the UK Passport Agency. Major private sector service industry concerns have also invested in Liverpool especially the financial services sector with Barclays, JPMorgan, Abbey National, Alliance & Leicester, Royal Bank of Scotland Group, HBOS and the Bank of Ireland either opening or expanding their sites, a number of major call centres have opened in recent years too and the professional advice sector. The activities of the port had, due to containerisation and reduced levels of commerce, left the region with a communications infrastructure that exceeded its requirements, however the port's cargo volumes have picked up significantly.

Growth in the areas of New Media has been helped by the existence of a relatively large computer game development community. Sony based one of only a handful of European PlayStation research and development centres in Wavertree, after buying out noted software publisher Psygnosis. According to a 2006 issue of industry magazine 'Edge' (issue 162), the first professional quality PlayStation software developer's kits were largely programmed by Sony's Liverpool 'studio'.

Tourism is a major factor in the economy and this has led to a great increase in the provision of high quality services such as hotels, restaurants and clubs. The buildings of Liverpool also attract film makers, who regularly use Liverpool to double for cities around the world and making it the second most filmed city in the UK. Liverpool is also one of the few cities in the world where cruise liners can berth in the city centre, and from 2008 a significant number of ships will either set sail or call at Liverpool's cruise liner terminal, including the Grand Princess, and the QE2. Large naval ships coming in to dock also draw large crowds on sunny days. Liverpool and its boroughs have a large number of sandy beaches accessible by Merseyrail, which prove popular in the summer months.
Car-manufacturing also takes place in the city at the Halewoodmarker plant where the Jaguar X-Type and Land Rover Freelander models are assembled.

The owner of Liverpool's port and airport, Peel Holdings, announced on 6 March 2007 that is had plans to redevelop the city's northern dock area with a scheme entitled Liverpool Watersmarker, which may see the creation of 17,000 jobs and £5.5bn invested in the vicinity over a 50 year period. This is coupled with a sister scheme on the other side of the River Mersey, called Wirral Watersmarker.

Liverpool's main shopping area is Church Street, lying between Bold Streetmarker to the East and Lord Street to the West. Liverpool Onemarker opened fully in October 2008 being the redevelopment of a large part of the postcode area L1—hence the name. It is also partly built on the old Chavasse Parkmarker, but much of the park still remains.

Landmarks

Liverpool's history means that there are a considerable variety of architectural styles found within the city, ranging from 16th century Tudor style, right through to modern day contemporary architecture. The majority of buildings in the city date from the late-eighteenth century onwards, the period during which the city grew into one of the foremost powers in the British Empire. There are over 2,500 listed buildings in Liverpool, of which 27 are Grade I listed and 85 are Grade II* listed, and only the UK capital London, has more. The city also has a greater number of public sculptures than any other location in the United Kingdommarker aside from Westminstermarker and more Georgian houses than the city of Bathmarker. This richness of architecture has subsequently seen Liverpool described by English Heritage, as England's finest Victorian city. The value of Liverpool's architecture and design was recognised in 2004, when several areas throughout the city were declared a UNESCOmarker World Heritage Site. Known as the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile Citymarker, the sites were added in recognition of the city's role in the development of International trade and docking technology.

Waterfront and docks

The Albert Dock is one of the biggest tourist attractions in Liverpool
As a major British port, the docks in Liverpool have historically been central to the city's development. Several major docking firsts have occurred in the city including the construction of the world's first enclosed wet dock (the Old Dockmarker) in 1715 and the first ever hydraulic lifting cranes. The most well known dock in Liverpool is the Albert Dockmarker, which was constructed in 1846 and today comprises the largest single collection of Grade I listed buildings anywhere in Britain. Built under the guidance of Jesse Hartley, it was considered to be one of the most advanced docks anywhere in the world upon completion and is often attributed with helping the city to become one of the most important ports in the world. North of the city centre is Stanley Dockmarker, home to the Stanley Dock Tobacco Warehousemarker, which was at the time of its construction in 1901, the world's largest building in terms of area and today stands as the world's largest brick-work building.

One of the most famous locations in Liverpool is the Pier Headmarker, renowned for the trio of buildings - the Royal Liver Buildingmarker, the Cunard Buildingmarker and the Port of Liverpool Buildingmarker - which sit upon it. Collectively referred to as the Three Graces, these buildings stand as a testament to the great wealth in the city during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Built in a variety of architectural styles, they are recognised as being the symbol of Maritime Liverpool, and are regarded by many as contributing to one of the most impressive waterfronts in the world.

In recent years, several areas along Liverpool's waterfront have undergone significant redevelopment. Amongst the notable recent developments are the construction of the Liverpool Echo Arenamarker and BT Convention Centre on Kings Dockmarker, Alexandra Towermarker on Princes Dockmarker and Liverpool Marina around Coburgmarker and Brunswick Docksmarker.

Commercial District and Cultural Quarter

Liverpool's historic position as one of the most important trading ports in the world has meant that over time many grand buildings have been constructed in the city as headquarters for shipping firms, insurance companies, banks and other large firms. The great wealth this brought, then allowed for the development of grand civic buildings, which were designed to allow the local administrators to 'run the city with pride'.

