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Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP) (Hindī: मध्य प्रदेश, pronounced "Middle Province"), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central Indiamarker. Its capital is Bhopalmarker. Madhya Pradesh was originally the largest state in India until November 1, 2000 when the state of Chhattisgarhmarker was carved out. It borders the states Uttar Pradeshmarker, Chhattisgarhmarker, Maharashtramarker, Gujaratmarker and Rajasthanmarker. The state has an area of .The largest city and the commercial capital of the state is Indoremarker.

History

Ancient

Legend has it that Lord Rama bequeathed the fort to his brother Laxmana, hence the name Bandhavgarh (Bandhavgarh National Park) which means brother's fort. The Bhimbetka rock sheltersmarker in Madhya Pradesh exhibit the earliest traces of human life in India; its Stone Age rock paintings are approximately 9,000 years old.

The city of Ujjainmarker (also known as Avanti) arose as a major center in the second wave of Indian urbanization in the sixth century BC, and served as the chief city of the kingdom of Malwa or Avanti. Further east, the kingdom of Chedi lie in Bundelkhand. Chandragupta Maurya united northern India c. 320 BCE, establishing the Maurya empire (321 to 185 BCE), which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh. King Ashoka's wife was said to come from Vidishamarker- a town north of today's Bhopal. The Maurya empire went into decline after the death of Asoka the Great, and Central India was contested among the Sakas, Kushanas, and local dynasties during the 3rd to 1st centuries BCE. Ujjain emerged as the predominant commercial center of western India from the first century BCE, located on the trade routes between the Gangesmarker plain and India's Arabian Seamarker ports. It was also an important Hindu and Buddhist center.
The Satavahana dynasty of the northern Deccanmarker and the Saka dynasty of the Western Satraps fought for the control of Madhya Pradesh during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. Northern India was conquered by the Gupta empire in the 4th and 5th centuries, which became known as India's "classical age". The Vakataka dynasty were the southern neighbors of the Guptas, ruling the northern Deccanmarker plateau from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal. These empires collapsed towards the end of the 5th century.

Medieval

The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns brought about the collapse of the Gupta empire, and India broke up into smaller states. A king Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Huns in 528, ending their expansion. King Harsha of Thanesarmarker reunited northern India for a few decades before his death in 647. The Medieval period saw the rise of the Rajput clans, including the Paramaras of Malwa and the Chandelas of Bundelkhand. The Paramara king Bhoj (c. 1010-1060) was a brilliant polymath and prolific writer. The Chandelas created the temple city of Khajurahomarker between c. 950 and c. 1050. Gond kingdoms emerged in Gondwana and Mahakoshal. Northern Madhya Pradesh was conquered by the Muslim Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century. After the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century, independent regional kingdoms reemerged, including the Tomara Rajput kingdom of Gwaliormarker and the Muslim Sultanate of Malwa, with its capital at Mandu. The Malwa Sultanate was conquered by the Sultanate of Gujaratmarker in 1531.

Modern

Most of Madhya Pradesh came under Mughal rule during the reign of the emperor Akbar (1556–1605). Gondwana and Mahakoshal remained under the control of Gond kings, who acknowledged Mughal supremacy but enjoyed virtual autonomy. After the death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in 1707 Mughal control began to weaken, and the Marathas began to expand from their base in central Maharashtra. Between 1720 and 1760 the Marathas took control of most of Madhya Pradesh, and Maratha clans were established semi-autonomous states under the nominal control of the Maratha Peshwa. The Holkars of Indoremarker ruled much of Malwa, and the Bhonsles of Nagpurmarker dominated Mahakoshal and Gondwana as well as Vidarbha in Maharashtra. Jhansimarker was founded by a Maratha general. Bhopal was ruled by a Muslim dynasty descended from Dost Mohammed Khan, an Afghanmarker General in the Mughal army. Maratha expansion was checked at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761.

