Lloydminster is a Canadian city which has the unusual geographic distinction of straddling the
provincial border between Alberta and Saskatchewan. Unlike most such cases (such as Texarkana in the southern United States), Lloydminster is not
a pair of twin cities on opposite sides of
a border which merely share the same name, but is actually
incorporated as a single city with a single municipal
The provincial border runs north to south, falling directly on 50th
Avenue (Meridian Avenue) in the centre of Lloydminster.
east of 50th Avenue are considered to be in Lloydminster, Saskatchewan and addresses west of 50th Avenue are considered to
be in Lloydminster, Alberta.
Lloydminster is not the only city that straddles a Canadian
provincial border. The city of Flin Flon, Manitoba, has a small
section that is actually located within Saskatchewan.
Capital Region, Ottawa, Ontario, and
Gatineau, Quebec, form a
single metropolitan area, but they do not form a biprovincial city
because there are separate municipalities in each
Lloydminster's distinctive situation is reflected in other legal
matters, including its time zone
law requires the use of daylight
, while Saskatchewan does not observe daylight
saving time. Lloydminster's charter
it to follow Alberta's use of daylight saving time on both sides of
the provincial border; this places the city in the Mountain Standard Time Zone
synchronizes clocks with those of Alberta. Lloydminster follows the
Saskatchewan schedule when voting in municipal elections.
Controversially, Lloydminster was not exempted from recent
legislation passed by
responded by initiating a referendum against the wishes of the
mayor, as permitted in the charter, which resulted in the enactment
of a city-wide anti-smoking bylaw. The matter was made a moot point
when Alberta enacted its own anti-smoking legislation, which was
the solution that the mayor and council preferred.
to be an exclusively British Utopian settlement centred around the idea of
sobriety, the town was founded in 1903 by
the Barr Colonists, who came directly
from the United
Kingdom. At a time when the area was still part of the
Territories, the town was located astride the Fourth Meridian of the Dominion Land Survey.
Barr colonists 1903
meridian was intended to coincide with 110° west longitude
although the imperfect surveying methods
of the time led to the meridian being placed a few hundred meters
west of this longitude.
While provincehood of some sort was seen as inevitable by 1903, it
had been widely expected that only one province would eventually be
created instead of two. The colonists were not aware of the federal
government's deep-rooted opposition to the creation of a single
province and thus had no way of knowing that the Fourth Meridian
was under consideration as a future provincial boundary. Had they
known, it is very unlikely they would have sited the new settlement
on the future border.
The town was named for Anglican
Bishop George Exton Lloyd
strong opponent of non-British immigration
to Canada. During a nearly
disastrous immigration journey, which was badly planned and
conducted, he distinguished himself with the colonists and replaced
the Barr Colony
's leader and namesake
Isaac Montgomery Barr
the colonists' journey to the eventual townsite.
When the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were created in
1905, the Fourth Meridian was selected as the border, bisecting the
town. Caught by surprise, Lloydminster residents petitioned for the
new border to be revised so as to encompass the entire town within
Saskatchewan, without success.
For the next quarter century, Lloydminster remained two separate
towns with two separate municipal administrations. Finally, in 1930
the provincial governments agreed to amalgamate
the towns into a single
town under shared jurisdiction. The provinces, again jointly,
reincorporated Lloydminster as a city in 1958.
Commemorating Lloydminster's distinctive bi-provincial status, a
monument consisting of four 100-foot survey markers was erected in
1994 near the city's downtown core.
Although the majority of Lloydminster's population once lived in
Saskatchewan, that ratio has long since been reversed. The Alberta
side of the border has seen most of the city's recent population growth
. In 2000, the city hall
and municipal offices were re-located
from Saskatchewan to Alberta.
Since Lloydminster's founders were attempting to create a utopian,
society, alcohol was
not available in Lloydminster for the first few years after its
founding. A bylaw prohibiting nude
is also in place.
The flags of Saskatchewan and Alberta
flanking the flag of Canada in Lloydminster.
According to the Canada 2006
, the population was 24,028, of which 15,910 (66.0%) live
in Alberta and 8,118 (34.0%) live in Saskatchewan. According to the
2001 federal census, the total population of the city was 20,988,
of which 13,148 (62.6%) resided in Alberta while 7,840 (37.4%)
lived in Saskatchewan. From 2001 to 2006, the population rose 21.0%
on the Alberta side while the Saskatchewan side rose by 3.5%.
The two sides of the city rank 10th in Alberta and 11th in
Saskatchewan in municipal population. If the city were entirely in
one province or the other, Lloydminster's population would rank
ninth in Alberta and fifth in Saskatchewan.
There are substantial demographic
differences between the populations on each side of the border,
with the population on the Saskatchewan side being substantially
younger; the median age on the Saskatchewan side is 26.6, nearly
seven years less than the the median age of 33.2 on the Alberta
side. Even when combining the median ages for both sides of the
city, Lloydminster has the youngest median age in all of Canada.
Also, the specific age group of 20–24 is much more concentrated on
the Saskatchewan side. The two sides of the city have virtually
identical numbers of people in that age group (1,220 in
Saskatchewan, 1,230 in Alberta) even though the total population on
the Alberta side is nearly twice that of the Saskatchewan
The Census Agglomeration
Lloydminster includes both parts of the city, as well as the rural
municipality of Wilton No. 472, the town of Lashburn,
Saskatchewan, and the village of Marshall,
More than 8% of residents identified themselves as aboriginal at
the time of the 2006 census.
About 94% of residents identified English
as their first language
. More than 1.4% of the
population identified French
their first language, while 0.8% identified German
, 0.7% identified Ukrainian
, and 0.5% identified Cree
as their first language learned. The next
most common languages were Chinese
at about 0.3% each.
Additionally, there has been a growing number of Filipinos coming
in as skilled workers
More than 78 percent of residents identified as Christian
at the time of the 2001 census, while
over 18 percent indicated that they had no religious affiliation.
For specific denominations Statistics
found that 30% of residents identified as Roman Catholic
, while 18% identified with the
United Church of Canada
more than 7% identified as Anglican
, about 5% identified as
, almost 3% identified as Pentecostal
, about 2% identified as Baptist
, and just over 1% of the population
identified as Eastern
Economy and taxation
The local economy is driven primarily by the booming petroleum
remains an important economic
activity, although many farmers in the area have been sustained
financially by lease payments resulting from oil wells
drilled on their land.
Lloydminster's bi-provincial status has resulted in special
provisions regarding provincial taxation within the city limits.
The Saskatchewan side of the city is exempt from that province's
, preventing businesses located
there from being placed at a disadvantage relative to businesses in
Alberta, which has no provincial
. There is no exemption for provincial income tax
, which is based solely on the taxpayer
's province of residence. Other differences
surrounding interprovincial costs are reflected within the
treatment of automobile insurance, and housing taxes. For example,
residents on the Alberta side (under 25 driver) will pay
approximately pay 2-3 times the average amount required of a
Residents on the Alberta side are in the electoral district
elections to the federal House
, and Vermilion-Lloydminster
to the Legislative
Assembly of Alberta
. Residents in Saskatchewan are in Battlefords—Lloydminster
federally, and Lloydminster
Assembly of Saskatchewan
Elementary and secondary schools on both sides of the border all
use Saskatchewan's curriculum. Lloydminster provides post-secondary
education through Lakeland College offering one and two year certificate and diploma
Foster, Franklin Lloyd, and Alan
Bordering on Greatness: A History of
Lloydminster's First Century 1903–2003.
Lloydminster: Foster Learning Inc.,