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MTR, or Mass Transit Railway, is the rapid transit railway system in Hong Kong. The MTR first began service in 1979 and officially merged with the Kowloon Canton Railway (KCR) on 2 December 2007, still bearing the same name in English. The network includes 211.6 km of rail with 150 stations, including 85 railway stations and 68 light rail stops. The MTR system is currently being operated by MTR Corporation Limited (MTRCL). Due to its efficiency and affordability, the MTR system is a common mode of public transport in Hong Kong, with over 4 million trips made in an average weekday. As of first-half 2009, the MTR has a 42% market share of the franchised public transport market, making it the preferred transport option. The integration of the Octopus smart card fare-payment technology into the MTR system in September 1997 has further enhanced the ease of commuting on the MTR. The MTR is also a world leader in operations, setting the standards for East Asian cities such as Singapore, Taipei, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou as well as the rest of the world.

In 1967, construction of the MTR was prompted by a government-commissioned study. The Hong Kong Government had previously commissioned a study in the 1960s to find solutions to the growing traffic problem caused by the expansion of the territory's economy. Construction started soon after the release of the study, and the first line was opened in 1979. The MTR was immediately popular with residents of Hong Kong; as a result, subsequent lines have been built to cover more territory. There are continual debates regarding how and where to expand the MTR network.

In 2009, MTR, along with partners UGL and John Holland, created a subsidiary, Metro Trains Melbourne (MTM) to run train services in Melbourne, Australia, from November 30 2009.

Early Development (1960-2000)

Initial proposal

During the 1960s, the government of Hong Kong saw a need to accommodate increasing road traffic as Hong Kong's economy continued to grow strongly. British transportation consultants Freeman, Fox, Wilbur Smith & Associates were appointed to study the transportation system of Hong Kong. The study was based on the projection of the population of Hong Kong for 1986, estimated at 6,868,000. On 1 September 1967, the consultants submitted the Hong Kong Mass Transport Study to the government, which recommended the construction of a rapid-transit rail system in Hong Kong. The study suggested that four rail lines be developed in six stages, with a completion date set between December 1973 and December 1984. Detailed positions of lines and stations were presented in the study. These four lines were Kwun Tong Line (from Western Market to Ma Yau Tong), Tsuen Wan Line (from Admiralty to Tsuen Wan), Island Line (from Kennedy to Chai Wan Central), and Shatin Line (Tsim Sha Tsuimarker to Wo Liu Hang).

"Preferred System" Route Map in 1970
The study was submitted to the Legislative Councilmarker on 14 February 1968. The consultants received new data from the 1966 by-census on 6 March 1968. A short supplementary report was submitted on 22 March 1968 and amended in June 1968. The by-census indicated that the projected 1986 population was reduced by more than 1 million from the previous estimate to 5,647,000. The dramatic reduction in projection affected town planning. The population distribution was largely different from the original study. The 1986 populations of Castle Peak New Town, Sha Tin New Townmarker, and, to a lesser extent, Tsuen Wan New Town, were not as high as expected, and the plan of a new town in Tseung Kwan O was abandoned. In this updated scenario, the consultants diminished the scale of the recommended system. The supplementary report stated that the originally suggested four tracks between Admiralty station and Mong Kok Station should be reduced to two, and only the Island Line, Tsuen Wan Line, and Kwun Tong Line should be constructed for the initial system. The other lines would be placed in the list of extensions. This report led to the final study in 1970.

In 1970, a system with four lines was laid out and planned as part of the British consultants' new report, Hong Kong Mass Transit: Further Studies. The four lines were to be the Kwun Tong Line, Tsuen Wan Line, Island Line, and East Kowloon Line. However, the lines that were eventually constructed were somewhat different compared to the lines that were originally proposed by the Hong Kong Mass Transport Study.

In 1972, the Hong Kong government authorised construction of the Initial System, a system that roughly translates to the Kwun Tong Line of today. Negotiations with four major construction consortia started in 1973. The government's intention was to tender the entire project, based on the British design, as a single tender at a fixed price. A consortium from Japan signed an agreement to construct the system in early 1974, but in December of the same year, it pulled out of the agreement for reasons stemming from fears of the oil crisis.

"Modified Initial System" Route Map


Modified Initial System

Several weeks later, in early 1975, a government agency known as the Mass Transport Provisional Authority was established to oversee the project. It announced that the Initial System would be reduced to , and renamed it the "Modified Initial System". Plans for a single contract were abandoned in favor of 25 engineering contracts and 10 electrical and mechanical contracts. In addition, the government-owned Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway Corporation (MTRC) was established to replace the Mass Transport Provisional Authority.

