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Luxembourg ( ), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg ( , , ), is a small, landlocked country in western Europe, bordered by Belgiummarker, Francemarker, and Germanymarker. Luxembourg has a population of under half a million people in an area of approximately 2,586 square kilometres (999 sq mi).

Luxembourg is a parliamentary representative democracy with a constitutional monarch; it is ruled by a Grand Duke. It is the world's only remaining sovereign Grand Duchy. The country has a highly developed economy, with the highest Gross Domestic Product per capita in the world as per IMFmarker and WB. Its historic and strategic importance dates back to its founding as a Roman era fortress site and Frankish count's castle site in the Early Middle Ages. It was an important bastion along the Spanish road when Spain was the principal European power influencing the whole western hemisphere and beyond in the 16th–17th centuries.

Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, NATOmarker, OECD, the United Nations, Benelux, and the Western European Union, reflecting the political consensus in favour of economic, political, and military integration. The city of Luxembourgmarker, the capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the European Union.

Luxembourg lies on the cultural divide between Romance Europe and Germanic Europe, borrowing customs from each of the distinct traditions. Luxembourg is a trilingual country; German, French and Luxembourgish are official languages. Although a secular state, Luxembourg is predominantly Roman Catholic.

History





The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the acquisition of Lucilinburhuc (today Luxembourg Castlemarker) by Siegfried, Count of Ardennes in 963. Around this fort, a town gradually developed, which became the centre of a small state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In 1437, the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, that led to the territory being sold to Philip the Good of Burgundy. In the following centuries, Luxembourg's fortress was steadily enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs, Hohenzollerns, and the Frenchmarker, among others. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussiamarker and the Netherlands. The Congress of Vienna formed Luxembourg as a Grand Duchy in personal union with the Netherlands. Luxembourg also became a member of the German Confederationmarker, with a Confederate fortress manned by Prussian troops.

The Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839 reduced Luxembourg's territory by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the countrymarker was transferred to Belgiummarker. Luxembourg's independence was reaffirmed by the 1839 First Treaty of London. In the same year, Luxembourg joined the Zollverein. Luxembourg's independence and neutrality were again affirmed by the 1867 Second Treaty of London, after the Luxembourg Crisis nearly led to war between Prussia and France. After the latter conflict, the Confederate fortress was dismantled.

The King of the Netherlands remained Head of State as Grand Duke of Luxembourg, maintaining personal union between the two countries until 1890. At the death of William III, the Dutch throne passed to his daughter Wilhelmina, while Luxembourg (at that time restricted to male heirs by the Nassau Family Pact) passed to Adolph of Nassau-Weilburg.

Luxembourg was invaded and occupied by Germany during the First World War, but was allowed to maintain its independence and political mechanisms. It was again invaded and subject to German occupation in the Second World War in 1940, and was formally annexed into the Third Reich in 1942.

During World War II, Luxembourg abandoned its policy of neutrality, when it joined the Allies in fighting Germany. Its government, exiled to Londonmarker, set up a small group of volunteers who participated in the Normandy invasionmarker. It became a founding member of the United Nations in 1946, and of NATOmarker in 1949. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and, in 1999, it joined the euro currency area. In 2005, a referendum on the EU treaty establishing a constitution for Europe was held in Luxembourg.

Government and politics

Districts of Luxembourg


Luxembourg is a parliamentary democracy headed by a constitutional monarch. Under the constitution of 1868, executive power is exercised by the Grand Duke and the cabinet, which consists of several other ministers. The Governor has the power to dissolve the legislature and reinstate a new one, as long as the Grand Duke has judicial approval. However, since 1919, sovereignty has resided with the Supreme Court.

Legislative power is vested in the Chamber of Deputies, a unicameral legislature of sixty members, who are directly elected to five-year terms from four constituencies. A second body, the Council of State (Conseil d'État), composed of twenty-one ordinary citizens appointed by the Grand Duke, advises the Chamber of Deputies in the drafting of legislation.

The Grand Duchy has three lower tribunals (justices de paix; in Esch-sur-Alzettemarker, the city of Luxembourgmarker, and Diekirchmarker), two district tribunals (Luxembourg and Diekirch) and a Superior Court of Justice (Luxembourg), which includes the Court of Appeal and the Court of Cassation. There is also an Administrative Tribunal and an Administrative Court, as well as a Constitutional Court, all of which are located in the capital.

Districts, cantons, and communes

Luxembourg is divided into 3 districts, which are further divided into 12 cantons and then 116 communes. Twelve of the communes have city status, of which the city of Luxembourgmarker is the largest.

The districts are1. Diekirchmarker2. Grevenmachermarker3. Luxembourgmarker

Military

The contribution of Luxembourg makes to its defence and to NATO consists of a small army (currently consisting of around 800 people). As a landlocked country, it has no navy.

