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General Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport in the East Bostonmarker neighborhood of Bostonmarker, Massachusettsmarker, United Statesmarker (and partly in the Town of Winthrop, Massachusettsmarker), is one of the 20 busiest airports in the U.S.marker, with over 26 million passengers a year. The airport serves as a focus city for AirTran Airways, American Airlines, and JetBlue Airways. Retail management is provided by BAA, a Spanish-owned British company for Terminals B and E, and Australian-based Westfield Group for Terminals A and C.

It covers , has six runways, and employs an estimated 16,000 people., The airport has service to destinations in the United Statesmarker, as well as Canadamarker, the Cape Verdemarker Islands, the Caribbeanmarker, Europe, and Mexicomarker. The distinctive central control tower, nearly a dozen stories high, is a local landmark with its pair of segmented elliptical pylons and a six-story platform trussed between them.

Boston Logan Airport is the 12th busiest airport in the USA based on international traffic. In 2005, it handled 3,902,000 international passengers. Logan is the largest airport in New Englandmarker. Currently New England’s largest transportation center, Logan ranks 20th in the nation in passenger volume and 19th in flight movements, employs approximately 12,000 workers and stimulates the New England regional economy by approximately $7 billion per year.

History

Originally called Boston Airport, Logan opened on September 8, 1923, and was used primarily by the Massachusetts Air Guard and the Army Air Corps. At that time, it was known as Jeffery Field. The first scheduled commercial passenger flights were initiated by Colonial Air Transport between Boston and New York Citymarker in 1927.

The airport has expanded over the years, including the addition of built on landfill in Boston Harbor and the incorporation of the former Governors and Applemarker Islands. As a consequence the airport is almost entirely surrounded by water. In 1952, the airport became the first in the United States with an indirect rapid transit connection. In 1956, the state renamed the airport as General Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport after a Spanish-American War officer from South Boston.

The era of the jumbo jet began at Logan during the summer of 1970 when Pan Am inaugurated daily Boeing 747 service to London Heathrow Airportmarker. Non-stop flights to London now are scheduled by British Airways, American Airlines, and Virgin Atlantic.

When Terminal E opened in 1974, it was the second largest international arrivals facility in the United States. Since that time the number of international travelers using Logan has tripled. International long-haul travel has been the fastest growing market sector at Logan and has led the Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport) to embark on a major airport renewal project. The international terminal at Logan has been completely modified and upgraded into an elegant and impressive facility in recent years. Terminal E is a common-use facility, meaning all ticket counters and gates are shared among the international carriers and Southwest Airlinesmarker.

Massport's relationship with neighboring communities has been highly strained since the mid-1960s, when the agency took control of a significant parcel of residential land and popular fishing area adjacent to the northwest side of the airfield. This project was undertaken to extend Runway 15R/33L, which would later become Logan's longest runway. Residents of the affected neighborhood, known as Wood Island, were bought out of their homes and forced to relocate. Public opposition came to a head when hordes of residents lay down in the streets in an attempt to block bulldozers and supply trucks from reaching the intended construction zone.

A November 2006 issue of the Winthrop Transcript featured a front-page article about the operations of air traffic control at Logan. The article described the inside of the Logan tower as being approximately the size of a master bedroom and staffed by eight controllers. In one corner of the room, next to a coffee pot and Danish tray, were strategically-placed large bottles of antacids.

Air Traffic Control for Logan Airport is handled at the Boston Consolidated TRACON facility in Merrimack, New Hampshiremarker, which opened in 2004 and serves most of New England's airspace.

In March 2007, the Boston Herald revealed that Massachusetts State Police personnel were the beneficiaries of a hidden perk that authorized a $40 daily stipend for troopers who commuted to work using their own vehicles, despite a sufficient inventory of take-home cruisers. Although the policy, upon public disclosure, was immediately eliminated for troopers patrolling the Massachusetts Turnpike, sources claim that a similar perk still remains in place for troopers stationed at Logan. Massport has thus far refused to confirm or deny this.

Construction has been completed on an additional runway, 14-32. This runway was first proposed in 1973, but had been delayed by court action.

A scene from the 2006 film The Departed was filmed on location at Logan, inside the connector bridge between Terminal E and the Central Parking Garage. Terminal C and several United Airlines aircraft can be seen in the background.

Parts of the recent Delta Air Lines 2007 "Anthem" commercial were filmed inside Terminal A as well as the connector bridge between Terminal A and Central Parking.