Construction of the Modified Initial System (now part of the Kwun Tong Line and Tsuen Wan Line) commenced in November 1975. The northern section was completed on 30 September 1979 and opened on 1 October 1979. Trains on this route ran from Shek Kip Mei Station to Kwun Tong Station. The route from Tsim Sha Tsui Station to Shek Kip Mei Station opened in December 1979. The early stations were designed under the supervision of Roland Paoletti, the chief architect at MTR.

In 1980, the first harbourmarker crossing was made by an MTR train as the Kwun Tong Line was extended to Chater Station, since renamed Central Station. Trains were extended to six cars to accommodate an increase in passenger numbers.

Line extensions

The government approved construction of the Tsuen Wan Line in 1977, then known as the Tsuen Wan Extension, and works commenced in November 1978. The project added a section to the MTR system, from Prince Edward to Tsuen Wan. The line started service on 10 May 1982 with a total cost of construction (not adjusted for inflation) of HK$4.1 billion (US$526 million). The plan was modified from that in the 1970 report Hong Kong Mass Transit: Further Studies, with Kwai Chungmarker Station, Lap Sap Wan Station, and a planned depot at Kwai Chung next to Lap Sap Wan Station being replaced by stations at Kwai Hing and Kwai Fong and a depot at Tseun Wan. The planned station at So Uk between Cheung Sha Wan and Sham Shui Pomarker was not built, and an extra intermediate station was built at Mei Foo between Lai King and Lai Chi Kok stations.

When service of this line started, the section of the Kwun Tong Line from Chater to Argyle (since renamed Central and Mong Kok stations respectively), was transferred to the Tsuen Wan Line. Thus, Waterloo station (since renamed Yau Ma Tei Station) became the terminus of the Kwun Tong Line, and both Argyle and Prince Edward stations became interchange stations. This change was made because system planners expected the traffic of the Tsuen Wan Line to exceed that of the Kwun Tong Line. This forecast proved to be accurate, necessitating a bypass from the northwestern New Territories to Hong Kong Island. The Tung Chung Line was therefore launched in 1998 with an interchange station at Lai King for that purpose.

Although land acquisitions were made for a station at Tsuen Wan West, beyond Tseun Wan station, as part of the Tseun Wan branch, the station was never built. This is not to be confused with Tsuen Wan West Station on West Rail Line, which lies on the newly reclaimed area near the former ferry pier.

Since the opening in 1982, the Tsuen Wan Line is the only line whose alignment has virtually remained the same for the past 23 years. For example, the Kwun Tong Line's alignment has changed twice since its opening — the taking over of Tsuen Wan Line from Mong Kok to Central, and the taking over of Eastern Harbour Crossing section by the Tseung Kwan O Line.

Government approvals were granted for construction of the Island Line in December 1980. Construction commenced in October 1981. On 31 March 1985, the Island Line was opened with service between Admiralty Station and Chai Wan Station. Both Admiralty and Central Stations became interchange stations with the Tsuen Wan Line. Furthermore, each train was extended to eight cars. On 23 May 1986, the Island Line was extended to Sheung Wan Station. Construction was delayed for one year, as government offices which were located over the station had to be moved before the construction could start.

In 1984, the government approved the construction of the Eastern Harbour Crossing, a tunnel to be used by cars and MTR trains. The Kwun Tong Line was extended across the harbour on 5 August 1989 to Quarry Bay Station, which became an interchange station for the Kwun Tong Line and the Island Line. An intermediate station, Lam Tin, started operations on 1 October 1989.

Airport connection

The Airport Express and Tung Chung Line started services in 1998. The decision was made in October 1989 to construct a new international airport at Chek Lap Kokmarker on Lantau Islandmarker to replace the overcrowded Kai Tak International Airportmarker. The government invited the MTRC to build a train line, then known as the Lantau Airport Railway, to the airport. Construction started in November 1994, after the Chinese and British governments settled their financial and land disagreements.

The new line was included in the financing plans of the new Hong Kong International Airportmarker as the airport was not considered viable without direct public transport links. Construction costs were also shared by the MTRC which was granted many large-scale developments in the construction plans for the new stations.

The Lantau Airport Railway turned into two MTR lines, the Tung Chung Line and the Airport Express. The Tung Chung Line was officially opened on 21 June 1998 by Hong Kong Chief Executive Tung Chee Hwa, and service commenced the next day. The Airport Express opened for service on 6 July 1998 along with the new Hong Kong International Airport.