The commercial district is centred around the Castle Street, Dale Street and Old Hall Street areas of the city, with many of the area's roads still following their medieval layout. Having developed over a period of three centuries the area is regarded as one of the most important architectural locations in the city, as recognised by its inclusion in Liverpool's World Heritage site. The oldest building in the area is the Grade I listed Liverpool Town Hallmarker, which is located at the top of Castle Street and dates from 1754. Often regarded as the city's finest piece of Georgian architecture, the building is noted as one of the most extravagantly decorated civic buildings anywhere in Britain. Also on Castle Street is the Grade I listed Bank of England Buildingmarker, constructed between 1845-1848, as one of only three provincial branches of the national bank. Amongst the other noted buildings in the area are the Tower Buildingsmarker, Albion Housemarker (the former White Star Line headquarters), the Municipal Buildingsmarker and Oriel Chambersmarker, which is considered to be one of the earliest Modernist style buildings ever built.

The area around William Brown Streetmarker is referred to as the city's 'Cultural Quarter', owing to the presence of numerous civic buildings, including the William Brown Librarymarker, Walker Art Gallerymarker, Picton Reading Roomsmarker and World Museum Liverpoolmarker. The area is dominated by neo-classical architecture, of which the most prominent, St George's Hallmarker, is widely regarded as the best example of a neo-classical building anywhere in Europe. A Grade I listed building, it was constructed between 1840 and 1855 to serve a variety of civic functions in the city and its doors are inscribed with "S.P.Q.L." (Latin senatus populusque Liverpudliensis), meaning the "the senate and people of Liverpool". William Brown Street is also home to numerous public monuments and sculptures, including Wellington's Columnmarker and the Steble Fountainmarker. Many others are located around the area, particularly in St John's Gardensmarker, which was specifically developed for this purpose.

Other notable landmarks

Whilst the majority of Liverpool's architecture dates from the mid-eighteenth century onwards, there are several buildings that pre-date this time. One of the oldest surviving buildings is Speke Hallmarker, a Tudor manor house located in the south of the city, which was completed in 1598. The building is one of the few remaining timber framed Tudor houses left in the north of England and is particularly noted for its Victorian interior, which was added in the mid-19th century. In addition to Speke Hall, many of the city's other oldest surviving buildings are also former manor houses including Croxteth Hallmarker and Woolton Hallmarker, which were completed in 1702 and 1704 respectively.The oldest building within the city centre is the Grade I listed Bluecoat Chambersmarker, which was built between 1717 and 1718. Constructed in British Queen Anne style, the building was influenced in part by the work of Christopher Wren and was originally the home of the Bluecoat Schoolmarker (who later moved to larger site in the south of the city). Since 1908 it has acted as a centre for arts in Liverpool.

Liverpool is noted for having two Cathedrals, each of which imposes over the landscape around it. The Anglican Cathedralmarker, which was constructed between 1904 and 1978, is the largest Cathedral in Britain and the fifth largest in the world. Designed and built in Gothic style, it is regarded as one of the greatest buildings to have been constructed during the 20th century and was described by former British Poet Laureate, John Betjeman, as 'one of the great buildings of the world’. The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Cathedralmarker was constructed between 1962 and 1967 and is noted as one of the first Cathedrals to break the traditional longitudinal design.

In recent years, many parts of Liverpool's city centre have undergone significant redevelopment and regeneration after years of decline. The largest of these developments has been Liverpool Onemarker, which has seen almost £1 billion invested in the redevelopment of 42 acres of land, providing new retail, commercial, residential and leisure space. Around the north of the city centre several new skyscrapers have also been constructed including the RIBA award winning Unity Building and West Towermarker, which at 140m is Liverpool's tallest building. Many future redevelopment schemes are also planned including Central Villagemarker (planning permission granted), the Lime Streetmarker gateway (work started) and the highly ambitious Liverpool Watersmarker (early planning stage).

There are many other notable buildings in Liverpool, including the art deco former terminal buildingmarker of Speke Airportmarker, the University of Liverpoolmarker's Victoria Buildingmarker, (which provided the inspiration for the term Red Brick University), and the Adelphi Hotelmarker, which was in that past considered to be one of the finest hotels anywhere in the world.

The English Heritage National Register of Historic Parks describes Merseyside’s Victorian Parks as collectively the "most important in the country" The city of Liverpool has nine listed parks and cemeteries, including three Grade II*, more than any other English city apart from London.

Religion

The thousands of migrants and sailors passing through Liverpool resulted in a religious diversity that is still apparent today. This is reflected in the equally diverse collection of religious buildings, and two Christian cathedrals.

Christ Church, in Buckingham Road, Tuebrook, is a conservative evangelical congregation and is affiliated with the Evangelical Connexion. [2624] They worship using the 1785 Prayer Book, and regard the Bible as the sole rule of faith and practice.

The parish church of Liverpool is the Anglican Our Lady and St Nicholasmarker, colloquially known as "the sailors church", which has existed near the waterfront since 1257. It regularly plays host to Catholic masses. Other notable churches include the Greek Orthodox Church of St Nicholasmarker (built in the Neo-Byzantine architecture style), and the Gustav Adolfus Kyrkamarker (the Swedish Seamen's Church, reminiscent of Nordic styles).

