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Luxor (in Arabic: الأقصر al-Uqṣur) is a city in Upper (southern) Egyptmarker and the capital of Luxor Governoratemarker. The population numbers 376,022 (1999 survey), with an area of approximately . As the site of the ancient Egyptian city of Thebes, Luxor has frequently been characterized as the "world's greatest open air museum", as the ruins of the temple complexes at Karnakmarker and Luxormarker stand within the modern city. Immediately opposite, across the Nile River, lie the monuments, temples and tombs on the West Bank Necropolismarker, which include the Valley of the Kingsmarker and Valley of the Queensmarker. Thousands of international tourists arrive annually to visit these monuments, contributing a large part towards the economy for the modern city.

History

For the ancient settlement of Luxor, see Thebes, Egypt

Luxor was the ancient city of Thebes, the great capital of Egypt during the New Kingdom, and the glorious city of the God Amon-Ra. The city was regarded in the Ancient Egyptian texts as WST (Pronounced "Waset"), which meant "the foremost" or "city of the sceptre" and also as T-IPT (probably pronounced as "ta ipet" and meaning "the shrine") and then, in a later period, the Greeks called it Thebai and the Romans after them Thebae. Thebes was also known as "the city of the 100 gates", sometimes being called the southern city of the sun ('Iunu-shemaa' in Ancient Egyptian), to distinguish it from the city of Iunumarker or Heliopolis, the main place of worship for the god Ra in the north.


The importance of the city started as early as the 11th Dynasty, when the town grew into a thriving city, renowned for its high social status and luxury, but also as a center for wisdom, art, religious and political supremacy.Montuhotep II who united Egypt after the troubles of the first intermediate period brought stability to the lands as the city grew in stature. The Pharaohs of the New Kingdom in their expeditions to Kush, in today's northern Sudanmarker, and to the lands of Canaan, Phoeniciamarker, and Syriamarker saw the city accumulate great wealth and rose to prominence, even on a world scale. Thebes played a major role in expelling the invading forces of the Hyksos from Upper Egypt, and from the time of the 18th Dynasty through to the 20th Dynasty, the city had risen as the major political, religious and military capital of Ancient Egypt.

The city attracted peoples such as the Babylonians, the Mitanni, the Hittites of Anatolia (modern-day Turkey), the Canaanites of Ugarit, the Phoeniciansmarker of Byblosmarker and Tyremarker, the Minoans from the island of Cretemarker. A Hittite prince from Anatolia even came to marry with the widow of Tutankhamun, Ankhesenamun. The political and military importance of the city, however, faded during the Late Period, with Thebes being replaced as political capital by several cities in Northern Egypt, such as Bubastis, Sais and finally Alexandriamarker.

However, as the city of the god Amon-Ra, Thebes remained the religious capital of Egypt until the Greek period. The main god of the city was Amon, who was worshipped together with his wife, the Goddess Mut, and their son Khonsu, the God of the moon. With the rise of Thebes as the foremost city of Egypt, the local god Amon rose in importance as well and became linked to the sun god Ra, thus creating the new 'king of gods' Amon-Ra. His great temple, at Karnakmarker just north of Thebes, was the most important temple of Egypt right until the end of antiquity.

Later, the city was attacked by Assyrian emperor Assurbanipal who installed the Libyanmarker prince on the throne, Psammetichus. The city of Thebes was in ruins and fell in significance. However, Alexander the Great did arrive at the temple of Amun, where the statue of the god was transferred from Karnak during the Opet Festival, the great religious feast. The grandeur of Thebes would still remain a site of spirituality, and attracted numerous Christian monks in the Roman Empire who established monasteries amidst several ancient monuments including the temple of Hatshepsut, now called Deir el-Bahrimarker ("the northern monastery").

Climate

Economy

Streets of Luxor in 2004
The economy of Luxor, like that of many other Egyptian cities, is heavily dependent upon tourism. Large numbers of people also work in agriculture, particularly sugarcane.

Infrastructure

Transportation

Luxor is served by Luxor International Airportmarker.

A bridge was opened in 1998, a few kilometres upstream of the main town of Luxor, allowing ready land access from the East Bank to the West Bank.

Traditionally, however, river crossings have been the domain of several ferry services. The so-called 'local ferry' (also known as the 'National Ferry') continues to operate from a landing opposite the Temple of Luxor. The single fare (June 2008) is 1 L.E. - one Egyptian Pound - per passenger for foreigners. Egyptian nationals pay 1/4 that, 25 piasters. This ferry is mainly used by the locals although a number of foreigners do use it. The sites on the West Bank are further than you think and you will need transport—taxi drivers often approach ferry passengers, and it is recommended that a fare be negotiated ahead of time. There are also local cars that reach some of the monuments for 25 piasters, although tourists rarely use them. Alternatively, motorboats line the East Bank of the Nile all day providing a quicker, but more expensive (5 L.E.), crossing to the other side.

The city of Luxor on the East Bank has several bus routes used mainly by locals. Tourists often rely on horse carriages, called "calèches," for transport or tours around the city. Do not ask calèche drivers to go to the west bank, because it is too far for the horses, not to mention illegal. Taxis are plentiful, and reasonably priced, and since the government has decreed that taxis older than 20 years will not be relicensed, there are many modern air-conditioned cabs. Recently, new roads have been built in the city to cope with the growth in traffic.

For domestic travel along the route of the Nile, a rail service operates several times a day. A morning train and sleeping train can be taken from the station situated around from Luxor Temple. The line runs between several major destinations, including Cairo to the north and Aswanmarker to the south.

Sights of modern-day Luxor

A caleche four wheel carriage




centre


International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Luxor is twinned with:

Gallery

File:Egypt.Luxor.Nile.01.jpg|Hot-air ballooning over the West BankFile:Touristenbazar in Luxor (1995, 880x625).jpg|Street market in LuxorFile:Egypt.LuxorTemple.02.jpg|Pharaonic statue in Luxor TemplemarkerFile:Egypt.LuxorTemple.River.01.jpg|Panoramic View of Luxor



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