On April 9, 2008, Massport announced that Grand China Airlines had formally applied to the Civil Aviation Administration of China for approval to operate daily non-stop passenger flights to Boston from Beijing using Boeing 787 aircraft. According to Massport, due to delays in production of the 787, the service is not likely to begin before 2010. This is also consistent with government regulations on Chinese route approval, which has allocated all Chinese routes up through 2009.
Logan last had service to Asia in July 2001, when Korean Air discontinued service to Seoul, Korea, which operated with a stop in Washington, D.C.


Facilities and aircraft

Logan International Airport covers an area of which contains six runways:
  • Runway 4L/22R: 7,861 x 150 ft (2,396 x 46 m), Surface: Asphalt
  • Runway 4R/22L: 10,005 x 150 ft (3,050 x 46 m), Surface: Asphalt
  • Runway 9/27: 7,000 x 150 ft (2,134 x 46 m), Surface: Asphalt
  • Runway 14/32: 5,000 x 100 ft (1,524 x 30 m), Surface: Asphalt
  • Runway 15L/33R: 2,557 x 100 ft (779 x 30 m), Surface: Asphalt
  • Runway 15R/33L: 10,083 x 150 ft (3,073 x 46 m), Surface: Asphalt


For 12-month period ending September 30, 2006, the airport had 409,066 aircraft operations, an average of 1,120 per day: 60% scheduled commercial, 32% air taxi and 8% general aviation.

New runway opens

Runway layout at BOS
On November 23, 2006, Runway 14-32 officially opened to air traffic, Logan's first major runway addition in more than forty years. The new runway is unidirectional, with 32 used for landings and 14 for takeoffs. Massport is barred by a court order from using the runway for overland landings or takeoffs, except in emergencies.

Opposition to the construction of 14-32 had been fierce even among residents of nearby communities such as Winthropmarker and Reveremarker, two areas which — by all accounts — were supposed to benefit from a reduction in noise levels once the new runway opened up. With construction now having been completed, more wrangling has erupted over guidelines governing use of the new airstrip. Local communities are aggressively pushing for a minimum runway-use threshold of 11.5-knot northwest winds, slightly higher than the 10-knot threshold espoused by Massport. There has also been heated debate over a recent FAA proposal to lower the decision height for pilots.

The new runway reduces the need for the existing Runway 15L-33R, which, at only long, represents what is perhaps the shortest hard-surface runway at any major airport in the United States. In 1988, Massport had proposed an extension to this airstrip (a project which would have required additional filling-in of land along an important clam bed), but was thwarted by a court injunction.

Boston's Hyatt Harborside Hotel, which sits only a few hundred yards from the runway threshold, was built primarily to prevent Massport from ever extending 14-32 or using it for takeoffs or landings over the city. Massachusetts lawmakers carefully chose the location of the hotel--directly in the runway centerline--prior to its construction in 1992.

According to Massport records, the very first aircraft to use the new airstrip was a Continental Express ERJ 145 regional jet landing on Runway 32, on the morning of December 2, 2006.

Centerfield taxiway

In April 2007, the FAA issued a green light for construction of a new center field taxiway long-sought by Massport to alleviate airfield congestion. The proposed taxiway will be located directly between, and parallel to, Runways 4R-22L and 4L-22R. News of the project receiving FAA approval has stirred up predictable outrage among Logan's neighboring residents. As of July 30, 2009, the new taxiway became operational, ahead of schedule and under budget.

FBOs

The airport is served by several Fixed Base Operators (FBO), which handle fueling, ground handling, aircraft cleaning, cargo service, and aircraft maintenance. They include Swissport USA and Penauille Servisair. General aviation, which is adjacent to the North Cargo area, is handled by Signature Flight Support.

Terminals

The International Arrivals Hall located at Terminal E, lower level.
Logan International Airport has four terminals, A, B, C, and E (or A-C and E), all connected by shuttle buses, as well as between Terminals A and E via moving walkways pre-security. Moving walkways also connect the terminals to a central parking garage. Terminals A, C and E have their own buildings, B is split into north and south. Only Terminal E has U.S. Customs and Immigration services, so all international flights arrive on a special 2nd floor of Terminal E except for those coming from locations with U.S. customs preclearance. Terminal E Departures are located on Level 3, because Level 2 is used for immigration. After immigration, arriving passengers then take the escalator or elevator one level down to Baggage Claim and Customs. The largest mainline airline at Boston Logan is JetBlue carrying 15.72% of all arriving and departing passengers combined, followed by American Airlines (14.89%), US Airways (14.72%), Delta Air Lines (13.67%), and United Airlines (10.52%)[30154]. However, these figures may be misleading, since they do not include American Eagle, US Airways Express, or Delta Connection, each of which has significant operations at Logan Airport. The airport has 102 gate positions total, with all 13 of the Terminal E gates being used as common-use, meaning the gates may be assigned mostly depending on an operational need. The most frequently ticketed destination from Logan Int'l Airport is Chicago O'Haremarker between September 2008 and August 2009.