Liverpool's wealth as a port city enabled the construction of two enormous cathedrals, both dating from the 20th century. The Anglican Cathedralmarker, which was designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott and plays host to the annual Liverpool Shakespeare Festival, has one of the longest naves, largest organs and heaviest and highest peals of bells in the world. The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Cathedralmarker, on Mount Pleasant next to Liverpool Science Park was initially planned to be even larger. Of Sir Edwin Lutyens' original design, only the crypt was completed. The cathedral was eventually built to a simpler design by Sir Frederick Gibberd; while this is on a smaller scale than Lutyens' original design, it still manages to incorporate the largest panel of stained glass in the world. The road running between the two cathedrals is called Hope Streetmarker, a coincidence which pleases believers. The cathedral is colloquially referred to as "Paddy's Wigwam" due to its shape.

Liverpool contains several synagogues, of which the Grade I listed Moorish Revival Princes Road Synagoguemarker is architecturally the most notable. Princes Road is widely considered to be the most magnificent of Britain's Moorish Revival synagogues and one of the finest buildings in Liverpool. Liverpool has a thriving Jewish community with a further two orthodox Synagogues, one in the Allerton district of the city and a second in the Childwall district of the city where a significant Jewish community reside. A third orthodox Synagogue in the Greenbank Parkmarker area of L17 has recently closed, and is a listed 1930s structure. There is also a Lubavitch Chabad House and a reform Synagogue. Liverpool has had a Jewish community since the mid-18th century. The current Jewish population of Liverpool is around 3000.

Liverpool also has an increasing Hindu community, with a Mandir on 253 Edge Lane; the Radha Krishna Hindu Temple from the Hindu Cultural Organisation based there. The current Hindu population in Liverpool is about 1147. Liverpool also has the Guru Nanak Sikh Gurdwara in L15.

The city had one of the earliest mosques in Britain, founded in 1887 by William Abdullah Quilliam, a lawyer who had converted to Islam. This mosque, which was also the first in Englandmarker, however no longer exists. Plans have been ongoing to re-convert the building where the mosque once stood into a museum. Currently there are three mosques in Liverpool: the largest and main one, Al-Rahma mosquemarker, in the Toxtethmarker area of the city and a mosque recently opened in the Mossley Hillmarker district of the city. The third mosque was also recently opened in Toxteth and is on Granby Street.

Transport

Transport in Liverpool is primarily centred around the city's road and rail networks, both of which are extensive and provide links across the United Kingdom. Liverpool has an extensive local public transport network, which is managed by the Merseyside Passenger Transport Executive, and includes buses, trains and ferries. Additionally, the city also has an international airport and a major port, both of which provides links to locations outside the country.

National and International Travel

Road links
As a major city, Liverpool has direct road links with many other areas within England. To the east, the M62 motorway connects Liverpool with Hullmarker and along the route provides links to several large cities, including Manchestermarker, Leedsmarker and Bradfordmarker. The M62 also provides a connection to both the M6 motorway and M1 Motorway, providing indirect links to more distant areas including Birminghammarker, Sheffieldmarker, Prestonmarker, Londonmarker and Nottinghammarker. To the west of the city, the Kingswaymarker and Queensway Tunnelsmarker connect Liverpool with the Wirral Peninsulamarker, providing links to both Birkenheadmarker, and Wallaseymarker. The A41 road, which begins in Birkenhead, also provides links to Cheshiremarker and Shropshiremarker and via the A55 road, North Walesmarker. To the south, Liverpool is connected to Widnesmarker and Warringtonmarker via the A562 road and subsequently across the River Merseymarker to Runcornmarker, via the Silver Jubilee Bridgemarker. Plans have been developed in recent years to construct a second bridge, known as the Mersey Gatewaymarker, across the river in order to alleviate congestion on the route today.


Rail links
Liverpool is served by two separate rail networks. The local rail network is managed and run by Merseyrail and provides links throughout Merseyside and beyond (see Local Travel below), whilst the national network, which is managed by Network Rail, provides Liverpool with connections to major towns and cities across the England. The city's primary mainline station is Lime Street stationmarker, which acts as a terminus for several lines into the city. Train services from Lime Street provide connections to numerous destinations, including London (in 2 hours 8 minutes with Pendolino trains ), Birminghammarker, Newcastle upon Tynemarker, Manchestermarker, Prestonmarker, Leedsmarker, Scarboroughmarker, Sheffieldmarker, Nottinghammarker and Norwichmarker. In the south of the city, Liverpool South Parkwaymarker provides a connection to the city's airport.


Port
The Port of Liverpoolmarker is one of Britain's largest ports, providing passenger ferry services across the Irish Seamarker to Belfastmarker, Dublinmarker and the Isle of Manmarker. Services are provided by several companies, including the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company, P&O and Norfolkline. In 2007, a new cruise liner terminal was opened in Liverpool, located alongside the Pier Headmarker in the city centre. The terminal will allow cruise ships to dock in the city (40 ships are due in during 2009) and also provide a base for trans-Atlantic services.