The Britishmarker were expanding their Indian dominions from bases in Bengalmarker, Bombaymarker, and Madrasmarker, and the three Anglo-Maratha Wars were fought between 1775 and 1818. The Third Anglo-Maratha War left the British supreme in India. Most of Madhya Pradesh, including the large states of Indore, Bhopal, Nagpur, Rewa, and dozens of smaller states, became princely states of British India, and the Mahakoshal region became a British province, the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories. In 1853 the British annexed the state of Nagpurmarker, which included southeastern Madhya Pradesh, eastern Maharashtra and most of Chhattisgarhmarker, which were combined with the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories to form the Central Provinces in 1861. The princely states of northern Madhya Pradesh were governed by the Central India Agency.

After Indian independence

Madhya Pradesh was created in 1950 from the former British Central Provinces and Berar and the princely states of Makraimarker and Chhattisgarh, with Nagpurmarker as the capital of the state. The new states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were formed out of the Central India Agency. In 1956, the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were merged into Madhya Pradesh, and the Marathi-speaking southern region Vidarbha, which included Nagpur, was ceded to Bombay state. Bhopal became the new capital of the state. Madhya Pradesh, in its present form, came into existence on 1 November 2000, following its bifurcation to create a new state of Chhattisgarhmarker. The undivided Madhya Pradesh was founded on 1 November 1956. Madhya Pradesh, because of its central location in India, has remained a crucible of historical currents from North, South, East and West.

Government and politics

The constitutional head of the state is the governor, appointed by the President of India. The current governor is Dr. Rameshwar Thakur.

Madhya Pradesh has a 230-seat state Legislative Assembly. The state also sends 40 members to the Parliament of India: 29 are elected to the Lok Sabha (Lower House) and 11 to the Rajya Sabha (Upper House).

The dominant political parties in the state are the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Indian National Congress. Unlike many of its neighbours, Madhya Pradesh has largely a two-party system with small or regional parties not having had much success in recent elections.

In the November 2008 state elections, the BJP won an absolute majority of 143 seats, defeating Congress who won just 71 seats. Other parties in the state legislature include the Bahujan Samaj Party with seven seats.

The current chief minister is Shivraj Singh Chouhan, who succeeded Babulal Gaur and Uma Bharti. Before the BJP won in 2003, the longtime Congress Chief Minister was Digvijay Singh. In the 2004 Indian General Election the BJP swept the state by winning 25 of the 29 seats, while the Congress won the remaining four.

For a historical list of previous chief ministers see List of Chief Ministers of Madhya Pradesh

Geography

Madhya Pradesh in Hindi can be translated to Central Province, and it is located in the geographic heart of India. The state straddles the Narmada Rivermarker, which runs east and west between the Vindhyamarker and Satpuramarker ranges; these ranges and the Narmada are the traditional boundary between the north and south of India. The state is bordered on the west by Gujaratmarker, on the northwest by Rajasthanmarker, on the northeast by Uttar Pradeshmarker, on the east by Chhattisgarh, and on the south by Maharashtramarker.

Madhya Pradesh comprises several linguistically and culturally distinct regions, including:
  • Malwa: a plateau region in the northwest of the state, north of the Vindhya Range, with its distinct language and culture. Indoremarker is the major city of the region, while Bhopal lies on the edge of Bundelkhand region. Ujjainmarker is a town of historical importance.
  • Nimar (Nemar): the western portion of the Narmada River valley, lying south of the Vindhyas in the southwest portion of the state.
  • Bundelkhand: a region of rolling hills and fertile valleys in the northern part of the state, which slopes down toward the Indo-Gangetic plain to the north. Gwaliormarker is a historic center of the region.
  • Chambal: the north-western region. A mountainous region rich in red, soft, and fragile sandstone. The climate is harsh, and the area is known for murderous pirates who were active in hundreds in the late 1900s.
  • Baghelkhand: a hilly region in the northeast of the state, which includes the eastern end of the Vindhya Range.
  • Mahakoshal (Mahakaushal): the southeastern portion of the state, which includes the eastern end of the Narmada river valley and the eastern Satpuras. Jabalpurmarker is the most important city in the region.
  • Central Vindhyamarker and Satpuramarker region. Which has most of the central Narmada river valley and watershed, and has the highest point in the state - Dhupgarh in Pachmarhimarker.