Luxembourg also lacks an air force, though the seventeen NATO AWACS aeroplanes are for convenience registered as aircraft of Luxembourg. In accordance with a joint agreement with Belgiummarker, both countries have put forth funding for one A400M military cargo plane, currently on order. Luxembourg still jointly maintains three NATO Boeing 707 model TCAs (for cargo and training purposes) based at NATO Air Base Geilenkirchenmarker.

Geography and climate

Luxembourg is one of the smallest countries in Europe, and ranked 175th in size of all the 194 independent countries of the world; the country is about 2,586 square kilometres (998 sq mi) in size, and measures 82 km (51 miles) long and 57 km (35 miles) wide. To the east, Luxembourg borders the Germanmarker Bundesländer of Rhineland-Palatinatemarker and Saarlandmarker, and, to the south, it borders the Frenchmarker région of Lorrainemarker. The Grand Duchy borders the Belgianmarker Walloon Regionmarker, in particular the latter's provinces of Luxembourgmarker and Liègemarker, more in particular the German-speaking Community of Belgium, to the west and to the north respectively.

The northern third of the country is known as the 'Oeslingmarker', and forms part of the Ardennesmarker. It is dominated by hills and low mountains, including the Kneiffmarker, which is the highest point, at 560 metres (1,837 ft). The region is sparsely populated, with only one town (Wiltzmarker) with a population of more than four thousand people.



The southern two-thirds of the country is called the "Gutlandmarker", and is more densely populated than the Oesling. It is also more diverse, and can be divided into five geographic sub-regions. The Luxembourg plateaumarker, in south-central Luxembourg, is a large, flat, sandstone formation, and the site of the city of Luxembourg. Little Switzerlandmarker, in the east of Luxembourg, has craggy terrain and thick forests. The Moselle valleymarker is the lowest-lying region, running along the south-eastern border. The Red Landsmarker, in the far south and southwest, are Luxembourg's industrial heartland and home to many of Luxembourg's largest towns.

The border between Luxembourg and Germany is formed by three rivers: the Mosellemarker, the Sauermarker, and the Ourmarker. Other major rivers are the Alzettemarker, the Attertmarker, the Clervemarker, and the Wiltzmarker. The valleys of the mid-Sauer and Attert form the border between the Gutlandmarker and the Oeslingmarker.

Luxembourg has a marine west coast climate (Köppen: Cfb), marked by high precipitation, particularly in late summer.

Demographics

Ethnicity

The people of Luxembourg are called Luxembourgers. The native population has a Celtic base with a French and Germanic blend. The immigrant population increased in the twentieth century due to the arrival of immigrants from Belgiummarker, Francemarker, Germanymarker, Italymarker, and Portugalmarker, with the majority coming from this last country. In 2001 census, there were 58,657 inhabitants with Portuguese nationality. Since the beginning of the Yugoslav wars, Luxembourg has seen many immigrants from Bosnia and Herzegovinamarker, Montenegromarker, and Serbiamarker. Annually, over 10,000 new immigrants arrive in Luxembourg, mostly from EU states, as well and Eastern Europe. As of 2000, there were 162,000 immigrants in Luxembourg, accounting for 37% of the total population. There were an estimated 5,000 undocumented immigrants, including asylum seekers, in Luxembourg as of 1999.

Language

Three languages are recognised as official in Luxembourg: French, German, and Luxembourgish, a Franconian language of the Mosellemarker region very similar to the local German dialect spoken in the neighbouring part of Germany, except that it includes more borrowings from French. So in principle Luxembourgish is a High German dialect with the status of a national language.Apart from being one of the three official languages, Luxembourgish is also considered the national language of the Grand Duchy; it is the mother tongue or "language of the heart" for nearly all Luxembourgers.

Each of the three languages is used as the primary language in certain spheres. Luxembourgish is the language that Luxembourgers generally speak to each other, but it is not often written down. Most official (written) business is carried out in French. German is usually the first language taught in school and is the language of much of the media and of the church.

Luxembourg's education system is trilingual: the first years of primary school are in Luxembourgish, before changing to German, while in secondary school, the language of instruction changes to French. However, as proficiency in all three languages is required for graduation from secondary school, half the students leave school without a certified qualification, with the children of immigrants being particularly disadvantaged.
In addition to the three official languages, English is taught in the compulsory schooling and much of the population of Luxembourg can speak English, at any rate in Luxembourg City. Portuguese and Italian, the languages of the two largest immigrant communities, are also spoken by large parts of the population, but by relatively few from outside their respective communities.

