The Full Wiki

Lord's Prayer: Map

Advertisements
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:





The Lord's Prayer, also known as the Our Father or Pater noster, is perhaps the best-known prayer in Christianity. Two versions of it occur in the New Testament, one in the Gospel of Matthew as part of the discourse on ostentation, a section of the Sermon on the Mount; and the other in the Gospel of Luke .

The context of the prayer in Matthew is as part of a discourse deploring people who pray simply for the purpose of being seen to pray; Matthew describes Jesus as instructing people to pray "after the manner" of this prayer. Taking into account the prayer's structure, flow of subject matter and emphases, one interpretation of the Lord's Prayer is as a guideline on how to pray rather than something to be learned and repeated by rote. There are other interpretations suggesting that the prayer was intended as a specific prayer to be used. The New Testament reports Jesus and the disciples praying on several occasions; but as it never describes them actually using this prayer, it is uncertain how important it was originally viewed as being.

In Christian scholarship, the prayer's absence from the Gospel of Mark (cf. the Prayer for forgiveness of ), taken together with its presence in both Luke and Matthew, has caused scholars who accept the Q hypothesis (as opposed to Augustinian hypothesis) to conclude that it is a quotation from the Q document, especially because of the context in Luke's presentation of the prayer.

On Easter Sunday 2007 it was estimated that 2 billion Catholic, Protestant and Eastern Orthodox Christians read, recited, or sang the short prayer in hundreds of languages. Although many theological differences and various modes and manners of worship divide Christians, according to Fuller Seminary professor Clayton Schmit "there is a sense of solidarity in knowing that Christians around the globe are praying together…, and these words always unite us."

English versions

There are several different English translations of the Lord's Prayer. One of the first texts in English is the Northumbrian translation from around 650. The three best-known are These are given here along with the Greek text of and the Latin version used in the Roman Catholic Church.In four of the texts given below, the square brackets indicate the doxology with which the prayer is often concluded. This is not included in critical editions of the New Testament, such as that of the United Bible Societies, as not belonging to the original text of , nor is it always part of the Book of Common Prayer text. In the Roman Catholic Church, the doxology was for the first time added to the Roman Rite liturgy of the Mass in 1969, but not as part of or attached to the Our Father.

Original text in Greek

·
·
·
·
·
,
·
,
.


Latin version


Pater noster, qui es in caelis:
sanctificetur Nomen Tuum;
adveniat Regnum Tuum;
fiat voluntas Tua,
sicut in caelo, et in terra.
Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis hodie;
et dimitte nobis debita nostra,
Sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris;
et ne nos inducas in tentationem;
sed libera nos a Malo.


1662 BCP


Our Father, which art in heaven,
hallowed be thy name;
thy kingdom come;
thy will be done,
in earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread.
And forgive us our trespasses,
as we forgive them that trespass against us.
And lead us not into temptation;
but deliver us from evil.
[For thine is the kingdom,
the power, and the glory,
for ever and ever.]
Amen.


1928 BCP


Our Father, who art in heaven,
Hallowed be thy Name.
Thy kingdom come.
Thy will be done,
On earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread.
And forgive us our trespasses,
As we forgive those who trespass against us.
And lead us not into temptation,
But deliver us from evil.
[For thine is the kingdom,
and the power, and the glory,
for ever and ever.]
Amen.


ELLC (1988)


Our Father in heaven,
:hallowed be your name,
:your kingdom come,
:your will be done,
::on earth as in heaven.
Give us today our daily bread.
Forgive us our sins
:as we forgive those who sin against us.
Save us from the time of trial
:and deliver us from evil.


For the kingdom, the power, and the glory are yours
:now and for ever. Amen.


Other English translations are also used. The Eastern Orthodox Churches use a modified version in their English services. Some New Thought groups, such as Religious Science, sometimes use the prayer also, often with modified wording, such as replacing the word "evil" with "error".

