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Machilipatnam ( ) is a city and a special grade municipality in the Krishna districtmarker, Andhra Pradeshmarker, India. The town has existed since the 3rd century BCE (Satavahana period) when, according to Ptolemy, it was known as Maisolos. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea calls it Masalia in the 1st century CE. The port is located on the southeastern, or Coromandel Coast, of India. Situated in the mouth of the River Krishna on the Bay of Bengalmarker, the Masula port saw flourishing sea trade. It was a 17th century port for Frenchmarker, Britishmarker and Dutchmarker trade, when it was known as Masulipatam.

The port has a medium-size fishing harbour which can accommodate 350 fishing vessels and an active carpet-weaving industry. The other products from the town include rice, oilseeds and scientific instruments. This town is a railway terminus and an important educational centre.

The area is vulnerable to storm surges caused by the frequent cyclones in the Bay of Bengalmarker. The 2004 Tsunamimarker affected many fishing villages around Machilipatnam. The Government and NGOs are involved in rebuilding and reconstructing devastated villages.

History

Machilipatnam was a flourishing seaport on the east coast during the time of the Satavahanas. It was mentioned in the Periplus that a great quantity of muslins are made in Masalia. Finest muslins were exported from Masulipatam to Egypt, Rome, Athens and Arabia. The town retained its importance throughout the history and was the major port of Golkonda kingdom. In the 17th century CE, the port was a centre of French, British and Dutch trade. It is one of the earliest known Britishmarker settlements in the Indian subcontinent and the British East India Company's first trading post on the Coromandel coast. An agency was established there in 1611 CE. During the Carnatic Wars, the British were temporarily expelled from the town, which was held by the French for some years. In 1759, the town and fort were captured by Colonel Forde, an achievement followed by the acquisition of the Northern Circars. In 1864 a great storm-wave swept over the entire town and is said to have destroyed 30,000 lives. A monument was erected by the then District collectormarker of Masulipatam, Mr Thornhill, almost 3 km away from the inundated town in Robertson Square (nowadays familiar as Koneru centre).

The port is only a roadstead, where vessels anchor 5 m. out. A branch line from Vijayawadamarker on the Southern Mahratta railway was opened in 1908. The port of Machilipatnam today is in need of modernization. It has not seen any ships in the last decade. In its heyday, the port used to handle exports of items weighing more than 2.7 lakh tonnes and imports of 37,000 tonnes. It used to export Iron Ore to Japan. In January 2006, the Government of Andhra Pradeshmarker revealed plans to revive the Machilipatnam port at a cost of Rs. 1200 crores. It has allocated 6000 acres (24 km2) of land for the project.

Geography

Dawn at Manginipudi Beach
Machilipatnam is located at on the southeast coast of India and in the east corner of Andhra Pradesh. The city has an average elevation of 14 meters (45 feet).

Climate

Machilipatnam gets annual rainfall due to the southwest monsoon. The climate is tropical in nature with hot summers and moderate winters. The hottest months are between April and June. The average normal rainfall in the district is 102 cm.

Machilipatnam is frequently hit by cyclones originating in the Bay of Bengalmarker. On 8 December 2004, a high capacity S-Band Doppler radar meant for cyclone warning was installed, commissioned and made operational at the city. It was purchased from a German manufacturer, Gematronik. The Andhra Pradesh coast between Ongole and Machilipatnam is vulnerable to high surges of the sea due to cyclones. The Andhra Cyclone of 14-20 November, 1977 crossed the coast near Nizampatnammarker and took approximately 10,000 lives. As the storm approached the coast, gale winds reaching 200 km/h lashed Prakasam, Gunturmarker, Krishna, East Godavarimarker and West Godavarimarker districts. A storm surge, 5 meters high, inundated Krishna estuary and the coast south of Machilipatnam.

With the installation of the radar, the state will be better equipped to track down cyclones by the onset of monsoon, according to an official from the State Met Office talking to the The Hindu newspaper. This facility will monitor 960 km long coastline of the state. The radar's information is posted real-time on the Indian Meteorological Department website. Similar radars were installed in other coastal cities forming an S-Band Cyclone Detection Radar Network.

Politics and administration

For administrative purposes, Machilipatnam falls into the Bandar revenue division of the Krishna Districtmarker. It is a special grade municipality with 36 panchayats and 28 villages. The city area covers an area of 28 kilometres (10 miles). Machilipatnam is an assembly constituency in Andhra Pradesh. It is governed by the Collectormarker and the District Magistrate of the Krishna districtmarker.