Airport
Liverpool John Lennon Airportmarker, which is located in the south of the city, provides Liverpool with direct air connections across the United Kingdom and Europe. In 2008, the airport handled over 5.3 million passengers and today offers services to 68 destinations, including Berlinmarker, Romemarker, Milanmarker, Parismarker, Barcelonamarker and Zurich. The airport is primarily served by low-cost airlines, notably Ryanair and Easyjet, although it does provide additional charter services in the summer. In 2008, Dutchmarker airline KLM started a three-times daily service to Amsterdammarker from JLA, providing passengers with the option to fly to over 650 destinations across the world with the airline, via the Dutch airport.

Local Travel

Buses
Local bus services within and around Liverpool are managed by the Merseyside Passenger Transport Executive (more commonly known as Merseytravel) and are run by several different companies, including Arriva and Stagecoach. The two principal termini for local buses are Queen Square Bus Stationmarker (located near Lime Street railway stationmarker) for services north and east of the city, and Liverpool One Bus Station formerly known as Paradise Street Bus Interchangemarker (located near the Albert Dockmarker) for services to the south and east. Cross-river services to the Wirral use roadside terminus points in Castle Street and Sir Thomas Street. A night bus service also operates on Saturdays providing services from the city centre across Liverpool and Merseyside.
The Merseyrail Network has extensive underground sections within the city centre


Trains
Liverpool's local rail network is one of the busiest and most extensive in the country, covering 75 miles of track, with an average of 100,000 passenger journeys per weekday. Services are operated by the Merseyrail franchise and managed by the Merseyside Passenger Transport Executive. The network consists of three lines: the Northern Line, which runs to Southportmarker, Ormskirkmarker, Kirkbymarker and Hunts Crossmarker; the Wirral Line, which runs through the Mersey Railway Tunnel and has branches to New Brightonmarker, West Kirbymarker, Chestermarker and Ellesmere Portmarker; and the City Line, which begins at Lime Streetmarker, providing links to St Helensmarker, Wiganmarker, Prestonmarker, Warringtonmarker and Manchestermarker. It should be noted that local services on the city line are operated by Northern Rail rather than Merseyrail, although the line itself remains part of the Merseyrail network. Within the city centre the majority of the network is underground, with 5 city centre stations and over 6.5 miles of tunnels.


Mersey Ferry
The cross river ferry service in Liverpool, known as the Mersey Ferrymarker, is managed and operated by Merseytravel, with services operating between the Pier Headmarker in Liverpool and both Woodsidemarker in Birkenheadmarker and Seacombemarker in Wallaseymarker. Services operate at intervals ranging from 20 minutes at peak times, to every hour during the middle of the day and during weekends. Despite remaining an important transport link between the city and the Wirral Peninsula, the Mersey Ferry has become an increasingly popular tourist attraction within the city, with daytime River Explorer Cruises providing passengers with an historical overview of the River Merseymarker and surrounding areas.

Proposed new tram
In 2001, a plan to build new a light rail system, Merseytram was developed. After central government insisted on additional guarantees prior to the release of previously committed funds, it was cancelled in November 2005. However, it is to be included in the transport plan from 2006-2011, as it is deemed to be an important part of Liverpool's development.

Leeds and Liverpool Canal
Built between 1770 and 1816 the Leeds and Liverpool Canalmarker links Liverpool and the Mersey to Leedsmarker and the River Airemarker. Its terminus had been at Old Hall Street, Pall Mall, Chisenhale Street, but that section now ends at Eldonian Village. A flight of locks just north of there takes the canal down to Stanley Dockmarker, famous for the Tobacco Warehouse, and on to the main dock system.

A new link across the front of the Pier Head buildings will link the northern docks to the Albert Dock is presently under construction, with the plan being to open it during Liverpool's Capital of Culture Year of 2008.

Culture

In 2003, Liverpool was named a European Capital of Culture for 2008, the other site being Stavangermarker, Norway. A series of cultural events during 2003-9 is planned, peaking in 2008.

Literature

A number of notable authors have visited Liverpool including Daniel Defoe, Washington Irving, Thomas De Quincey, Herman Melville, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Charles Dickens, Gerald Manley Hopkins and Hugh Walpole all of whom spent extended periods in the city . Hawthorne was stationed in Liverpool as United States consul between 1853 and 1856 .Although he is not known to have ever visited Liverpool, Jung famously had a vivid dream of the city which he analysed in one of his works.

Music

Liverpool was the centre in the 1960s of Merseybeat and since then has been home to a music scene. The city is also home to the UK's oldest-established orchestra, the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra, headquartered in the Philharmonic Hallmarker, and a youth orchestra. Max Bruch was one of numerous notable conductors of the RLPO, and dedicated his Kol Nidre to the Jewish community in the city. Sir Edward Elgar dedicated his famous Pomp and Circumstance No.1, to the Liverpool Orchestral Society, and the piece had its first performance in the city in 1901. Among Liverpool's curiosities, the Austrian émigré Fritz Spiegl is notable. He not only became a world expert on the etymology of Scouse, but composed the music to Z-cars and the Radio 4 UK Theme.

Poetry

During the late 1960s the city became well-known for the Liverpool poets, who include Roger McGough and the late Adrian Henri. An anthology of poems, The Mersey Sound, written by Henri, McGough and Brian Patten, has sold over 500,000 copies since first being published in 1967 .

