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Ludovico Manin


Ludovico Manin (14 May 1725 – 24 October 1802) was the last Doge of Venice. He governed Venicemarker from 9 March 1789 until 1797, when he was forced to abdicate by Napoleon Bonaparte.

Early life

Manin was born on 14 May 1725, the eldest of five sons of Lodovico Alvise and Maria Basadonna, the great-granddaughter of a cardinal.

He attended the University of Bolognamarker. In 1787 he met Pope Pius VI. He had married Elisabetta Grimani, receiving a dowry of 45,001 ducats.

Doge

He was elected Doge of Venice on 9 March 1789, approximately one month before the start of the French Revolution, on the first ballot (the electoral assembly was composed of 41 members). His traditional coronation ceremony required him to throw coins to the Venetians, which cost more than 458,197 Lira, less than a quarter of which was paid from the funds of the Republic of Venice, the rest coming out of his own pocket. By the year 1792, he had allowed the once great Venetian merchant fleet to decline to a mere 309 merchantmen.

Napoleon invaded Italy, Venice, along with Genoamarker, did not initially join the coalition of Italian states formed in 1795, instead maintaining neutrality. On 15 April 1797, Jean-Andoche Junot gave the Doge an ultimatum which was not accepted. A secret addition to the Treaty of Leoben, signed on 17 April 1797, gave Venice—as well as Istriamarker and Dalmatia— to Austriamarker. On 25 April 1797, the French fleet arrived at the Lidomarker. Venetian cannons sank one of the ships, but did not succeed in repelling the invasion since the Venetian war fleet numbered only 4 galleys and 7 galliots. The Doge surrendered on 12 May 1797 and left the Doge's Palacemarker two days later.

On 16 May French troops entered Piazza San Marcomarker and the surrender contract was officially signed, submitting Venice to French rule, and incorporating it into the Kingdom of Italy.

Death

Manin withdrew to the Palazzo Pesaro and stayed with his two nephews until his death on 24 October 1802. He is buried at the chiesa degli Scalzi.

References

This article incorporates text translated from the corresponding Italian Wikipedia article as of December 17, 2006.


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