Logan's newly built Terminal A, which replaced a previous building that was once occupied by the now-discontinued Eastern Airlines, opened to passengers on March 16, 2005. The building is the first airport terminal in the United States to be LEED certified for environmentally friendly design by the U.S. Green Building Council. Among the building's features are heat-reflecting roof and windows, low-flow faucets and waterless urinals, self-dimming lights, and storm water filtration.

The airport's USO Lounge is located in the baggage claim area of Terminal C, lower level. It offers most typical amenities as other markets as major as Greater Boston. Military ID is mandatory.

Animal Relief Areas, known as "Petports" at Logan International Airport, are located near the lower level outside of every terminal, offering typical pet amenities, such as a grassy area and a faux fire hydrant to relieve a pet's restless condition. Pet owners are required to curb their pets.

Airlines and Destinations

  • Note: All international arrivals (except flights with customs preclearance) are handled at Terminal E.


On the night of February 28, 2006, the Terminal D gates (the three gates at the north end of the terminal) were renumbered and labeled as part of Terminal C.

Airline lounges

Since many major domestic and international airlines have a large presence at Logan, there are several airline lounges actively in operation at that airport.

Cargo

Logan Airport has two cargo facilities (North Cargo adjacent to Terminal E and South Cargo adjacent to Terminals A and B). The airport is served by the several cargo carriers:

Ground transportation

The MBTA's Silver Line SL1 bus rapid transit service connects South Stationmarker, a major MBTA Commuter Rail, Amtrak, Red Line subway and bus transportation hub in the downtown Boston financial district, with all Logan terminals. There is also an Airport stopmarker on the MBTA's Blue Line subway service. The Blue Line stop is not in the airport terminal itself; free shuttle buses provided by Massport bring passengers from the train station to the terminal buildings. Massport's Logan Express bus service also serves the areas of Braintreemarker, Framinghammarker, Peabodymarker, and the Anderson Regional Transportation Centermarker in Woburnmarker for an adult fare of $12.00 one-way and $22.00 round-trip per passenger. Logan Express operates on the lower level curb of all terminals.

Exit Express pay stations, allowing expedited exit from the parking garages by reducing lines at the toll plaza.


Cell Phone Waiting Lot on Harborside Dr.


Limousine pickup is also very common at the airport. Limousine drivers are not allowed to leave their vehicles at the designated pickup areas and pickup locations vary depending on the terminal. For Terminal A, the pickup location is on the arrival level, outside baggage claim, in a small parking lot across the road. For Terminal B (both American Airlines and US Airways sides), pickup is at the curbside on the departure level. At Terminal C, pickup is also on the departure level at the second and third islands from the building. At Terminal E, pickup is on the arrival level in a small parking lot across the road.

Taxi operations are coordinated at each terminal by Massport. Massport's regulations have reduced the number of taxis allowed to wait in front of the terminal at any one time, and prohibit taxis from picking up fares at any location other than the designated taxi stands located at each terminal on the lower level curbs on the far left outside of baggage claim. A large staging area near the South Cargo complex serves as the waiting area for taxis, before they are called to the taxi stands to replenish the supply. Metered-rates from Logan to the Boston-area hotels range from approximately $25.00 to $50.00.

The MBTA operates a water shuttle connecting Logan with downtown Boston, Quincymarker, and Hullmarker. On demand service from the airport to various locations on the downtown waterfront is provided by a fleet of water taxis. A free shuttle bus ferries passengers between the airport dock and the various terminals.

There are a number of well-known Car Rental agencies which have operations at or near Logan Airport, including Alamo, Avis, Budget, Dollar, Enterprise, Hertz, National and Thrifty. Many car rental locations in different neighborhoods of Boston and also Cambridge tend to receive better customer opinions, especially in Downtown Boston.

On Harborside Dr., Logan International Airport offers a 30-minute cell phone waiting lot area, which is complimentary and five minutes from all terminals by car. This convenience service exists to reduce congestion and pollution problems.

