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Lucia di Lammermoor is a dramma tragico (tragic opera) in three acts by Gaetano Donizetti. Salvadore Cammarano wrote the Italian libretto loosely based upon Sir Walter Scott's historical novel The Bride of Lammermoor.
The story concerns a feud between two families, the Ashtons and the Ravenswoods. When the opera begins, the Ashtons are in the ascendancy and have taken possession of Ravenswood Castle, the ancestral home of their rivals. Edgardo (Sir Edgar), Master of Ravenswood and last surviving member of his family, has been forced to live in a lonely tower by the sea, known as the Wolf's Crag. The Ashtons, despite their success, are threatened by changing political and religious forces. Enrico (Lord Henry Ashton) hopes to gain the protection of the important Arturo (Lord Arthur Bucklaw) to whom he intends to marry his sister Lucia.

The opera premiered on September 26, 1835 at the Teatro San Carlomarker in Naplesmarker. Donizetti revised the score for a French version which debuted on August 6, 1839 at the Théâtre de la Renaissancemarker in Parismarker.Very successful from creation, today it remains one of the leading bel canto operas.

Performance history

For decades Lucia was considered to be a mere showpiece for coloratura sopranos and was a little-known part of the operatic repertory. However, after World War II, a small number of technically-able sopranos, the most notable of whom were Maria Callas and Dame Joan Sutherland, revived the opera in all of its original tragic glory. Sutherland's performances in the role at the Royal Opera Housemarker Covent Gardenmarker in 1959 and repeated in 1960 established Lucia as her calling card.

Since its revival, Lucia di Lammermoor has become a staple of the standard operatic repertoire, and appears as number thirteen on Opera America's list of the 20 most-performed operas in North America.

Roles

Role Voice type Premiere Cast, 26 September 1835
(Conductor: - )
Lucia coloratura soprano Fanny Tacchinardi Persiani
Lord Enrico Asthon, Lord of Lammermoor; Lucia's brother baritone Domenico Cosselli
Sir Edgardo di Ravenswood tenor Gilbert Louis Duprez
Lord Arturo Bucklaw, Lucia's bridegroom tenor Balestrieri
Raimondo Bidebent, a Calvinist chaplain bass Carlo Ottolini Porto
Alisa, Lucia's handmaid mezzo-soprano Teresa Zappucci
Normanno, huntsman; a retainer of Enrico tenor Anafesto Rossi
Retainers and servants, wedding guests


Synopsis

Act 1

Scene 1: The gardens of Ravenswood Castle

Normanno (Norman), captain of the castle guard, and other retainers are searching for an intruder. He tells Enrico (Henry) that he believes that the man is Edgardo (Edgar), and that he comes to the castle to meet Lucia. It is confirmed that Edgardo is indeed the intruder. Enrico reaffirms his hatred for the family and his determination to end the relationship.

Scene 2: By a fountain at the entrance to the park, beside the castle

Lucia (Lucy) waits for Edgardo. In her famous aria Regnava nel Silenzio, Lucia tells her maid Alisa (Alice) that she has seen the ghost of a girl killed on the very same spot by a jealous Ravenswood ancestor. Alisa tells Lucia that the apparition is a warning and that she must give up her love for Edgardo. Edgardo enters. For political reasons, he must leave immediately for France. He hopes to make his peace with Enrico and marry Lucia. Lucia tells him this is impossible, and instead they take a sworn vow of marriage and exchange rings. Edgardo leaves.

Act 2

Scene 1: Lord Ashton's apartments in Ravenswood Castle

Preparations have been made for the imminent wedding of Lucia to Arturo (Arthur). Enrico worries about whether Lucia will really submit to the wedding. He shows his sister a forged letter seemingly proving that Edgardo has forgotten her and taken a new lover. Enrico leaves Lucia to further persuasion this time by Raimondo (Raymond), Lucia's chaplain and tutor, that she should renounce her vow to Edgardo, for the good of the family, and marry Arturo.

Scene 2: A hall in the castle

Arturo arrives for the marriage. Lucia acts strangely, but Enrico explains that this is due to the death of her mother. Arturo signs the marriage contract, followed reluctantly by Lucia. At that point Edgardo suddenly appears in the hall. Raimondo prevents a fight, but he shows Lucia's signature on the marriage contract to Edgardo. He curses her, demanding that they return their rings to each other. He tramples his ring on the ground, before being forced out of the castle.