Though uses the term debts, the older English versions of the Lord's Prayer uses the term trespasses, while ecumenical versions often use the term sins. The latter choice may be due to , which uses the word sins, while the former may be due to (immediately after the text of the prayer), where Jesus speaks of trespasses. As early as the third century, Origen of Alexandria used the word trespasses ( ) in the prayer. Though the Latin form that was traditionally used in Western Europe has debita (debts), most English-speaking Christians (except Presbyterians and others of the Reformed tradition), use trespasses. The Established Presbyterian Church of Scotlandmarker as well as the Congregational denomination follow the version found in Matthew 6 in the Authorized Version (known also as the King James Version), which in the prayer uses the words "debts" and "debtors".

Roman Catholics usually do not add to the Our Father the doxology, "For Thine is the kingdom, power, and glory, forever and ever", which is not found in the earliest manuscripts of the Gospel of MatthewIt is absent from manuscripts א, B, D, 0170, f1, 547, itmss However, this doxology, in the form "For the kingdom, the power, and the glory are yours, now and for ever", is used in the Roman Rite Mass as revised in 1970, separated from the Lord's Prayer by a prayer ("Libera nos ..."), spoken or sung by the priest, that elaborates on the final petition, "Deliver us from evil." In the 1975 ICEL translation, this prayer reads: "Deliver us, Lord, from every evil, and grant us peace in our day. In your mercy keep us free from sin and protect us from all anxiety as we wait in joyful hope for the coming of our Savior, Jesus Christ."

All these versions are based on the text in Matthew, rather than Luke, of the prayer given by Jesus:

(KJV)

After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father which art in Heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in Heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen.


(KJV)

And he said unto them, When ye pray, say, Our Father which art in Heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as in Heaven, so in earth. Give us day by day our daily bread. And forgive us our sins; for we also forgive every one that is indebted to us. And lead us not into temptation; but deliver us from evil.


Analysis



Subheadings use 1662 Book of Common Prayer (BCP) (see above)

"Our Father, which art in Heaven"

Together, the first two words—Our Father—are a title used elsewhere in the New Testament, as well as in Jewish literature, to refer to God.

"Hallowed be thy Name"

Having opened, the prayer begins in the same manner as the Kaddish, hallowing the name of God, and then going on to express hope that God's will and kingdom will happen. In Judaism the name of God is of extreme importance, and honouring the name central to piety. Names were seen not simply as labels, but as true reflections of the nature and identity of what they referred to. So, the prayer that God's name be hallowed was seen as equivalent to hallowing God himself. "Hallowed be" is in the passive voice and so does not indicate who is to do the hallowing. One interpretation is that it is a call for all believers to honour God's name. Those who see the prayer as primarily eschatological understand the prayer to be an expression of desire for the end times, when God's name, in the view of those saying the prayer, will be universally honoured.

"Thy kingdom come"

The request for God's kingdom to come is usually interpreted as a reference to the belief, common at the time, that a Messiah figure would bring about a Kingdom of God. Traditionally the coming of God's Kingdom is seen as a divine gift to be prayed for, not a human achievement.

"Thy will be done, in earth as it is in heaven"

The prayer follows with an expression of hope for God's will to be done. Some see the expression of hope as an addendum to assert a request for earth to be under direct and manifest divine command. Others see it as a call on people to submit to God and his teachings. In the Gospels, these requests have the added clarification in earth, as it is in heaven, an ambiguous phrase in Greek which can either be a simile (i.e., make earth like heaven), or a couple (i.e., both in heaven and earth), though simile is the most significant common interpretation.