The Airport Express also offers flight check-in facilities at Kowloon Station and Hong Kong Station - the in-town check-ins offers a more convenient and time-saving routine; a free shuttle bus service transports travellers from these stations to their respective hotels as well. Porters are also available to help transport luggage from and onto trains. It is the second most popular means of transport to the airport after buses. In 2006, it had a 23% of share of the traffic to and from the airport. However, this has drastically declined from a peak of 32% in 1999.

Recent extensions (2000-present)

Tseung Kwan O Line

The Quarry Bay Congestion Relief Works involved extending the Hong Kong Island end of the Kwun Tong Line from Quarry Bay to North Point via a 4.2–kilometre tunnel. The project was initiated due to overcrowding at Quarry Bay and persistent passenger complaints about the five-minute walk from the Island Line platforms to the Kwun Tong Line platform. Construction began in September 1997 and was completed in September 2001 at a cost of HK$3.0 billion (US$385 million). The tried-and-true cross-platform interchange arrangement is repeated here.

Construction of the Tseung Kwan O Line was approved on 18 August 1998 to serve new housing developments. Construction began on 24 April 1999 and the line officially opened in 2002, taking over the train tracks running through the Eastern Harbour Tunnel from the Kwun Tong Line, running from Po Lam to North Point. When the line was opened, the Kwun Tong Line was diverted to Tiu Keng Leng on the new line. Construction costs were partly covered by the Hong Kong Government and private developers which linked construction of the Tseung Kwan O Line to new real estate and commercial developments. Previously less developed areas were opened up for development with more transport options.

West Rail Line

While the construction of the Tung Chung Line was still underway, the plan to build a railway corridor serving the northwestern New Territories was conceived. Space had been reserved for the addition of an interchange station and two extra tracks (to allow nonstop service for the Airport Express) between Olympic and Lai King. Originally known as the Airport Railway Phase 2, the contracts of the West Rail Interface Works were awarded shortly after construction works of the West Rail commenced. The project comprised Mei Foo Interchange (modification of the existing Mei Foo station on the Tsuen Wan Line to provide a pedestrian link to the West Rail Mei Foo Station; Nam Cheong Station (an interchange station on the Tung Chung Line, jointly operated by the MTRCL and KCRC) and quadruplication works (the additional two tracks, four kilometres in length, allow the Tung Chung Line trains to stop at Nam Cheong without obstructing the passage of Airport Express trains).

The works were completed in stages. The Tung Chung Line trains have been diverted to the new track since mid May 2003, whereas the Mei Foo station interchange subway and the Nam Cheong station were opened at the same time the West Rail opened for public use in December 2003. The Kowloon Southern Link extension from Nam Cheong to East Tsim Sha Tsui was opened on 16 August 2009, with West Rail trains now terminating at Hung Hom station.



Interchange stations

The interchange between the Tsuen Wan Line and the Kwun Tong Line, as well as that between the Kwun Tong Line and the Tseung Kwan O Line, are two stations long, allowing cross-platform interchange wherein a passenger leaves a train on one side of the platform and boards trains on the other side of the platform for another line. For example, when passengers are travelling on the Kwun Tong Line towards Tiu Keng Leng, getting off at Yau Tong would allow them to switch trains across the platform for the Tseung Kwan O Line towards North Point. Whereas, staying on the train and reaching Tiu Keng Leng would allow them to board the Tseung Kwan O Line trains towards Po Lam.This design makes interchanging more convenient and passengers do not have the need to change to different levels. However this interchange arrangement is not available for all transferring passengers at Sunny Bay, Nam Cheong, Mei Foo, Kowloon Tong, Quarry Bay, Central and Hong Kong stations, mainly because this service is available only when there are two continuous stations shared as interchange stations by two lines.

Two major works were undertaken to facilitate interchange between MTR and KCR East Rail (now Kwun Tong Line and East Rail Line). The modification of Kowloon Tong Station started in June 2001. A new pedestrian link to East Rail Kowloon Tong station southern concourse and a new entrance were completed in June 2003 to cope with the increase in interchange passenger flow. Modification to Tsim Sha Tsui Station involved upgrading station facilities and concourse layout to facilitate access from the East Tsim Sha Tsui East Rail station (now reassigned to West Rail Line) via its pedestrian links. New entrances to the subway links were opened on 19 September 2004 (for KCR Mody Road subway) and 30 March 2005 (for Nathan Road subway, which connects to KCR Middle Road subway), with the whole scheme completed in May 2005.