Rivers

View from Sharda Temple Maihar
Madhya Pradesh represents great river basins and the watershed of a number of rivers. Catchments of many rivers of Indiamarker lie in Madhya Pradesh. The Narmadamarker (originating from Amarkantakmarker) and Taptimarker (originating from Multaimarker of Betul Districtmarker) rivers and their basins divide the state in two, with the northern part draining largely into the Gangamarker basin and the southern part into the Godavari and Mahanadi systems. The Vindhyasmarker form the southern boundary of the Ganga basin, with the western part of the Ganga basin draining into the Yamunamarker and the eastern part directly into the Ganga itself. All the rivers, which drain into the Ganga, flow from south to north, with the Chambalmarker, Sipramarker, Kali Sind, Parbati, Kuno, Sind, Betwamarker, Dhasanmarker and Kenmarker rivers being the main tributaries of the Yamuna. The land drained by these rivers is agriculturally rich, with the natural vegetation largely consisting of grass and dry deciduous forest types, largely thorny. The eastern part of the Ganga basin consists of the Son, the Tonsmarker and the Rihandmarker Rivers, with the Son being the major tributary. This is also the junction point of the Satpuramarker and the Vindhyamarker ranges, with the Maikal and Kaimur Hills being the fulcrum. The forests here are much richer than the thorn forests of the northwestern part of Madhya Pradesh. The Son is of great significance in that it is the largest tributary going into the Ganga on the south bank and arising out of the hills of Madhya Pradesh rather than from the Himalayasmarker. This river and its tributaries contribute the bulk of the monsoon flow into Ganga, because the north bank tributaries are all snow fed.

The major tributary of the Ganga, the Son, arises in one of the most important watersheds in India, the Maikal hills around Amarkantakmarker. Three of the great rivers of India, Narmada, Mahanadi and Son, are given birth to by these hills. This is also one of the few ranges in the State having a north south configuration. The Mahanadi itself, together with its tributaries such as Hasdeo, Mand and Kharun flows southeast into Orissamarker and converts that State into a green rice bowl. The upper Mahanadi catchment contains some of the finest forests in the State, ranging from mixed deciduous to teak, bamboo and sal. Just as the Mahanadi flows east from the Maikal hills and the Son flows north, the mighty Narmadamarker charts a westerly course from these very hills. The Narmada flows through a rift valley, with the Vindhyas marching along its northern bank and the Satpuras along the southern. Its tributaries include the Banjar, the Tawamarker, the Machna, the Denwa and the Sonbhardra rivers. Taken in combination with its parallel sister river, the Taptimarker, which also flows through a rift valley, the Narmada - Tapti systems carry and enormous volume of water and provide drainage for almost a quarter of the land area of Madhya Pradesh.

The Satpurasmarker, in the Gawilgarhmarker and Mahadeo Hills, also contain a watershed, which is south facing. The Indrawatimarker, the Waingangamarker, the Wardhamarker, the Pench, the Kanhan and Penganga rivers, discharge an enormous volume of water into the Godavari system. The Godavari is the lifeline of Andhra Pradeshmarker, but the water which feeds it is a gift of the Central India watershed. Some of the finest sub-tropical, semi moist forests in India are to be found in the Godavari basin, mainly in the valley of the Indrawati. There are very few virgin forests left in the country, but very fine examples of these are to be found in Bastar area along the Indrawati and in the Kanger valley in Chhattisgarh.