"Give us this day our daily bread"

The more personal requests break from the similarity to the Kaddish. The first concerns daily bread. The meaning of the word normally translated as daily, epiousios, is obscure. The word is almost a hapax legomenon, occurring only in Luke and Matthew's versions of the Lord's Prayer. (It was once mistakenly thought to be found also in an Egyptian accounting book.). Daily bread appears to be a reference to the way God provided manna to the Israelites each day while they were in the wilderness, as in . Since they could not keep any manna overnight, they had to depend on God to provide anew each morning. Etymologically epiousios seems to be related to the Greek words epi, meaning on,over,at,against and ousia, meaning substance. It is translated as supersubstantialem in the Vulgate ( ) and accordingly as supersubstantial in the Douay-Rheims Bible ( ). Early writers connected this to Eucharistic transubstantiation. Some modern Protestant scholars tend to reject this connection on the presumption that Eucharistic practise and the doctrine of transubstantiation both developed later than Matthew was written. Epiousios can also be understood as existence, i.e., bread that was fundamental to survival (as in the Syriac Peshitta, where the line is translated "give us the bread of which we have need today."). In the era, bread was the most important food for survival. However, scholars of linguistics consider this rendering unlikely since it would violate standard rules of word formation. Koine Greek had several far more common terms for the same idea. Some interpret epiousios as meaning for tomorrow, as in the wording used by the Gospel of the Nazoraeans for the prayer. The common translation as "daily" is conveniently close in meaning to the other two possibilities as well. Those Christians who read the Lord's Prayer as eschatological view epiousios as referring to the second coming — reading for tomorrow (and bread) in a metaphorical sense. Most scholars disagree, particularly since Jesus is portrayed throughout Luke and Matthew as caring for everyday needs for his followers, particularly in the bread-related miracles that are recounted.

"And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive them that trespass against us"

After the request for bread, Matthew and Luke diverge slightly. Matthew continues with a request for debts to be forgiven in the same manner as people forgive those who have debts against them. Luke, on the other hand, makes a similar request about sins being forgiven in the manner of debts being forgiven between people. The word "debts" ( ) does not necessarily mean financial obligations as shown by the use of the verbal form of the same word ( ) in passages such as . In Aramaic the word for debt is also used to mean sin. This difference between Luke's and Matthew's wording could be explained by the original form of the prayer having been in Aramaic. The generally accepted interpretation is thus that the request is for forgiveness of sin, not of supposed loans granted by God. Asking for forgiveness from God was a staple of Jewish prayers. It was also considered proper for individuals to be forgiving of others, so the sentiment expressed in the prayer would have been a common one of the time.

Anthony C. Deane, Canon of Worcester Cathedral, suggested that the choice of the word "ὀφειλήματα" (debts), rather than "ἁμαρτίας" (sins), indicated a reference to failures to use opportunities of doing good. He linked this with the parable of the sheep and the goats (also in Matthew's Gospel), in which the grounds for condemnation are not wrong-doing in the ordinary sense but failure to do right, missing opportunities for showing love to others ( ).

"As we forgive...". Divergence between Matthew's "debts" and Luke's "trespasses" is relatively trivial compared to the impact of the second half of this statement. Jesus taught that the forgiveness of our sin/debt (by God) is contingent on how we forgive others. In case this is not clear enough Matthew reiterates ( ). Later, Matthew elaborates with Jesus's parable of the unforgiving servant ( ). In this parable, forgiveness from the king (God) is conditional on the servant's forgiveness of a small debt owed to him. The primary focus of this verse is forgiveness.

"And lead us not into temptation"

Interpretations of the penultimate petition of the prayer — not to be led by God into peirasmos — vary considerably. The range of meanings of the Greek word "πειρασμός" (peirasmos) is illustrated in The New Testament Greek Lexicon. In different contexts it can mean temptation, testing, trial, experiment. Traditionally it has been translated "temptation" and, in spite of the statement in that God tests/tempts nobody, some see the petition in the Lord's Prayer as implying that God leads people to sin. There are generally two arguments for interpreting the word as meaning here a "test of character". First, it may be an eschatological appeal against unfavourable Last Judgment, though nowhere in literature of the time, not even in the New Testament, is the term peirasmos connected to such an event. The other argument is that it acts as a plea against hard tests described elsewhere in scripture, such as those of Job. It can also be read as: "LORD, do not let us be led (by ourselves, by others, by Satan) into temptations". Since it follows shortly after a plea for daily bread (i.e. material sustenance), it can be seen as referring to not being caught up in the material pleasures given. A similar phrase appears in and in connection with the prayer of Jesus in Gethsemane.