Disneyland extension

A Disneyland Resort Line train waiting to depart
The Disneyland Resort Line, previously known as Penny's Bay Rail Link, provides service to the Hong Kong Disneyland Resortmarker which was opened on 12 September 2005. Service to Sunny Bay station on the Tung Chung Line started in 2005. The new line and the Disneyland Resort station opened on 1 August 2005. It is a 3.5–kilometre single-track railway that runs between Sunny Bay station and Disneyland Resort station. The Disneyland Resort station itself was designed to blend in with the ambience of the resort. The line currently operates fully automated, trains running every four to ten minutes without a driver, and the carriages were changed from the existing M-Train rolling stock to match the recreational and adventurous nature of the 3.5-minute journey.

Further expansion of the Airport Express

The new AsiaWorld-Expo Station is an extension of the Airport Express serving the new international exhibition centre, known as the AsiaWorld-Expomarker at Hong Kong International Airport. The station opened on 20 December 2005 along with the exhibition centre. To cope with the projected increase in patronage, Airport Express trains have been expanded to utilise eight carriages from the previous seven. Additional trains will also be deployed on the Tung Chung line during major exhibitions and events.



Privatisation and merger

On 5 October 2000, the operator of the MTR network, MTR Corporation Limited (MTRCL), became Hong Kong's first rail company to be privatised, marking the beginning of the Hong Kong government's initiative to dissolve its interests in public utilities. Prior to its listing on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, the Mass Transit Railway Corporation (MTRC) was wholly owned by the Hong Kong government. The offering involved the sale of about one billion shares, and the company now has the largest shareholder base of any company listed in Hong Kong. In June 2001, MTRCL was transferred to the Hang Seng Index.

MTRCL has often developed properties next to stations to complement its already profitable railway business. Many recently built stations were incorporated into large housing estates or shopping complexes. For example, Tsing Yi station is built next to the Maritime Square shopping centre and directly underneath the Tierra Verde housing estate.

On 11 April 2006, MTRCL signed a non-binding memorandum of understanding with the Hong Kong government, the owner of KCRC, to merge the operation of the two railway networks in Hong Kong. The minority shareholders of the corporation approved the proposal at an extraordinary general meeting on 9 October 2007, allowing MTRCL to take over the operation of the KCR network and combine the fare system of the two networks on 2 December 2007.

After the merger, the MTR network included three more lines, East Rail Line, West Rail Line and Ma On Shan Line, as well as the Light Rail network and Guangdong Through Train to Guangzhoumarker.

On 28 September 2008, fare zones of all urban lines, East Rail Line, Ma On Shan Line and West Rail Line were merged. A passenger could travel on these networks with only one ticket, except where a transfer is made between Tsim Sha Tsui and East Tsim Sha Tsui stations, where two tickets are required. Student discounts on Octopus Card were also issued.

Infrastructure

Network

Line Opening Year Latest Extension Termini Stations Running time (mins) Depot Gauge Voltage
1910 2007 Hung Hom Lo Wu /

Lok Ma Chau
14 42 / 47 Ho Tung Lau 1435 mm AC 25000 V
1979 2002 Yau Ma Tei Tiu Keng Leng 15 27 Kowloon Bay 1432 mm DC 1500 V
1982 1982 Central Tsuen Wan 16 30 Tsuen Wan 1432 mm DC 1500 V
1985 1986 Sheung Wan Chai Wan 14 25 Heng Fa Chuenmarker 1432 mm DC 1500 V
1998 2005 Hong Kong Tung Chung 8 28 Siu Ho Wan 1432 mm DC 1500 V
1998 2005 Hong Kong AsiaWorld-Expo 5 28 Siu Ho Wan 1432 mm DC 1500 V
2002 2009 North Point Po Lam /

LOHAS Park
8 15 Tseung Kwan O South 1432 mm DC 1500 V
2003 2009 Hung Hom Tuen Mun 12 37 Pat Heung 1435 mm AC 25000 V
2004 -- Wu Kai Sha Tai Wai 9 16 Tai Waimarker 1435 mm AC 25000 V
2005 -- Sunny Bay Disneyland Resort 2 4 Siu Ho Wan 1432 mm DC 1500 V
(11 routes) 1988 2003 -- -- 68 Varies Tuen Mun 1435 mm DC 750 V




Control Centres

There are a total of four traffic control centres in MTR, responsible for traffic and trains control on different lines:
  • Tsing Yi Operations Control Centre (for Kwun Tong Line, Tsuen Wan Line, Island Line, Tseung Kwan O Line, Tung Chung Line and the Airport Express)
  • Fo Tan Operations Control Centre (for East Rail Line and Ma On Shan Line)
  • Kam Tin Operations Control Centre (for West Rail Line)
  • Tuen Mun Operations Control Centre (for Light Rail)


Depots

Depots are located at:

Feeder bus

One of the double-decker feeder buses run by KMB
Most heavy-rail stations have elevators which connect the platform to the concourse


At various stations of the MTR network, the MTRCL (took over from KCR) has set up feeder buses which enhance the convenience of taking the MTR. These bus routes, which normally consist of one to two stops, terminate at housing estates and go past major landmarks. The feeder bus routes on East Rail Line are run under the MTR name but are operated by Kowloon Motor Bus.