Theatre

Liverpool also has a history of performing arts, reflected in its annual theatrical highlight The Liverpool Shakespeare Festival which takes place inside Liverpool Cathedralmarker and in the adjacent historic St James' Gardens every summer, and by the number of theatres in the city. These include the Empiremarker, Everymanmarker, Liverpool Playhousemarker, Neptunemarker, Royal Courtmarker and the Unitymarker Theatre. The Everyman Theatre, Unity Theatre and Playhouse Theatre all run their own theatre companies.

Visual arts

Albert Dock, home to the Tate Liverpool
Liverpool has more galleries and national museums than any other city in the United Kingdom apart from London. National Museums Liverpool is the only English national collection based wholly outside London. The Tate Liverpoolmarker gallery houses the modern art collection of the Tate in the North of England and was, until the opening of Tate Modernmarker, the largest exhibition space dedicated to modern art in the United Kingdom. The FACT centremarker hosts touring multimedia exhibitions, whilst the Walker Art Gallerymarker houses an extensive collection of Pre-Raphaelites. Sudley Housemarker contains another major collection of pre 20th century art, and the number of galleries continues to expand: Ceri Hand Gallerymarker opened in 2008, exhibiting primarily contemporary art, and Liverpool University's Victoria Building was re-opened as a public art gallery and museum to display the University's artwork and historical collections which include the second-largest display of art by Audubon outside the US .

Artists have also come from the city, including painter George Stubbs who was born in Liverpool in 1724.

The Liverpool Biennialmarker festival of arts runs from mid-September to late November and comprises three main sections; the International, The Independents and New Contemporaries although fringe events are timed to coincide. It was during the 2004 festival that Yoko Ono's work "My mother is beautiful" caused widespread public protest when photographs of a naked woman's pubic area were exhibited on the main shopping street. Despite protests the work remained in place .

Education

In Liverpool primary and secondary education is available in various forms supported by the state including secular, Church of England, Jewish, and Roman Catholic. Islamic education is available at primary level, but there is currently no secondary provision.One of Liverpool's important early schools was The Liverpool Blue Coat Schoolmarker; founded in 1708 as a charitable school.

The Liverpool Blue Coat Schoolmarker is the top-performing school in the city with 100% 5 or more A*-C grades at GCSE resulting in the 30th best GCSE results in the country and an average point score per student of 1087.4 in A/AS levels. Other notable schools include Liverpool Collegemarker founded in 1840 Merchant Taylors' Schoolmarker founded in 1620. Another of Liverpool's notable senior schools is St. Edward's Collegemarker situated in the West Derby area of the city. Historic grammar schools, such as the Liverpool Institute High Schoolmarker & Liverpool Collegiatemarker, closed in the 1980s are still remembered as centres of academic excellence. Bellerive Catholic College is the city's top performing non selective school, based upon GCSE results in 2007.

Liverpool has three universities: the University of Liverpoolmarker, Liverpool John Moores Universitymarker and Liverpool Hope University. Edge Hill Universitymarker, originally founded as a teacher-training college in the Edge Hillmarker district of Liverpool, is now located in Ormskirkmarker in South-West Lancashire.

The University of Liverpoolmarker, was established in 1881 as University College Liverpool. In 1884, became part of the federal Victoria University. Following a Royal Charter and Act of Parliament in 1903, it became an independent university, the University of Liverpool, with the right to confer its own degrees.

Liverpool Hope University, founded in 1844, is situated on both sides of Taggart Avenue in Childwall and a second Campus in the City Centre (The Cornerstone). Hope is quickly making a name for itself within the Liberal Arts, the University has also enjoyed successes in terms of high graduate employability, campus development, and a substantial increase in student applications from outside of the City.

The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicinemarker, founded to address some of the problems created by trade, continues today as a post-graduate school affiliated with the University of Liverpoolmarker and is one of only two institutions internationally that house the de facto standard anti-venom repository.

Liverpool John Moores Universitymarker was previously a polytechnic, and gained status in 1992. It is named in honour of Sir John Moores, one of the founders of the Littlewoods football pools and retail group, who was a major benefactor. The institution was previously owned and run by Liverpool City Council.

The city has one further education college, Liverpool Community Collegemarker.

There are two Jewish schools in Liverpool, both belonging to the King David Foundation. King David School, Liverpoolmarker is the High School and the King David Primary School. There is also a King David Kindergarten, featured in the community centre of Harold House. These schools are all run by the King David Foundation based in Harold House in Childwall; conveniently next door to the Childwallmarker Synagogue

Sport

Anfield, the home of Liverpool F.C
Liverpool is home to two Premier League football clubs–Liverpool F.C. and Everton. Liverpool is the only English city to have staged top division football every single season since the formation of the Football League in 1888, and both of the city's clubs play in high-capacity stadiums.