"But deliver us from evil"

Translations and scholars are divided over whether the evil mentioned in the final petition refers to evil in general or the devil in particular. The original Greek, as well as the Latin version, could be either of neuter (evil in general) or masculine (the evil one) gender. In earlier parts of the Sermon on the Mount, in which Matthew's version of the prayer appears, the term is used to refer to general evil. Later parts of Matthew refer to the devil when discussing similar issues. However, the devil is never referred to as the evil one in any Aramaic sources. While John Calvin accepted the vagueness of the term's meaning, he considered that there is little real difference between the two interpretations, and that therefore the question is of no real consequence. Similar phrases are found in and

"For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever and ever. Amen"

The doxology of the prayer is not contained in Luke's version, nor is it present in the earliest manuscripts of Matthew, representative of the Alexandrian text, but is present in the manuscripts representative of the Byzantine text. The first known use of the doxology, in a less lengthy form ("for yours is the power and the glory forever"), as a conclusion for the Lord's Prayer (in a version slightly different from that of Matthew) is in the Didache, 8:2. There are at least ten different versions of the doxology in early manuscripts of Matthew before it seems to have standardised. Jewish prayers at the time had doxological endings. The doxology may have been originally appended to the Lord's Prayer for use during congregational worship. If so, it could be based on . Most scholars do not consider it part of the original text of Matthew, and modern translations do not include it, mentioning it only in footnotes. Latin Rite Roman Catholics do not use it when reciting the Lord's Prayer, but it has been included as an independent item, not as part of the Lord's Prayer, in the 1970 revision of the Mass. It is attached to the Lord's Prayer in Eastern Christianity (including Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Churches) and Protestantism. A minority, generally fundamentalists, posit that the doxology was so important that early manuscripts of Matthew neglected it due to its obviousness, though several other quite obvious things are mentioned in the Gospels.

Use as a language comparison tool

220 px
Since the publication of the Mithridates books, translations of the prayer have often been used for a quick comparison of languages, primarily because most earlier philologists were Christians, and very often priests. Due to missionary activity, one of the first texts to be translated between many languages has historically been the Bible, and so to early scholars the most readily available text in any particular language would most likely be a partial or total translation of the Bible. For example, the only extant text in Gothic, a language crucial in the history of Indo-European languages, is Codex Argenteus, the incomplete Bible translated by Wulfila.

This tradition has been opposed recently from both the angle of religious neutrality and of practicality: the forms used in the Lord's Prayer (many commands) are not very representative of common discourse. Philologists and language enthusiasts have proposed other texts such as the Babel text (also part of the Bible) or the story of the North Wind and the Sun. In Soviet language sciences the complete works of Lenin were often used for comparison, as they were translated to most languages in the 20th century.

Latin version

Gregorian chant – Pater noster.


The Latin version of this prayer has had cultural and historical importance for most regions where English is spoken. The text used in the liturgy (Mass, Liturgy of the Hours, etc.) differs slightly from that found in the Vulgate and probably pre-dates it.

The doxology associated with the Lord's Prayer is found in four Vetus Latina manuscripts, only two of which give it in its entirety. The other surviving manuscripts of the Vetus Latina Gospels do not have the doxology. The Vulgate translation also does not include it, thus agreeing with critical editions of the Greek text.

In the Latin Rite liturgies, this doxology is never attached to the Lord's Prayer. Its only use in the Roman Rite liturgy is in the Mass as revised after the Second Vatican Council. It is there placed not immediately after the Lord's Prayer, but instead after the priest's prayer, Libera nos, quaesumus..., elaborating on the final petition, Libera nos a malo (Deliver us from evil).