Economy

Machilipatnam has many small scale industries. Fashion gold (also called rolled gold or gold covering) ornaments are made in the town. Yasasri gold, National gold, Uma gold, Hema Sri Gold Covering Works, Raja gold, Fancy gold, Ravi Teja gold, Mohan gold,Laxmana Gold, Ravi Gold, Fancy Gold and USHA GOLD are among the leading manufacturers of fashion gold in Machilipatnam. Agriculture is the most important occupation, paddy being the main food crop produced. Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), a unit of the Union Defence Ministry, of the Government of India, operates a manufacturing unit in Machilipatnam. BEL is involved in design, development and manufacture of state-of-the art electronic equipment that are used by the Indian Defence Services and para military organisations.

Demographics

As of 2001 India census, Machilipatnam had a population of 183,370.Present population(2009) increased to 250,043. Males constitute 50% of the population and females 50%. Machilipatnam has an average literacy rate of 69%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 73%, and female literacy is 65%. In Machilipatnam, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Culture

People in Machilipatnam practice Hinduism, Islam and Christianity. Hindus and Christians speak Telugu and the Muslims tend to speak Urdu. Women of all cultures and faiths typically wear the traditional Indian dress, the sari - sometimes Shalwar Qamis.

It used to be that a movie was designated a hit or flop based on the first show at Machilipatnam. There are many theatres in the city.

The city is well-known for sweet dishes called Bandar Laddu and " Bandar Halwa "

Literary organizations

The literary organisation "Saahithee Mitrulu" was established in Machilipatnam in 1981. It has conducted literary and cultural programmes since then without pause, functioning chiefly to bring out the creative skills of youth and new writers; it has published at least 66 books of literature and treating of language and culture. In 1999, the organization conducted the "Sathaavadhaanam" of Rallabandi Kavitha Prasad, created a history.

Kuchipudi

Kuchipudi, a popular Indian Classical Dance form originated at Kuchipudi, 25 kilometres from Machilipatnam. The dance form is in practice in Machilipatnam.

Arts and crafts

The Kalamkari fabrics of Machilipatnam and Kalahastimarker, with their intricate designs, are used in clothing and wall hangings. Kalamkari refers to dye-painted cloths and the technique used to create them. Their name derives from kalam, for a pen-like tool used to draw outlines on the cloth, and kari (work). Fabrics are outlined with a cotton-tipped bamboo stick and dyed in vegetable or mineral colours. The process involves washing, rinsing, soaking and bleaching muslin, and applying mordants and dyes using natural substances like indigo for blue, madder for red, mango bark and dried myrobalan fruit for yellow, palm sugar and rusted iron for black. The dyeing process is very elaborate and can take several days to complete. While some pieces are hand-drawn, large canvas and sheets are block-printed. The work done in Machilipatnam, often using block printing in conjunction with hand painting, features decorative floral and vegetable designs that appealed to local kingdoms and to export trade. This culminated in European demand for Machilipatnam chintz, which derives its name from the Hindi word chint (spotted).

Tourism

Beach near Machilipatnam
Machilipatnam is a city with a rich history of foreign conquests, business and trade. The relics of Bandar Kota (Machilipatnam Fort) can be visited. The old light house is still standing.

Temples

Sai maharaj devalayam at district court centre Machilipatnam is the main attraction of the town. It has the biggest statue of sri saibaba of shirdi.Dattashram is a pilgrimage site on the coast. Dattashram has an ancient Shiva temple and a recently built Datta temple. Manginapudi is popularly known as "Datta Rameswaram" due to the consecration of 12 wells for bathing (recalling those at Rameswarammarker). Panduranga Swamy temple at Chilakalapudi near the city, is a famous piligrimage site. It is a temple of Lord Vishnu, said to be similar to the temple at Pandaripur. Sivaganga Temple is a historical temple maintained by Challapalli jameendars rather than the Government. It is one of the oldest temples in the area. Located on the Avanigadda road, it attracts tourists and devotees all through the year. On Shivaratri major celebrations are carried out by the temple trustees. Anjaneya Swami Temple, in Paraspet, was built by Samarth Ramdas, the guru of Chatrapathi Sivaji. Ghantasalamarker, 21 km from Machilipatnam, has the remains of an old Buddhist stupa. Agastheeswara Temple, 36 km from Machilipatnam, is a temple of Lord Shiva and piligrimage site. At this temple Lord Shiva is called by the name Ekaratri Mallikarjunaswamy. An annual festival is celebrated here and the deities are taken out in procession. At Gudivadamarker, North west of Machilipatnam, visitors are attracted by the old ruins of the stupas. Further up the coast of Machilipatnam there are five temples dedicated to Lord Shiva. These ancient temples are located at Amravatimarker, Samalkotmarker, Bhimavarammarker, Draksharama and Chebrolumarker. Prasanna Anjaneya Swamy temple located at Godugupet has a history of over hundred years.

Beaches

The beaches in Machilipatnam are long, broad, pristine, with pale blonde sands. Manginapudi Beach, a beach side fishing hamlet 11 km from Machilipatnam, is well known for its scenic beauty and also as a historic port city. During its heyday this port served as a gateway to India. The beach has a natural bay with shallow waters.