Religion

Luxembourg is a secular state, but the state recognises certain religions as officially-mandated religions. This gives the state a hand in religious administration and appointment of clergy, in exchange for which the state pays certain running costs and wages. Currently, religions covered by such arrangements are Roman Catholicism, Judaism, Greek Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, Russian Orthodoxy, Protestantism and Islam.

Since 1980 it has been illegal for the government to collect statistics on religious beliefs or practices. An outdated estimation by the CIA Factbook for the year 2000 is that 87% of Luxembourgers are Catholics, including the royal family, the remaining 13% being made up of Protestants, Orthodox Christians, Jews, Muslims and those of other or no religion.

According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005, 44% of Luxembourg citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", whereas 28% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 22% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".

Economy

Luxembourg's stable, high-income economy features moderate growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, which was dominated until the 1960s by steel, has diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. During the past decades, growth in the financial sector has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Services, especially banking and other financial exports, account for the majority of economic output. Luxembourg is the world's second largest investment fund center (after the USA), the most important private banking center in the Eurozone and Europe's leading center for reinsurance companies.Moreover, the Luxembourgish government has tried to attract internet start-ups. Skype, Jajah and eBay are only a few of the many internet companies that have shifted their local or global headquarters to Luxembourg.

Agriculture is based on small, family-owned farms. Luxembourg has especially close trade and financial ties to Belgiummarker and the Netherlandsmarker (see Benelux), and as a member of the EU it enjoys the advantages of the open European market. Luxembourg possesses the highest GDP per capita in the world (US$87,995 as of 2006), the eighteenth highest Human Development Index, and the fourth highest rated in the quality of life index. As of March 2006, unemployment is 4.8% of the labor force. For the fiscal year of 2005 and 2006, Luxembourg has run a budget deficit for the first time in many years, mostly because of slower international economic growth.

Transport

Luxembourg has efficient road, rail and air transport facilities and services. The road network has been significantly modernised in recent years with 147 km of motorways connecting the capital to adjacent countries. The advent of the high-speed TGV link to Parismarker has led to renovation of the city's railway stationmarker while a new passenger terminal at Luxembourg Airportmarker has recently been opened. There are plans to introduce trams in the capital and light-rail lines in adjacent areas within the next few years.

Culture

Luxembourg has been overshadowed by the culture of its neighbours, although, having been for much of its history a profoundly rural country, it retains a number of folk traditions. There are several notable museums, mostly located in the capital; these include the National Museum of History and Artmarker (MNHA), the History Museum of the City of Luxembourg, and the new Grand Duke Jean Museum of Modern Artmarker (Mudam). The National Museum of Military History marker in Diekirch is especially known for its representations of the Battle of the Bulge. The city of Luxembourg itself is on the UNESCOmarker World Heritage List, on account of the historical importance of its fortifications.

The country has produced some internationally known artists, including the painters Joseph Kutter and Michel Majerus, as well as the photographer Edward Steichen. Steichen's The Family of Manmarker exhibition is now permanently housed in Clervauxmarker, and it has been placed on UNESCOmarker's Memory of the World register.

Luxembourg was the first city to be named European Capital of Culture twice. The first time was in 1995. In 2007, the European Capital of Culture was to be a cross-border area consisting of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Rheinland-Pfalz and Saarland in Germany, the Walloon Region and the German-speaking part of Belgium, and the Lorraine area in France. The event was an attempt to promote mobility and the exchange of ideas, crossing borders in all areas, physical, psychological, artistic and emotional.

Media

For many people in other parts of Europe , Luxembourg is best known for its radio and television stations, Radio Luxembourg and the RTL Group, Europe's largest TV, radio and production company. It is also the uplink home of SES Astramarker, carrier of major European satellite services for Germany and Britain.

Studies show that the country Luxembourg consumes the most alcohol per capita, according to Guinness World Records 2008. In the year 2003, on average 2.8 gallons (12.6 litres) of pure alcohol was purchased per citizen. This however is a statistical phenomenon, not actual, as the low taxes on alcohol, cigarettes and petrol in Luxembourg mean that Belgians, French and Germans living close to the border buy these products in Luxembourg, and increase the sales without being counted as consumers in the statistical analyses.

See also

References

  • https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/lu.html


Footnotes

  1. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
  2. Emperor Charles IV elected Greatest Czech of all time, Radio Prague
  3. Kreins (2003), p. 20
  4. Kreins (2003), p. 39
  5. Kreins (2003), p. 70
  6. Kreins (2003), p. 76
  7. Kreins (2003), pp. 80–81
  8. Kreins (2003), p. 81
  9. Kreins (2003), p. 84
  10. Timeline: Luxembourg - A chronology of key events BBC News Online, 9 September 2006. Retrieved 8 October 2006.
  11. Luxembourg Presidency - Being a Luxembourger
  12. CIA World Factbook: Luxembourg Retrieved 14 October 2007.


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