Aramaic version

The Lord's Prayer survives in the Aramaic language in the form given to it in the Syriac Peshitta version of the New Testament. The dialect of Syriac in which it is written is not the dialect that would have been spoken by Jesus of Nazareth or his followers. Therefore, claims that the Peshitta Lord's Prayer is "the original" are incorrect: it too is translated from the Greek text of .

A very large number of "translations" of the "Aramaic Lord's Prayer" that stem from various mystic traditions and have little or no relation to the actual meaning of the Aramaic text are circulating on the Internet. Many of them expound various New Age themes and interpret the prayer far beyond what scholars and linguists believe is possible or honest.

Relation to Jewish prayer

There are similarities between the Lord's Prayer and both Biblical and post-Biblical material in Jewish prayer especially Kiddushin 81a (Babylonian). "Hallowed be thy name" is reflected in the Kaddish. "Lead us not into sin" is echoed in the "morning blessings" of Jewish prayer. A blessing said by some Jewish communities after the evening Shema includes a phrase quite similar to the opening of the Lord's Prayer: "Our God in heaven, hallow thy name, and establish thy kingdom forever, and rule over us for ever and ever. Amen." There are parallels also in .

Latter-day Saint view

Unlike Christian denominations, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) does not use the Lord's Prayer in worship. Mormons believe that Jesus gave it as a general pattern for prayer, and not as a "vain repetition" to be copied exactly.

The Book of Mormon includes a version of the Lord's Prayer, said to derive from an eye-witness account of Jesus' sermon to a group of Native Americans shortly after his resurrection. The English phraseology strongly resembles the text of Matthew in the King James Version of the New Testament. It includes the doxological ending, generally considered to be a later interpolation to Matthew from The Didache of the Twelve Apostles.

See also



References

  1. Kang, K. Connie. "Across the globe, Christians are united by Lord's Prayer." Los Angeles Times, in Houston Chronicle, p. A13, April 8, 2007
  2. Catechism of the Catholic Church
  3. The doxology is never joined immediately to the Lord's Prayer in the Latin liturgy or the Latin Bible. In the Roman Missal this doxology appears (separated from the Lord's Prayer by another prayer) in the form "quia tuum est regnum, et potestas, et gloria, in saecula"; others have translated it into Latin as "quia tuum est regnum; et potentia et gloria; per omnia saecula or in saecula saeculorum."
  4. The Communion
  5. The Book of Common Prayer (1928)
  6. Praying Together
  7. "Just as God's name is holy in itself and yet we pray that it may be holy among us, so also his kingdom comes of itself without our prayer, and yet we pray that it may come to us, that is, that it may prevail among us and with us, so that we may be a part of those among whom his name is hallowed and his kingdom flourishes" (Martin Luther, Large Catechism, Book of Concord, p.446, Kolb/Wengert).
  8. Nijman, M.,Worp, K.A. ΕΠΙΟΥΣΙΟΣ in a Documentary Papyrus?, Novum Testamentum, Volume 41, Number 3 / July, 1999, pp. 231-234.
  9. In his Commentary on Matthew, Jerome, citing the Gospel of the Hebrews, but referring in fact to the similar Gospel of the Nazoraeans, writes that "in the so-called Gospel of the Hebrews for supersubstantial bread one finds MAHAR, which translates as of tomorrow. Therefore the meaning would be give us today our bread of tomorrow, i.e. our future bread". In the original Latin, "In Evangelio quod appellatur secundum Hebraeos, pro supersubstantiali pane, reperi MAHAR (מחר), quod dicitur crastinum; ut sit sensus: Panem nostrum crastinum, id est, futurum da nobis hodie."
  10. In A Rabbinic Commentary on the New Testament (1987), pp.119-121, ISBN 978-0-881250-89-3, Samuel Tobias Lachs points out that bread "sufficient for our tomorrow" (de maherenu) in Hebrew letters differs by only one letter from bread "sufficient for our needs" (de mahserenu) and is probably a transcription error caused by the loss of the single letter (sameq).
  11. Historian Livio Catullo Stecchini speculated that epiousios can be understood as a metrological term meaning a "full measure" of grain, but his pseudoscientific explanation remains controversial. A History of Measures
  12. A Study of the Lord's Prayer, Chapter VI
  13. and are respectful challenges for a test to prove the writer's innocence and integrity.
  14. Clontz, T.E. and J., "The Comprehensive New Testament", Cornerstone Publications (2008), pp. 451-452, ISBN 978-0-977873-71-5
  15. Clontz, p. 452
  16. Clontz, p. 8
  17. The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, commonly called the Didache, in Christian Classics Ethereal Library
  18. It is unclear on what grounds they consider the doxology more important and obvious than, say, "Deliver us from evil."
  19. Two examples are Mithridates de differentis linguis, Conrad Gessner, 1555; and Mithridates oder allgemeine Sprachenkunde mit dem Vater Unser als Sprachprobe in bey nahe fünf hundert Sprachen und Mundarten, Johann Christoph Adelung & Johann Severin Vater, 1806-1817, Berlín, Vossische Buchlandlung, 4 volumes. Facsimile edition, Hildesheim-Nueva York, Georg Olms Verlag, 1970.
  20. Casey, Maurice. (1998). The Aramaic Sources of Mark's Gospel. Cambridge University Press. p. 4.
  21. O Father-Mother Birther of the Cosmos? - An investigation of so called "translations" of the Lord's Prayer in Aramaic.
  22. Clontz, p. 451
  23. Clontz, pp. 8, 451
  24. Russell M. Nelson, “Lessons from the Lord’s Prayers,” Ensign), May 2009, 46–49
  25. 3 Nephi 13:9-13 in The Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ, 1989
  26. Matthew 6:9-13 The Holy Bible, 1611
  27. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings, chapter 27, by Bart D. Ehrman, Oxford University Press, 2000