The importance of Central India watershed was first noted by Captain Forsyth and remarked upon in his book, "The Highlands of Central India", first published in 1889. This is what he has to state in the introductory chapter to his book,"Yet in the very center of India there exists a considerable region to which the term highlands — is strictly applicable; and in which are enormous peaks and ranges, for which the term mountain would, in any other country, be used. Several of the great rivers of India have their first source in this elevated region. And pour their water into the sea on either side of the peninsula – to the north the Son commingling with the Gangesmarker, to the east the Mahanadi, flowing independently to the Bay of Bengalmarker, to the south some of the principal feeders of the Godavari, and to the west the Narmadamarker and the Taptimarker taking parallel courses to the Arabian Seamarker.

There are many important multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects.

Climate

Madhya Pradesh has a subtropical climate.Like most of north India it has a hot dry summer(April-June) followed by monsoon rains (July-September) and a cool and relatively dry winter. The average rainfall is about . It decreases from east to west. The south-eastern districts have the heaviest rainfall, some places receiving as much as , while the western and north-western districts receive or less.

Flora and fauna

Forest

Madhya Pradesh is endowed with rich and diverse forest resources. Lying between lat. 21°04'N and long. 74°02' and 82°49' E, it is a reservoir of biodiversity. The geographical area of the state is which constitutes 9.38% of the land area of the country. The forest area of the state is constituting 31% of the geographical area of the state and 12.44% of the forest area of the country. Legally this area has been classified into "Reserved Forest, Protected Forest and Unclassified Forest", which constitute 61.7%, 37.4% and 0.9% of the forest area respectively. Per capita forest area is as against the national average of .

Central, eastern and southern parts of the state are rich, whereas northern and western parts are deficient in forest.Variability in climatic and edaphic conditions brings about significant difference in the forest types of the state. There are four important forest types viz. Tropical Moist, Tropical Dry, Tropical Thorn , Subtropical broadleaved Hill forests.The forest area can also be classified based on the composition of forest and terrain of the area. Based on composition, there are three important forest formations namely teak, sal and miscellaneous forests. Bamboo bearing areas are widely distributed in the state. To obviate pressure on the natural forests , plantations have been undertaken in forest and non forest areas to supplement the availability of fuel wood , small timber , fodder etc. MP lost a good amount of forest recently when Chattisgarh was carved out of it, as that region was the richest reserve of forrests in MP.

The total growing stock (volume of timber / wood) is 50,000,000 m3 valued worth Rs 2.5 lakh Crores.

Natural areas

Madhya Pradesh is home to several National Parks, including Bandhavgarh National Parkmarker, Kanha National Parkmarker, Satpura National Park, Sanjay National Park, Madhav National Parkmarker, Van Vihar National Park, Mandla Plant Fossils National Park, Panna National Park, and Pench National Park, Madhya Pradesh.

There are also a number of natural preserves, including Amarkantakmarker, Bagh Cavesmarker, Bhedaghatmarker, Bori Natural Reserve, Ken Gharial, Ghatigaon, Kuno Palpur, Narwarmarker, Chambal, Kukdeshwar, Narsinghgarh, Nora Dehi, Pachmarhimarker, Panpatha, Shikarganj, Patalkot and Tamia.

Economy

Between 1999 and 2008, the annualized growth rate was very low 3.5%. According to the India State Hunger Index compiled by the International Food Policy Research Institute, the malnutrition situation in Madhya Pradesh is "extremely alarming", receiving a severity rating between Ethiopiamarker and Chadmarker.

Madhya Pradesh's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $32 billion in current prices. After partition, the new Madhya Pradesh state produces about 70% of the output of the old Madhya Pradesh state — the rest is produced by Chattisgarh. Between 1980 and 2000 the gross domestic product grew from 77,880 million rupees to 737,150 million rupees.

MFP from the forests, such as Tendu leaves used to roll bidi, Sal seed, teak seed, and lak are major contributors to the rural economy of the state.

Only one S&P CNX 500 conglomerate has its corporate office in Madhya Pradesh viz. Ruchi Soya Industries (2005 gross income Rs.49,661 million). Many Agricultural Industries and Engineering Industries.