Transport

Road transport

The National highway NH-9 from Punemarker via Hyderabadmarker and Vijayawadamarker is being extended to Bandar Fort through Machilipatnam. A coastal National highway NH-214A from Narsapur to Ongole via Machiipatnam has been sanctioned 4 years ago.

Rail transport

Machilipatnam is well connected to important cities of India. Nearest city is Vijayawada, south central railway's important railway station and junction. There are eleven passenger trains to Vijayawada, one fast passenger to Visakhapatnammarker and two express trains to Secunderabadmarker and Tirupathi. Two weekly thrice expresses to Bangaloremarker and Mumbaimarker.

Sea transport

As of 2008 there is no transport by the sea. However, Machilipatnam Deep Water Seaport is under development by Vajra Seaports Pvt. Ltd, a consortium led by Maytas Infra Limited.

Air transport

The nearest airport is Gannavaram airport near Vijayawada, about 70 km away.

Media

The city receives television and radio transmissions from Hyderabadmarker and the rest of country. All major print media are in circulation. The major Telugu dailies include the Eenadu, Surya, Vaartha, Andhra Jyoti, Andhra Bhoomi, Saakshi and Andhra Prabha. The major English dailies are The Deccan Chronicle, Business Standard, The Hindu, The Times of India, The Indian Express and The Economic Times.

Education

Machilipatnam is an educational center, offering all the academic courses except Medicine. It has public (state-run) and private-run schools. The local Hindu college and allied institutions offer KG to PG level of education. There are several Telugu language and English language schools. Daita Madhusudhana Sastry, the former secretary and correspondent of the Hindu college and allied institutions was instrumental in the establishment and expansion of most of the educational institutions in Machilipatnam.

Schools

  • S.N.H.A Primary School,established in 1972 is located at Chinnavullingipalem,Founder Nalluri Moses Mohan ( First National Award winner for Best Teacher in Andhra Pradesh)
  • Vemuri Ramjee Government High School, started on 4 December,1918 for Harijans, with free hostel facility.
  • Saint Francis High School, Paraspet, is both Telugu & English Medium School both State Syllabus and ICSE Syllabus
  • SDA Mission High School, Edepalli, founded by Esther Rani Saggurthi, offers education from kindergarten to 12th standard.
  • HYNY High School and Elementary School are aided schools run by missionaries from Finland. Miss A.E. Hyny founded the school.
  • Sri Venkateswara Public School, affiliated with the Hindu College, Machilipatnam, was the only Central Board of Secondary Education following school in the city before the Kendriya Vidyalaya was instituted. The school follows the NCERT (central) syllabus.
  • Sharon High School provides education from kindergarten to the higher secondary level, Mrs Indira Deenabandu founded the school.
  • Nirmala High School, a Christian missionary run school provides education from kindergarten to the higher secondary level.
  • Jaihind Hind High school, founded in 1947 is situated near Inugudurupet with two campuses.
  • JaiHind Montessori English Medium School, Is run by JaiHind High School.
  • St. Mary's Adi Andhra Madana Mohana High school (also known as Ratna High School) is one of the oldest schools. It is located in the Machavaram area.
  • Gandhi Vidyalaya school is situated in Balaramunipet and is a government aided public school.
  • Noble high School. it is one of the oldest schools here and is located between Noble College and Government hospital.
  • Sharkey girls high School. It is one of the oldest schools here and is located in Sharkey copound adjacent to Noble college.

Telugu schools

  • Viswabharati vidyalaya is the oldest Telugu school, established in 1969.
  • Anniebesant Sisu Vidya Mandiram is a Telugu language school situated at Edepally.


English medium schools

  • Sharon High School is a reputed institute in Machilipatnam established by Indira Dheenabandu in the year 1984. Sharon High School located at Noble colony provides education from Kinder garden to higher seconday level.
  • Amaleswari Vidya Niketan (English medium)is one of the reputed school situated in Rustumbad and is one of the oldest schools in the area.
  • St. Francis English Medium High School is a Christian missionary run school providing education from kindergarten to the higher secondary level. It is affiliated to the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education.
  • Nirmala High school(English medium) is a Christian missionary school provides education from kintergarten to the higher secondary level in state syllabus.
  • Rustumbada Municipal High School
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya is also in Machilipatnam. It is near Bypass road. it concentrates not only on Academic developmaent but also on co-culcural activities
  • Sri Balaji Vidyalayam is an English medium school located near REVATHI talkies is also an pretty OLD schhol with new facilities, sports and cultural activities.
  • Dakshinamurthy Vidyalayam is a upcoming institution in Machilipatnam with all the good facilities.
  • Gandhi Vidyalaya established in 1975 is located at Balaramunipet opposite to pump house gate.
  • Little flower high school established in 1980 is located at rajpet opposite rajpet post office.
  • Gayathree Public school is an very High Professional School Running by the Engineers "Bye-pass road H.B-colony Machilipatnam Contact Principal : Mrs.Latha nancharaiah Director : Mr.Nancharaiah Phone: 9849430301,9247404599,9966623323.