Books

  • Albright, W.F. and C.S. Mann. "Matthew." The Anchor Bible Series. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1971.
  • Augsburger, Myron. Matthew. Waco, Texas: Word Books, 1982.
  • Barclay, William. The Gospel of Matthew: Volume 1 Chapters 1–10. Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press, 1975.
  • Beare, Francis Wright. The Gospel According to Matthew. Oxford: B. Blackwell, 1981.
  • Clontz, T.E. and J., "The Comprehensive New Testament with complete textual variant mapping and references for the Dead Sea Scrolls, Philo, Josephus, Nag Hammadi Library, Pseudepigrapha, Apocrypha, Plato, Egyptian Book of the Dead, Talmud, Old Testament, Patristic Writings, Dhammapada, Tacitus, Epic of Gilgamesh", Cornerstone Publications, 2008, ISBN 978-0-977873-71-5
  • Filson, Floyd V. A Commentary on the Gospel According to St. Matthew. London: A. & C. Black, 1960.
  • Fowler, Harold. The Gospel of Matthew: Volume One. Joplin: College Press, 1968
  • France, R.T. The Gospel According to Matthew: an Introduction and Commentary. Leicester: Inter-Varsity, 1985.
  • Hendriksen, William. The Gospel of Matthew. Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1976
  • Hill, David. The Gospel of Matthew. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981
  • "Lilies in the Field." A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. David Lyle Jeffrey, general editor. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1992.
  • Lewis, Jack P. The Gospel According to Matthew. Austin, Texas: R.B. Sweet, 1976..
  • Luz, Ulrich. Matthew 1–7: A Commentary. trans. Wilhlem C. Linss. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1989.
  • Morris, Leon. The Gospel According to Matthew. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1992.
  • Schweizer, Eduard. The Good News According to Matthew. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1975


External links

Text



Comment




Embed code: at The Full Wiki'>
Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message