Act 3

Scene 1: The Wolf's Crag

Enrico visits Edgardo to challenge him to a duel. He tells him that Lucia is already enjoying her bridal bed. Edgardo agrees to fight him. They will meet later by the graveyard of the Ravenswoods, near the Wolf's Crag.

Scene 2: A Hall in Ravenswood castle

Raimondo interrupts the marriage celebrations to tell the guests that Lucia has gone mad and killed her bridegroom. Lucia enters. In the aria 'Il dolce suono' she imagines being with Edgardo, soon to be happily married. Enrico enters and at first threatens Lucia but later softens when he realizes her condition. Lucia collapses. Raimondo blames Normanno for precipitating the whole tragedy.
Set design for iii.3 by Francesco Bagnara, ca 1844 (Civica Raccolta Stampe Bertarelli Milan)
Scene 3: The graveyard of the Ravenswood family

Edgardo is resolved to kill himself on Enrico's sword. He learns that Lucia is dying and then Raimondo comes to tell him that she has already died. Edgardo stabs himself with a dagger, hoping to be re-unified with Lucia in heaven.

Music

The "Mad Scene"

The "Mad Scene," "Il dolce suono...Spargi d'amaro pianto," has historically been a vehicle for several coloratura sopranos (providing a breakthrough for Dame Joan Sutherland) and is a technically and expressively demanding piece.

Some sopranos, most notably Maria Callas, have performed the scene in a come scritto ("as written") fashion, adding minimal ornamentation to their interpretations. Most sopranos, however, add ornamentation to demonstrate their technical ability, as was the tradition in the bel canto period. This involves the addition and interpolation of trill, mordents, turns, runs and cadenzas. Almost all sopranos append cadenzas to the end of the "Mad Scene", sometimes ending them on a high E-flat. Some sopranos, including Ruth Welting and Mariella Devia have sung the mad scene in Donizetti's original F major key, ending it with a high F natural instead of transposing it one step down to the E-flat major key.

Lucie de Lammermoor

The French version of Lucia di Lammermoor was commissioned for the Théâtre de la Renaissancemarker in Parismarker and opened on August 6, 1839. The libretto, written by Alphonse Royer and Gustave Vaëz, is not simply a translation, as Donizetti altered some of the scenes and characters. One of the more notable changes is the disappearance of Alisa, Lucia's friend. This allows the French version to isolate Lucia and to leave a stronger emotional impact than that left by the original. Furthermore, Lucia loses most of Raimondo's support; his role is dramatically diminished while Arturo gets a bigger part. Donizetti creates a new character, Gilbert, who is loosely based on the huntsman in the Italian version. However, Gilbert is a more developed figure and serves both Edgardo and Enrico, divulging their secrets to the other for money.

The French version is not performed as often as the Italian, but it was revived to great acclaim by Natalie Dessay and Roberto Alagna at the Opéra de Lyon in 2002. It was also co-produced by the Boston Lyric Opera and the Glimmerglass Opera in 2004.

List of arias and musical numbers

The index of Bonynge's edition lists the following numbers.

1. "Preludio"
Act I
2. "Percorrete le spiaggie vicine"

3. "Tu sei turbato!"

4. "Cruda, funesta smania" (Enrico)

5. "La pietade in suo favore" (Enrico)

6. "Ancor non giunse!" (Lucia)

7. "Regnava nel silenzio" (Lucia)

8. "Quando rapito in estasi" (Lucia)

9. "Egli s'avanza" (Alisa, Edgardo, Lucia)

10. "Sulla tomba che rinserra" (Edgardo, Lucia)

11. "Qui di sposa eterna...Ah! Verrano a te sull'aure" (Edgardo, Lucia)

Act II
12. "Lucia, fra poco a te verrà"

13. "Appressati, Lucia"

14. "Il pallor funesto, orrendo"

15. "Soffriva nel pianto"

16. "Che fia"

17. "Se tradirmi tu potrai"

18. "Ebben? - Di tua speranza"

19. "Ah! cedi, cedi" (Raimondo)

20. "Al ben de'tuoi qual vittima" (Raimondo)

21. "Per te d'immenso giubilo"

22. "Dov'è Lucia?"