Station facilities, amenities and services

Architecture of MTR stations is less artistic, instead focusing on structural practicability. With the high level of daily passenger traffic, facilities of the MTR stations are built with durability and accessibility in mind. After extensive retrofitting, the MTR system has become, in general, disabled-friendly — the trains have dedicated wheelchair space, the stations have special floor tiles to guide the blind safely on the platforms, and there are extra wide entry and exit gates for wheelchairs as well. Onboard the rolling stock, there are also flashing system maps on select trains while Active Line Diagrams and traditional route maps are installed on the others. Infopanels as well as on Newsline Express TVs onboard trains display important messages such as next station announcements as well as operational messages.

Telecommunication network accessibility

A full GSM (GSM-900 and GSM-1800), CDMA and TDMA mobile phone network is in place through out the MTR system of stations and tunnels allowing passengers to stay connected underground. Currently, full 3G network coverage in all stations and tunnels (except underground section on East Rail Line and West Rail Line) for the MTR system has been provided by 3 Hong Kong, SmarTone-Vodafone and PCCW Mobile. Passengers with subscription services will be able to make video calls and access high speed video content on their mobile phones regardless whether the train is above ground or under ground. On the other hand, the MTR is going to provide Wi-Fi access service in 14 of its stations, and currently have already extended the Wi-Fi service to all of the Airport Express trains, the expansion of the service to other MTR routes is still under consideration by MTR.

Public toilet installation concerns

Unlike many other metro systems around the world, "main line" MTR stations do not have toilet facilities available for public use, although their installation has been contemplated. Passengers may use MTR staff toilets on request. In 2006, MTRCL said it would not consider retrofitting existing underground toilets, because of the challenge of installing new piping and toilet facilities. Only stations on the Airport Express and Disneyland Resort Line, East Rail Line, West Rail Line, and Ma On Shan Line have access to toilet facilities. During Legco Rail Merger Bill discussions, MTR Corporation received criticism from Hong Kong Legislative Council Members for their unwillingness to install toilet facilities in main line stations. MTRCL indicated in rail merger discussions that it would carry out a review of the feasibility of installing public toilets at or in the vicinity of its above-ground railway stations. Discussions between the Government and MTRCL have taken into account Legco members' request for a stronger commitment by the corporation to the provision of public toilets on new railway lines. This resulted in MTRCL agreeing to include the provision of toilet facilities within, or adjacent to, stations in the overall design parameters for all future new railway lines, subject to planning and regulatory approval and any concerns raised by residents in the vicinity about the location of external ventilation exhausts.

In-station commerce and journals

Until recently, MTR stations only had branches of the Hang Seng Bank, and Maxim's Cakes stores, and a handful of other shops. Since the privatisation of MTRC, the number and types of shops have increased at certain stations, turning them into miniature shopping centres. ATMs and convenience stores are now commonplace.

The MTR has contracted with publishers for the distribution of free magazines and newspapers in MTR stations. Recruit was the first free magazine which was solely distributed in stations (before railway merger) since July 1992, but the contract was terminated in July 2002. Another recruitment magazine Jiu Jik (招職), published by South China Morning Post, replaced Recruit as the only free recruitment magazine distributed in MTR stations bi-weekly. The Metropolis Daily (都市日報), published by Metro International, is the first free newspaper distributed free in MTR stations during weekdays (except public holidays); and in 2005, there is another weekend newspaper Express Post (快線週報), distributed every Saturday except public holidays. The Metropop (都市流行), a weekly magazine featuring cultural affairs and city trends also published by Metro International, started its distribution in MTR stations every Thursdays since 27 April 2006, few months after the termination of Hui Kai Guide (去街 Guide) in 2006. MTR Stations on ex-KCR lines feature two free Chinese-language newspapers namely am730 and Headline Daily. MTR promotes reading of these newspapers by adding special coupons and promotion offers inside the newspapers, for example, a free trip to Lok Ma Chau or a free keyring. On the East Rail Line, Ma On Shan Line and West Rail Line, Newsline Express is available.

Future expansions

Possible network map of MTR in future


Several future projects on the MTR have been put forward by MTRCL to the Hong Kong Government, some already under construction. The network was significantly expanded after the merger of MTRCL with the government-owned KCRC. A non-binding Memorandum of Understanding was signed on 11 April 2006 to grant MTRCL operation of the existing KCR network with a service concession of 50 years. The new Sha Tin to Central Link that was originally awarded to KCRC is also to be operated by MTRCL.