Liverpool F.C. are the most successful team in English football, having won 18 league titles, seven FA Cups, seven League Cups, five European Cups and three UEFA Cups. They formed in 1892 and have spent their entire history at the Anfieldmarker stadium which they occupied on their formation; it had previously been home to Everton. Liverpool have been in the top flight of English football continuously since 1962 and have been managed by Bill Shankly, Bob Paisley, Joe Fagan, Kenny Dalglish (who also played for the club and for a while was player-manager), Gerard Houllier and their current manager Rafael Benítez. Famous Liverpool players include Billy Liddell, Ian St. John, Roger Hunt, Ron Yeats, Emlyn Hughes, Kevin Keegan, Ian Rush, Graeme Souness, Robbie Fowler and Steven Gerrard. However, the club also has an association with tragedy; in 1985, rioting on the terraces during the European Cup final at Heysel Stadiummarker in Brusselsmarker, Belgiummarker, resulted in the death of 39 spectators (almost all of them Juventus supporters) and led to all English clubs being barred from European competitions for the next five years (with Liverpool having to serve an extra year when all other English clubs were re-admitted). Four years later, 94 Liverpool fans (the toll eventually reached 96) were crushed to death at Hillsborough Stadiummarker in Sheffieldmarker at the FA Cup semi-final. This tragedy led to the Taylor Report which saw standing accommodation banned from all top division stadiums by the mid 1990s.

Everton are the older of Liverpool's two professional football clubs. They were founded in 1878 and have played at Goodison Parkmarker since 1892, when they relocated from the Anfield stadium that was taken over by the new Liverpool club. Everton have been league champions nine times, FA Cup winners five times and European Cup Winners' Cup winners once. Their most successful managers were Harry Catterick and Howard Kendall. Many high profile players have worn the Everton shirt. These include Dixie Dean (who scored a record 60 goals in a single league season), Tommy Lawton, Brian Labone, Ray Wilson, Alan Ball (who both featured in England's World Cup winning side of 1966), Neville Southall, Andy Gray, Gary Lineker, Andrei Kanchelskis, Dave Watson and Wayne Rooney.

Since the turn of the 21st century, both Liverpool-based clubs have been considering relocation to new stadiums. Liverpool have been planning a new stadiummarker on nearby Stanley Parkmarker for some years, while Everton are currently investigating the possibility of a new stadium in Kirkbymarker after an earlier project to relocate to King's Dock fell through due to financial difficulties.

Professional basketball is played in the city with the addition of Everton Tigers into the elite British Basketball League in 2007. The club is associated with Everton Football Club, and is part of the Toxteth Tigers youth development programme, which reaches over 1,500 young people every year. The Tigers will commence play in Britain's top league for the 2007-08 season, though their home venue has yet to be confirmed. Their closest professional rivals are the Chester Jets, based 18 miles away in Chestermarker.

County cricket is occasionally played in Liverpool, with Lancashire County Cricket Club typically playing one match every year at Liverpool Cricket Club, Aigburthmarker.

Aintree Racecoursemarker to the north of Liverpool in the adjacent borough of Sefton is home to the famous steeplechase, the Grand National, One of the most famous events in the international horse racing calendar, it is held in early April each year. In addition to horse-racing, Aintree has also hosted motor racing, including the British Grand Prixmarker in the 1950s and 1960s.

Liverpool Harriers, who meet at Wavertree Athletics Centre, are one of five athletic clubs. Liverpool has a long history of boxing that has produced John Conteh, Alan Rudkin and Paul Hodkinson and hosts high level amateur boxing events. Park Road Gymnastics Centre provides training to a high level. The City of Liverpool Swimming Club has been National Speedo League Champions 8 out of the last 11 years. Liverpool Tennis Development Programme based at Wavertree Tennis Centre is one of the largest in the UK. Liverpool is also home to the Red Triangle Karate Club, which provided many of the 1990 squad that won the World Shotokan Championships in Sunderland. Luminaries include Sensei Keinosuke Enoeda, Sensei Frank Brennan, Sensei Omry Weiss, Sensei Dekel Kerer, Sensei Andy Sherry and Sensei Terry O'Neill, who is also famous for various acting roles.

Rugby league is played at amateur and student level within the city; the last professional team bearing the city's name was Liverpool City, which folded in the 1960s. Rugby Union has a long, if low key, history in the city with Liverpool Football Club were formed in 1857 making them the oldest open rugby teams in the world. They merged with St Helens RUFC in 1986 to form Liverpool St Helens. In Sefton there is Waterloo Rugby Clubmarker located in Blundellsandsmarker. Established in 1882 they now play in National Division Two.

Liverpool is one of three cities which still host the traditional sport of British Baseball and it hosts the annual England-Wales international match every two years, alternating with Cardiffmarker and Newportmarker. Liverpool Trojans are the oldest existing baseball club in the UK.

The Royal Liverpool Golf Clubmarker, situated in the nearby town of Hoylakemarker on the Wirral Peninsula, has hosted The Open Championship on a number of occasions, most recently in 2008. It has also hosted the Walker Cup.

Sports stadia

Goodison Park, the home of Everton F.C
Liverpool have played at Anfieldmarker since 1892, when the club was formed to occupy the stadium following Everton's departure due to a dispute with their landlord. Liverpool are still playing there 116 years later, although the ground has been completely rebuilt since the 1970s and only the Main Stand survives from before 1992. The Spion Kop (rebuilt as an all-seater stand in 1994/1995) was the most famous part of the ground, gaining cult status across the world due to the songs and celebrations of the many fans who packed onto its terraces. Anfield is classified as a 4 Star UEFA Elite Stadium with capacity for 45,000 spectators in comfort, and is a distinctive landmark in an area filled with smaller and older buildings. Liverpool club also has a multi-million dollar youth training facility called The Academy.