Colleges

  • Noble College, founded in 1843, is University Grants Commission (UGC) approved and offers graduate studies. Right Reverend G. Dyvasirvadam, the Bishop-in-Krishna Godavari heads the management of the Noble College.
  • Andhra Jaateeya Kalasala, founded in 1910 by local freedom fighters, is also UGC approved and offers graduate studies.
  • The Hindu College was established in 1928. It is affiliated to Krishna University and offers graduation studies. It is a UGC approved college.
  • Sri Venkateswara Hindu College Of Engineering was established in 1980. It offers engineering degrees in civil, electrical and electronics, electronics and communication and mechanical engineering divisions as well as business studies.
  • R.K.Junior College was established in 2009.It is affiliated to Board of Intermediate, it offers M.P.C, BI.P.C, M.E.C, C.P.T.(COMMON PROFISSIONAL TEST).
  • Sri Varalakshmi Polytechnic is Machilipatnam's only private polytechnic college, established in 1983. It offers engineering diplomas.Government polytechnic college started this year.
  • Andhra Jateeya Kalasala (National College) is affiliated to Krishna University. This college was established in 1910 under the management of Andhra Jatheeya Vidyaa Parishat estasblished by Sri Kopalle Hanumantha Rao, Sri Pattabhi Sitharamaiah and Sri Mutnuri Krishna rao.It started Andhra Jatheeya college of education also in 1967 to offer B.Ed.and M.Ed. courses. (ramsri)A.J.K.ITC and one oriental highschool are also running under this management.


Notable people

Residents

  • Rao Bhadhur Thota Perayya Naidu, founder Director of Andhra Bank and Executive Engineer, also a founder member of the Andhra Jatheeya Kalaasaala (National College). Advisor of Andhra Scientific Company (taken over by BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED). Hails for this port town. Lived for 99 years.




  • Dr Pattabhi Sitaramayya, 1880-1959, a freedom fighter and historian of the Indian National Congress and founder of Andhra Bank,Krishna central Bank and Andhra Insurance Company.




  • C. K. Nayudu, the first Indian cricket captain hailed from this port town.


  • RaoBahadhur KV RAMANAYYA NAIDU garu, was from this Town. He is a Top notch Advocate, Philanthropist. He served as MLA, Municipal Chairman, Public prosecutor, Director Krishna Club, Director AndhraBank, Director Krishna Co-op Bank, Syndicate Member Andhra University, Syndicate Member Madras Layola College etc.


  • Kopalle Hanumantharao, the founder of Andhra Jatheeya Kalaasaala (National College)




  • Mutnuri Krishna Rao - Founder of "Krishna Patrika", a literary magazine.


  • Adavi Bapi Raju - A renowned writer and painter.


  • Ayyagari Ramamoorthy Panthulu - Founder of Andhra Scientific Company (taken over by BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED).


  • Nalluri Moses Mohan - He is First National Award winner in Andhra Pradesh.(For Best Teacher).


Film stars

  • S.V. Ranga Rao - Famous Telugu Film Actor lived and worked in Machilipatnam before joining Film Industry
  • Sutti Velu - Noted comedian.
  • Nirmalamma - Telugu film character artiste,
  • Nalluri Sudheer Kumar - Famous Music Director in Telugu T.V Industry
  • Mani Sharma - Famous Music Director in Telugu Industry hails from Machilipatnam.
  • Achuth famous TV cerial actor and film actor
  • ASWIN SIYADRI Editor in telugu industry from Machilipatnam.


People associated with Machilipatnam

  • Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, former president of India, worked as a lecturer at the Andhra Jateeya Kalasala.
  • Viswanadha Satyanarayana, writer of the famous novel "Veyi Padagalu", lived and worked in Machilipatnam.
  • Munimanikyam Narasimha Rao, creator of "Kantham" character worked as a teacher at Hindu High School for several years.
  • Tirupathi Venkata Kavulu, famous poet duo who did "Ashtavadhanas", worked at Hindu High School.
  • Veeramachaneni Venkata Krishna Rao, Founder Member of Steel Manufacturing & Trading Companies - Steel Exchnage India Limited & Vizag Profiles Limited, Visakhapatnam.
  • Dr. Nori Datathatreya- Famous oncologist.
  • Divi Murali Krishna prasad-chairperson of Divi's pharma limited.
  • Srini Rekapalli - Director Of Engineering, Cellarstone


References

External links




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