Provisions are made to upgrade the existing infrastructure of the MTR. New subway links to the stations are also being made for better access. A further proposal to extend the existing Kwun Tong Line to Whampoa Garden, together in a tie-up with the Sha Tin to Central Link expansion have been made in April 2006. In March 2008, the MTR Corporation welcomes the Government's decision for the Corporation to proceed with further planning and design for the Kwun Tong Line Extension and the Shatin to Central Link. The construction of the Kwun Tong Line Extension and the section from Shatin to Hung Hom is expected to be completed in 2015, the section from Hung Hom to Central is expectedto be completed in 2019.

The West Island Line and South Island Line, first put forward to the government by MTRCL on 21 January 2003, only received approval on 30 June 2005 after its heavily-modified fourth proposal. This consisted of the West Island Line which is an extension the Island Line to Kennedy Town, the South Island Line (East section) from Admiralty to Ap Lei Chau and the South Island Line (West section) that connects the previous two lines. The construction of the West Island Line started on 10 August 2009 and will finish in 2014. The South Island Line (East section) is expected to finish in 2015.

One more line is being proposed to connect the West Rail Line and the East Rail Line. The Northern Link will be a new line which connects West Rail Line with the Lok Ma Chau Spur Line of East Rail Line.

Rolling stock

Six variations of Electric Multiple Unit rolling stock operate on the MTR network. All operate on 1432 mm rail gauge (near standard gauge) or 1435 mm (standard gauge). Except for the rolling stock of the Airport Express, all trains are designed with features to cope with high density passenger traffic on frequently used services. Examples are the seating arrangements, additional ventilation fan and 5 doors on each side per car. The MTR uses the longest (~23 m), widest and highest capacity rolling stocks (~350 passengers/car) of any metro system in the world, with all trains on urban lines (Island Line, Tung Chung Line, Tsuen Wan Line, Kwun Tong Line, Tseung Kwan O Line, Airport Express) consisting of 8 cars.

MTR trains emitted 444,984 tonnes of carbon dioxide in 2007, but 23% of total traction energy was saved through regenerative braking, a feature used on mainly newer trains. In addition, three EMU models (of East Rail, West Rail, Ma On Shan Rail and Tung Chung/Airport Express Lines) have a slightly rounded front end to reduce drag.

Modernisation Trains

Known as M-Trains, the oldest model of MTR since its operation, M-Trains can be divided into different "Stocks". The M-Stock (or CM-Stock") of M-Train are the oldest trains on the MTR, built originally by Metro Cammell (now Alstom) and refurbished by United Goninan. The M-Train uses sliding doors, unlike K-Stocks and A-Stocks which use plug-doors. They are in service on Kwun Tong Line, Tsuen Wan Line, Island Line and Tseung Kwan O Line.

The Disneyland Resort Line uses driverless M-Train with their appearance overhauled to suit the atmosphere and theme of the line. Windows on each carriage and the handrails inside are made into the shape of Mickey Mouse's head, and there are bronze-made Disney characters decorating the interior of the carriages.

K-Stock trains

The K-Stock are built jointly by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and ROTEM, first put into service on the Kwun Tong Line with the hope of less noisy operation. Subsequently in 2006, four additional sets joined the Tung Chung Line to cope with the increasing passenger traffic. K-Stock trains have come under criticism when it was first put into service due to delays and door safety issues. There have been incidents where passengers have been injured by its doors and other service reliability issues have led to MTRCL "minimising the number of Korean trains for passenger service until a higher reliability of the systems concerned is achieved".

A-Stock trains

The Tung Chung Line and the Airport Express are operated by A-Stock specified to their respective lines. Initially run in 7-car formations, they have now been lengthened to eight cars. These two variations are built jointly by Adtranz (now Bombardier Transportation) and Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles (CAF) between 1994–97. Since 2006, K-Stock has also been used on the Tung Chung line.

Future Changchun trains

The contract (C6554-07E) for 10 new set of trains was awarded to Changchun Railway Vehicles Co. Ltd in October 2008. The new MTR trains will be delivered to Hong Kong between 2011 and 2012 to enhance train frequency on the existing lines to cater for ongoing patronage growth on the existing Island Line, Kwun Tong Line, Tsuen Wan Line and Tseung Kwan O Line.These trains will feature new 22" LCD TVs, like their counterpart trains on former-KCR lines equipped with Newsline Express, offering better infotainment such as news and announcements.