After leaving Anfield in 1892, Everton moved to Goodison Parkmarker on the opposite side of Stanley Parkmarker. Goodison Park was the first major football stadium built in England. Molineuxmarker (Wolves' ground) had been opened three years earlier but was still relatively undeveloped. St. James's Park, Newcastle, opened in 1892, was little more than a field. Only Scotland had more advanced grounds. Rangers opened Ibroxmarker in 1887, while Celtic Parkmarker was officially inaugurated at the same time as Goodison Park. Everton performed a miraculous transformation at Mere Green, spending up to £3000 on laying out the ground and erecting stands on three sides. For £552 Mr. Barton prepared the land at 4½d a square yard. Kelly Brothers of Walton built two uncovered stands each for 4,000 people, and a covered stand seating 3,000, at a total cost of £1,460. Outside, hoardings cost a further £150, gates and sheds cost £132 10s and 12 turnstiles added another £7 15s to the bill.

The ground was immediately renamed Goodison Park and proudly opened on 24 August 1892, by Lord Kinnaird and Frederick Wall of the FA. But instead of a match the 12,000 crowd saw a short athletics meeting followed by a selection of music and a fireworks display. Everton's first game there was on 2 September 1892 when they beat Bolton 4-2. It now has the capacity for more than 40,000 spectators all-seated, but the last expansion took place in 1994 when a new goal-end stand gave the stadium an all-seater capacity. The Main Stand dates back to the 1970s, while the other two stands are refurbished pre-Second World War structures.

There are currently plans for both stadiums to be pulled down and for the teams to relocate. Liverpool have been considering a move to a new stadium in Stanley Parkmarker since 2000; seven years on work has started and the 60,000-seat stadium is expected to be ready by 2010.

Everton have been considering relocation since 1996, and in 2003 were forced to scrap plans for a 55,000-seat stadium at King's Dockmarker due to financial reasons. The latest plan has been to move beyond Liverpool's council boundary to Kirkbymarker, but this has proved controversial with some fans, as well as members of the local community. At one point there was much talk for Everton to ground-share with Liverpool, at the proposed new stadium in Stanley Parkmarker, but this was not progressed by either club.

Media



The ITV region which covers Liverpool is ITV Granada. In 2006, the Television company opened a new newsroom in the Royal Liver Building. Granada's regional news broadcasts were produced at the Albert Dockmarker News Centre during the 1980s and 1990s. The BBC also opened a new newsroom on Hanover Street in 2006.

ITV's daily magazine programme This Morning was famously broadcast from studios at Albert Dockmarker until 1996, when production was moved to London. Granada's short-lived shopping channel "Shop!" was also produced in Liverpool until it was axed in 2002.

Liverpool is the home of the TV production company Lime Pictures, formerly Mersey Television, which produced the now-defunct soap operas Brookside and Grange Hill. It also produces the current soap opera Hollyoaks, which was formerly filmed in Chestermarker and began on Channel 4 in 1995. All three series were/are largely filmed in the Childwallmarker area of Liverpool.

The city has two daily newspapers: the morning Daily Post and the evening Echo, both published by the same company, the Trinity Mirror group. The Daily Post, especially, serves a wider area, including north Wales. The UK's first online only weekly newspaper called Southport Reporter (Southport & Mersey Reporter), is also one of the many other news outlets that covers the city.Radio stations include BBC Radio Merseyside, Juice FM, KCR FM and Radio City 96.7, City Talk 105.9, as well as Magic 1548. The last three are based in St. John's Beaconmarker which, along with the two cathedrals, dominates the city's skyline. The independent media organisation Indymedia also covers Liverpool, while 'Nerve' magazine publishes articles and reviews of cultural events.

Liverpool has also featured in films; see List of films set in Liverpool for some of them. In films the city has "doubled" for London, Paris, New York, Moscow, Dublin, Venice and Berlin.

Liverpool was the host city for the 2008 MTV Europe Music Awards.

Notable people

Quotes about Liverpool

  • "Lyrpole, alias Lyverpoole, a pavid towne, hath but a chapel... The king hath a castelet there, and the Earl of Darbe hath a stone howse there. Irisch merchants cum much thither, as to a good haven... At Lyrpole is smaul custom payed, that causith marchantes to resorte thither. Good marchandis at Lyrpole, and much Irish yarrn that Manchester men do buy there..." - John Leland , Itinery, c. 1536-39


  • "Liverpoole is one of the wonders of Britain... In a word, there is no town in England, London excepted, that can equal [it] for the fineness of the streets, and the beauty of the buildings." Daniel Defoe - A Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain, 1721-26


  • "[O]ne of the neatest, best towns I have seen in England." - John Wesley. Journal, 1755


  • "I have not come here to be insulted by a set of wretches, every brick in whose infernal town is cemented with an African's blood." Actor George Frederick Cooke (1756-1812) responding to being hissed when he came on stage drunk during a visit to Liverpool.