23. "Chi mi frena in tal momento" (Sextet)

24. "T'allontana sciagurato"

Act III
25. "Orrida è questa notte"

26. "Qui del padre ancor respira"

27. "D'immenso giubilo"

28. "Ah! cessate quel contento"

29. "Oh! qual funesto avvenimento!"

30. "Oh, giusto cielo!...Il dolce suono" (Lucia; "Mad Scene")

31. "Ohimè! sorge il tremendo fantasma"

32. "S'avanza Enrico"

33. "Spargi d'amaro pianto"

34. "Si tragga altrove"

35. "Tombe degli avi miei" (Edgardo)

36. "Fra poco a me ricovero"

37. "Oh meschina!"

38. "Tu che a Dio spiegasti l'ali" (Edgardo)

Recordings

See Lucia di Lammermoor discography.

Media



Lucia in popular culture

The "Lucia Sextet" (Chi mi frena in tal momento?) was recorded in 1908 by Enrico Caruso, Marcella Sembrich, Antonio Scotti, Marcel Journet, Barbara Severina, and Francesco Daddi, (Victor single-sided 70036) and released at the price of $7.00, earning it the title of "The Seven-Dollar Sextet". The film The Great Caruso incorporates a scene featuring a performance of this sextet.

The "Lucia Sextet" melody is best known to some from its use by the American slapstick comedy team the Three Stooges in their short films Micro-Phonies and Squareheads of the Round Table, sung in the latter with the lyrics "Oh, Elaine, can you come out tonight...." But the melody is used most dramatically in Howard Hawks' gangster classic "Scarface": Tony Camonte (Paul Muni) whistles "Chi mi frena?" in the film's opening sequence, as he guns down a ganglord boss he has been assigned to protect.

It has also been used in Warner Brothers cartoons: Long-Haired Hare, sung by the opera singer (Bugs Bunny's antagonist); Book Revue, sung by the wolf antagonist; and in Back Alley Oproar, sung by a choir full of Sylvester, the cat. Disney have also used the "Lucia Sextet" in a unique interpretation with all parts performed by Nelson Eddy in the 1946 Disney short The Whale Who Wanted To Sing At The Met, the vocals being that of the amazing Willie, the Operatic Whale.

The "Lucia Sextet" melody also figures in two scenes from the 2006 film The Departed, directed by Martin Scorsese. In one scene, Jack Nicholson's character is shown at a performance of "Lucia di Lammermoor", and the music on the soundtrack is from the sextet. Later in the film, Nicholson's cell phone ringtone is the sextet melody.

The Sextet is also featured during a scene from the 1986 comedy film, The Money Pit.

In the children's book "The Cricket in Times Square," Chester Cricket chirps the tenor part to the "Lucia Sextet" as the encore to his farewell concert, literally stopping traffic in the process.

An aria from the "mad scene," "Il dolce suono" (from the 3rd Act), was re-popularized when it was featured in the Luc Besson film The Fifth Element in a performance by the alien diva Plavalaguna (voiced by Albanian soprano Inva Mulla Tchacko and played onscreen by French actress Maïwenn Le Besco). Inva's performance is also used as a backdrop to "The Eye of Zion's Pocket" presumed to be by Chemical Brothers for the Matrix Reloaded soundtrack (though no such track exists). A loose remake of this film version of the song was covered by Russian pop singer Vitas over a heavily reworked orchestral techno score.

The "mad scene" was also used in the first episode of the anime series Gankutsuou (in place of L'Italiana in Algeri which was the opera used in that scene in The Count of Monte Cristo).

The "mad scene" aria, as sung by Inva Mula, was used in an episode of Law & Order: Criminal Intent involving the murder of a young violinist by her opera singer mother (who performs the song right after the murder).

The "mad scene" was released as a music video by Russian male soprano Vitas in 2006.

Among other selections from the opera, the "mad scene", "Verranno a te sull'aure", and "Che facesti?" feature prominently in the 1983 Paul Cox film Man of Flowers, especially "Verranno a te sull'aure," which accompanies a striptease in the film's opening scene.

The opera is mentioned in the novels The Count of Monte Cristo, Madame Bovary and Where Angels Fear to Tread and was reputedly one of Tolstoy's favorites.

"Regnava nel silenzio" accompanies the scene in Beetlejuice in which Lydia (Winona Ryder) composes a suicide note.

Notes

References



External links




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