A Comeng Light Rail tram

SP1900 and East Rail Line Metro Cammell trains

Both East Rail Line and West Rail Line use the SP1900 while Ma On Shan Line uses SP1950, a shorter model of the SP1900. The older Metro Cammell EMU are also used on East Rail Line. The electrification system used on these lines is 25 kV AC, 50 Hz, as opposed to the 1.5–kV DC used on the urban lines. Should the need arise in the future, dual voltage trains such as those utilised on Oresund Bridgemarker shall be required.

These two models of rolling stock are from the former KCRC network (KCR East Rail, West Rail and Ma On Shan Rail). They did not receive major changes after the merger of the two companies except for the updated route map, the exterior company logo and such. The capability of these EMU fleet is similar to those on the urban network.

Light Rail trams

Rolling stocks running on Light Rail system were ordered from three different manufacturers, they are Commonwealth Engineering (Comeng), Kawasaki Heavy Industries and United Goninan. Designed to run on the standard gauge, 750V DC through overhead lines. Trams are usually operate with one or two carriages while the second carriage functions as trailer only. The arrangement allows each car to load approximately 300 units with 26 seats and four sets of poach seat provide flexible riding for passengers.

In addition, the Light Rail will be modernised as part of a 20th Anniversary Activity according to the MTR. Trains will include better disabled facilities as well as a totally new interior. The MTR will refurbish 69 older trains and buy 22 new ones. The first trains have been completed and are scheduled to be put into service in November. The whole project is expected to be completed in 2011.

A magnetic single journey ticket for adults
A magnetic Urban Day Pass


Fares and tickets

After the rail merger, there are three different fare classes on the MTR: Adult, Students and Concessionary. Only children below the age of 12, senior citizens 65 years or older are eligible for the concessionary rate on all lines. Full-time Hong Kong students between the ages of 12 and 25 qualify for the concessionary rate on all lines except on Airport Express. Children below the age of 3 travel free (unless they exceed the height range).

The cost of a single journey fare depends on the approximate distance travelled. However, taking any particular station as the origin, the other stations fall into fare "zones" depending on the distance from the origin. The fare to all stations in a "zone" is the same and increases with distance, especially if the journey involves a harbour crossing. Fares for the Airport Express Line are significantly higher. Services to checkpoint terminuses are also more expensive than ordinary fares. Adult fares range from HK$3.00 to $47.50 (US$0.40–6.15). Concessionary fares are usually half the adult fare, and range from HK$1.40 to $23.80. Student fares are the same as child and elderly fare on the urban lines, but are the same as the Adult fares for journeys to or from checkpoint terminuses, and range from HK$1.40 to $39.40.

MTR did not provide concessionary fares for the disabled. Legislators such as Social welfare constituency legislator Fernando Cheung Chiu-hung and those from Hong Kong Association for Democracy & People's Livelihood had for years demanded that such concessions be put in place. In May 2009, MTR eventually agreed to offer the disabled concessionary fares with HK$2 million sponsorship from Transport and Housing Bureau and under the condition that Legislative Councilmarker amends the Disability Discrimination Ordinance.

Single journey tickets and octopus card reloads can be purchased at vending machines while tourist passes, octopus cards and other special tickets must be purchased at the ticket counter. Credit cards are only accepted to purchase Airport Express tickets.

Octopus cards

The Octopus card is a rechargeable contactless smart card used in an electronic payment system in Hong Kong developed by Australian-based company ERG Group. It was launched in September 1997 for use on the MTR (and KCR, now operated by MTR) and now is the most widely used electronic cash system for transactions in Hong Kong as many retailers (including supermarkets and fast food outlets) are fitted with readers. The technology used was Sony's Felica line of smartcard. The Octopus card uses radio frequency identification (RFID) technology so that users need only hold the card in front of the reader, without taking it out of handbags and wallets.

Except for the Airport Express, MTR fares are slightly lower when using an Octopus card compared to using single journey tickets. For example, the cost of the three-minute journey from Admiralty to Tsim Sha Tsui across the Victoria Harbourmarker is (as of 2005) HK$7.7 using the Octopus card, compared with HK$8.5 for a single-journey ticket.

Tourist pass

Tourist Day Pass is available for tourists to have a day unlimited rides on the MTR, with the exception of the Light Rail, all MTR Bus routes, the 1st Class of the East Rail Line, the Airport Express, as well as journeys to and from Lo Wu, Lok Ma Chau and Racecourse stations. Each pass costs $55 and are available at all the MTR Customer Service Centres. Tourist Day Pass should be used within 30 days upon the day of issue. The Airport Express Tourist Octopus Cards are also available. Cardholders may enjoy 3 days of unlimited rides on the MTR(except Airport Express, Light Rail, MTR Bus, East Rail Line First Class, Lo Wu and Lok Ma Chau stations) refundable deposit of HK$50 and choice of either a single (HK$220) or round (HK$300) trip on the Airport Express.

