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Map of Lower and Upper Egypt
Lower Egypt is the northern-most section of Egyptmarker. It refers to the fertile Nile Deltamarker region, which stretches from the area between El-Aiyat and Zawyet Dahshurmarker, south of modern-day Cairomarker, and the Mediterranean Seamarker.

Today there are two principal channels that the Nile takes through the river's delta: one in the west at Rashid and one in the east at Damiettamarker. In ancient times,Pliny the Elder (N.H. 5.11) said that upon reaching the delta the Nile split into seven branches (from east to west): the Pelusiacmarker, the Taniticmarker, the Mendesianmarker, the Phatniticmarker, the Sebennyticmarker, the Bolbitinemarker, and the Canopicmarker. Today the delta region is well watered, crisscrossed by channels and canals.

Lower Egypt was known as Ta-Mehu which means "land of papyrus." It was divided into twenty districts called nome, the first of which was at el-Lishtmarker. Because Lower Egypt was mostly undeveloped scrubland, undeveloped for human life and filled with all types of plant life such as grasses and herbs, the organization of the nomes underwent several changes.

The climate in Lower Egypt is milder than that of Upper Egypt owing primarily to its proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. Temperatures are less extreme and rainfall is more abundant.

The capital of Lower Egypt was Memphismarker. Its patron Goddess was the cobra goddess Wadjet. Lower Egypt was represented by the Low Red Crown Deshret, and its symbol was the papyrus.

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