  • "That immense City which stands like another Venice upon the water...where there are riches overflowing and every thing which can delight a man who wishes to see the prosperity of a great community and a great empire... This quondam village, now fit to be the proud capital of any empire in the world, has started up like an enchanted palace even in the memory of living men." Thomas Erskine, 1st Baron Erskine, 1791


  • "I have heard of the greatness of Liverpool but the reality far surpasses my expectation" - Prince Albert, speech, 1846


  • "Liverpool…has become a wonder of the world. It is the New York of Europe, a world city rather than merely British provincial.” - Illustrated London News, 15 May 1886


  • "Liverpool is the 'pool of life' " - C.G. Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, 1928


  • "The centre is imposing, dignified and darkish, like a city in a rather gloomy Victorian novel...We had now arrived in the heart of the big city, and as usual it was almost a heart of darkness. But it looked like a big city, there was no denying that. Here, emphatically, was the English seaport second only to London. The very weight of stone emphasised that fact. And even if the sun never seems to properly rise over it, I like a big city to proclaim itself a big city at once..." - J.B. Priestley, English Journey, 1934


  • "...if Liverpool can get into top gear again there is no limit to the city's potential. The scale and resilience of the buildings and people is amazing - it is a world city, far more so than London and Manchester. It doesn't feel like anywhere else in Lancashire: comparisons always end up overseas - Dublin, or Boston, or Hamburg." - Ian Nairn, Britain's Changing Towns, 1967


International links

Twin cities

Liverpool is twinned with:
Friendship links with other international cities These links have no formal constitution and are based on the exchange of information and greetings.


Other links

See also



Further reading

  • Bygone Liverpool, David Clensy, 2008. ISBN 978-1-4357-0897-6
  • Liverpool 800, John Belchem, 2006. ISBN 978-1-84631-035-5
  • Chinese Liverpudlians, Maria Lin Wong, 1989. ISBN 978-1-871201-03-1
  • Writing Liverpool: Essays and Interviews, edited by Michael Murphy and Rees Jones, 2007. ISBN 978-1-84631-073-7


References

Notes

  1. Many people "self-identify" as Liverpudlians or Scousers without actually being born or living within the city boundaries of Liverpool. Many people from within the greater Merseyside area consider themselves thus, although many don't. Conversely, a number of people from Liverpool itself may not consider themselves Scousers, since the term for them may have pejorative overtones.
  2. Note: "pdf" reader needed to see full article
  3. Ten facts about Liverpool Telegraph, 4th June, 2003
  4. Merseyside Maritime Museum, Sheet No. 4: Battle of the Atlantic
  5. Victoria & Albert Museum. London
  6. Suburban Electric Railway Association, Coventry
  7. Royal School for the Blind, Liverpool
  8. Charles Dickens, speech, 26 Feb, 1844
  9. The Scottie Press
  10. communitycare.co.uk
  11. BBC Politics Show, 1 May 2009
  12. British Medical Journal 14 Feb 1948
  13. Liverpool Medical Institution
  14. National Museums,Liverpool
  15. BBC News 12 May 1998
  16. Liverpool University press release, 22 Feb 2006
  17. Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
  18. BBC news, 13 May 2008
  19. Culture 24
  20. Liverpool Scenes 1896/1897 YouTube
  21. Liverpool City Council News, 14 Oct 2008
  22. BBC News 26 May 1999
  23. http://www.civichalls.liverpool.gov.uk/lordmayor/index.asp
  24. The Buildings of England - Lancashire: Liverpool and the Southwest By Richard Pollard, Nikolaus Pevsner, Yale University Press, 2006, p243
  25. Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  26. includes hunting and forestry
  27. includes energy and construction
  28. includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
  29. Hughes (1999), p10
  30. Hughes (1999), p11
  31. Nicholls, p38
  32. Liverpool City Counci (2005), p49
  33. Moscardini (2008), p10
  34. Nicholls (2005), p11
  35. Pevsner (cited in Sharples, 2004), p 67
  36. Liverpool City Council (2005), p73
  37. Liverpool City Council (2005), p74
  38. Sharples, p48
  39. Manchester School of Architecture video YouTube
  40. Manchester School of Architecture video YouTube
  41. Liverpool City Council (2005), p87
  42. Liverpool City Council (2005), p93
  43. Hughes (1999), p20
  44. Hughes (1999), p22
  45. Manchester School of Architecture video YouTube
  46. Liverpool City Council (2005), p97
  47. Hughes (1999), p23
  48. Sharples (2004), p7
  49. Sharples (2004), p83
  50. Sharples (2004), p73
  51. Dr. Peter Brown, chair, Merseyside Civic Society
  52. Liverpool City Council News, 23/2/2009
  53. The term may have its origins in religious and racial sectarianism, which, while now largely disappeared, was once notoriously virulent in Liverpool.
  54. Sharples, Joseph, Pevsner Architectual guide to Liverpool, Yale University Press, 2004, p. 249
  55. Memories, Dreams, Reflections (1961)
  56. DCMS sponsored museums and galleries
  57. City fights to preserve star quality Guardian, 8th November, 1999
  58. http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/T/timeteam/2008/liverpool/liverpool-cameo.html

Bibliography



External links




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