By public roads, the airport is accessible via Exit 26 on I-90 near the eastern terminus of the Massachusetts Turnpike of which I-90 transitions to Route 1A to Lynn and New Hampshiremarker, which provides easy access from the west via the Ted Williams Tunnelmarker. From the south, travellers on Interstate 93 can connect to the Masspike east, through the Ted Williams Tunnel and take exit 26 to reach the airport. From the north, I-93 traffic to the airport uses the Callahan Tunnelmarker, Route 1A North. From the North Shoremarker, access is via Route 1A South. Additionally, road traffic from most of downtown Boston, Back Baymarker and Fenwaymarker/Boston Universitymarker should use the Callahan Tunnel. The westbound twin tunnel to the Callahan Tunnel is known as the Sumner Tunnelmarker. Eastbound travel through the tunnels is free, but there is a $3.50 toll for westbound travel.

On July 10, 2006, the connector tunnel leading from the Massachusetts Turnpike to the Ted Williams Tunnel was closed due to a ceiling collapse that killed a woman. This complicated airport access from the south and west. This connector tunnel was part of the Big Digmarker project which extended the Massachusetts Turnpike to the airport via the Ted Williams Tunnel. Access from I-90 Eastbound was restored in August 2006, and access to I-90 Westbound was restored on December 23, 2006. I-90 access was completely restored the weekend of January 14, 2007.

Notable incidents

  • On October 4 1960, an Eastern Airlines Lockheed L-188 Electra crashed into the sea while attempting to take off from Logan Airport. 62 people died and 9 people survived, incurring serious injuries.




  • On July 31, 1973, Delta Air Lines Flight 723, operated on a DC-9 airplane, crashed into a seawall at Logan Airport, causing the deaths of all 83 passengers and 6 crew members on board. One of the passengers initially survived the accident but later died in a hospital.


  • On January 23, 1982 World Airways Flight 30 from Newark to Boston made a non-precision instrument approach to runway 15R and touched down 2800 feet past the displaced threshold on an icy runway. When the crew sensed that the DC-10-30-CF couldn't be stopped on the remaining runway, they steered the DC-10 off the side of the runway to avoid the approach light pier, and slid into the shallow water of Boston Harbor. The nose section separated as the DC-10 came to rest 250 feet past the runway end, 110 feet left of the extended centerline. 2 male passengers (a father and son) were never found and are presumed to have been swept out to sea.


  • On September 11, 2001, two of the aircraft involved in the 9/11 terrorist attacks, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, departed from Logan International Airport. Both aircraft were flown into the World Trade Center's Twin Towers in New York, destroying the buildings. United and American Airlines have mounted American flags on the gates from which the flights departed that day.




Related Airports

To address Logan Airport's overcrowding, Massport has designated two out-of-state airports as the second and third airports of Boston: Manchester-Boston Regional Airportmarker in Manchester, New Hampshiremarker, located approximately 44 statute miles (72 kilometers) north-northwest of Logan, which converts to an average drive time of 48 minutes via I-93, one of the major U.S. interstates dedicated to serve strictly the population of the New Englandmarker region of the United States; and T.marker F.marker Green Airportmarker in Providence, Rhode Islandmarker, located 63 statute miles (101 kilometers) south-southwest of Logan, averaging a 1 hour, 8 minute drive to Logan via I-95. Massport does not operate these facilities.

For a time, Massport also operated scheduled flights at Hanscom Fieldmarker in Bedford, Massachusettsmarker and Worcester Regional Airportmarker in Worcestermarker, each of which are operated by Massport.

See also



References

  1. http://www.bts.gov/publications/pocket_guide_to_transportation/2008/html/table_04_07b.html
  2. http://www.massport.com/logan/about_histo.html
  3. http://massport.com/about/press_news_Hainan_Application.html Application for Boston/Beijing Service Filed with Chinese Government
  4. Hub-to-China flights could begin in '09. Boston Herald.
  5. Wong, Nicole C. (2008 February 15). Massport seeks to lure more foreign flights. The Boston Globe: Globe-Trotting (blog). Retrieved on 2008 March 22
  6. Howe, Peter J. (2007 September 14). A jet to help Boston's dreams take off. The Boston Globe. Retrieved on 2008 January 3.
  7. FAA: Environmental Impact Statement - Airside Improvements Planning Project - Centerfield Taxiway
  8. http://massport.com/logan/insid_termi_video.html
  9. http://www.massport.com/logan/about.asp
  10. massport.airportwayfinder.com
  11. https://www.continental.com/web/en-us/content/travel/airport/lounge/locations/all.aspx?SID=0B3C20E5F2A1495D9CFD651F5DDDABC1 CO Lounge Locations
  12. http://www.virgin-atlantic.com/en/us/whatsonboard/clubhouses/bostonclubhouse.jsp Virgin Atlantic-Boston Clubhouse


External links




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