Other fares

The magnetic fare card system is used for single journey tickets. These tickets are pre-paid for between pre-determined stations, and are good for only one trip. There are no return tickets, except on the Airport Express.

Fares for the Airport Express are substantially different from main line fares. Apart from single tickets, same-day return tickets (same price as a single), and one-month return tickets are also available.

A one-day pass can be used to unlimited travel to/from Hong Kong Disneylandmarker within the same day, and costs HK$50. This pass can be purchased from any MTR Customer Service Centres or Airport Express Customer Service Centres.

Safety



Various campaigns and activities are taken to help ensure that the MTR is a safe system to travel on. Poster campaigns displaying information on topics such as escalator safety are a common sight in all MTR stations, and announcements are made regularly as safety reminders to travelling passengers. Bylaws were also introduced to deter potentially dangerous actions on the MTR, such as the ban on flammable goods on the MTR and rushing into trains when the doors are closing. Penalties ranging from fines to imprisonment have been imposed for such offences. Metallic balloons are also banned due to previous incidents on KCR and on MTR's Island Line where a metallic balloon interfered with the operation of the overhead power lines. Also, smoking, eating and drinking in subway trains and platforms are prohibited.

Police officers patrol the trains and stations, and police posts are available at some stations. The Hong Kong Police Force has a Railway District responsible for the MTR. Closed-circuit television cameras are installed in stations.

The entire Tung Chung Line and Airport Express, as well those stations added by the Tseung Kwan O Line, has platform screen doors (PSDs), ordered from Swiss glass door manufacturer Kaba Gilgen AG, installed upon construction. So do the entire West Rail Line and the East Tsim Sha Tsui Station, inherited from KCR. These doors make platforms safer by preventing people from falling onto the rails, even though MTRCL did not heavily promote it directly. However, the primary motivation was to separate the stations from the tunnels, hence allowing substantial energy savings on station air-conditioning and tunnel ventilation. Automatic platform gates (APGs) have also been installed at the Sunny Bay and Disneyland Resort stations. Their heights are half of the PSDs and only prevent people from falling onto the rails. MTR will be installing these APGs at the remaining stations that do not currently have platform screen doors including Tsuen Wan, Kwai Hing, Kwai Fong, and Ngau Tai Kok.

In June 2000, MTRCL proceeded with its plans to retrofit 2,960 pairs of platform screen doors at all 30 underground stations on the Kwun Tong Line, Tsuen Wan Line, and Island Line in a six year programme. The programme made MTR the world's first railway to undertake the retrofitting of PSDs on a passenger-carrying system already in operation. A prototype design was first introduced at Choi Hung Station in the 3rd quarter of 2001. The whole installation scheme was completed in October 2005. (The original completion year was 2006.) MTRCL said that part of the cost had to be assumed by passengers. HK$0.10 per passenger trip was levied on Octopus card users to help fund the HK$2 billion retrofit programme.

Social responsibilities

Art promotion

With the objective "not only bring MTR passengers more time for life, but also more time for art", the "Art in MTR" Initiative has been a success since its reception in 1998, where the Airport Express Artwork Programme was the pioneer project. Thereafter, live performances, art exhibitions, display of artwork by established and emerging artists, students and young children have been brought into the MTR stations. MTRCL have even made art part of the station architecture when building new stations or renovating existing ones. Artworks are exhibited in different forms on the network, including "arttube", open art gallery, community art galleries, roving art, living art, and art in station architecture.

MTR HONG KONG Race Walking

MTR and Hong Kong Amateur Athletic Association have jointly hosted MTR HONG KONG Race Walking annually in spring since 2005. The race walking competition aims at promoting healthy living in Hong Kong. The race begins and ends on the ground above Central MTR Station, namely Chater Garden, Chater Road, Ice House Streetmarker and Des Voeux Road Centralmarker in Centralmarker. There is a fun walk apart from regular competition. Participants make up for fun in the fun walk. The event attracted over 800 participants in 2005 and 1,000 in 2006. Other than Hongkongers, the event also attracts athlete from various countries. The race raises fund for Better Health for a Better Hong Kong, a Hospital Authority project for working population.

See also



References

  1. Title Slide
  2. http://www.mtr.com.hk/eng/corporate/file_rep/PR-09-093-E.pdf
  3. Railway Gazette: China South rolls out Hong Kong light rail cars


External links




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