Divisions

Major Cities

The cities mentioned are the largest and economically important cities of Madhya Pradesh:

Districts

Madhya Pradesh state is made up of 50 districts, which are grouped into 10 divisions: Bhopal, Jabalpur, Indore, Chambal, Gwalior, Rewa, Sagar, Ujjain, Shahdolmarker and Narmadapuram. Recently there is a demand for separate Baghelkhand Division for Satna, Rewa, Sidhi and Maihar as well as Ratlam Division for Jhabua, Mandsaur, Neemuch, Nagda, and Meghnagar.

Districts: Anuppur, Alirajpur, Ashoknagar, Balaghatmarker, Barwanimarker, Betulmarker, Bhindmarker, Bhopal, Burhanpur, Chhatarpurmarker, Chhindwara, Damoh, Datia, Dewas, Dhar, Dindori, Guna, Gwalior, Harda, Hoshangabadmarker, Indoremarker, Jabalpur, Jhabua, Katni, Khandwa, Khargone, Mandlamarker, Mandsaur, Morenamarker, Narsinghpurmarker, Neemuch, Panna, Raisen, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Rewa, Sagarmarker, Satna, Sehore, Seoni, Shahdol, Shajapurmarker, Sheopur, Shivpuri, Sidhi, Singrauli, Tikamgarh, Ujjainmarker, Umariamarker, Vidisha.Demands of people to make Khurai Citymarker of Saugormarker district a separate District Khurai District comprising Bina, Khimlasa and Rahatgarh are also boasting up.

Agro-climatic zones

Madhya Pradesh is divided into following agro-climatic zones:

Transport

Madhya Pradesh, being surrounded by land, has both Land and Air transport facilities.

Railways

Extensive rail network criss sross the state, with Jabalpurmarker serving as headquarter for West Central Railway Zone of Indian Railways.The state has a total of 20 Major Railway Junctions such as Bhopal Junction, Indore Junction BG, Indore Junction MG, Gwalior Junction, Jabalpur Junction, Ujjain Junction, Itarsi Junction, Satna Junction, Ratlam Junction, Nagda Junction, Bina Junction, New Katni Junction, Anuppur Junction, Chhindwara Junction, Parasia Junction, Khandwa Junction, Betul and Amla Junction along with 13 Minor Railway Junctions. The Major Cities have more than one and own Local Railway Stations such as :

Roadways

Buses and trains cover most of Madhya Pradesh. Extensive road network is also being developed. Madhya Pradesh leads in nation in implementing Gramin Sadak Nirman Pariyojna, a central government aided programme to provide road networks to villages.

Airways

The state has Five Domestic Airports. The Air Transport is at :

While major air strips are at Ujjain, Khandwa and Satna.

The major flight operators such as Indian Airlines, Air India, Air Deccan, Qatar Airways, Kingfisher Airlines, Kingfisher Red, Indigo and Go Air operate at the major airports of the state.

Demographics

Madhya Pradesh is a medley of ethnic groups and tribes, castes and communities. The population of Madhya Pradesh includes indigenous people and migrants from other states. According to census of 2000, 91.1% followed Hindu religion while others are Muslim (6.40%), Jain (0.9%), Christians (0.30%), Buddhists (0.30%), and Sikhs (0.20%). The scheduled castes and scheduled tribes constitute a significant portion of the population of the State. The scheduled castes are 13.14% while scheduled tribes were 20.63%.

Tribals in Madhya Pradesh include Baiga, Bhariya, Bhils, Gondi people, Halbamarker, Kaul, Korku,Malto people, Mariya, and Sahariya.

Languages

The predominant language of the region is Hindi.

In addition to standard Hindi, several regional variants are spoken, which are considered by some to be dialects of Hindi, and by others to be distinct but related languages. Among these languages are Malvi in Malwa, Nimadi in Nimar, Bundeli in Bundelkhand, and Bagheli and Avadhi in Bagelkhand and the southeast. Each of these languages or dialects has dialects of its own. Other languages include Bhilodi (Bhili), Gondi, Korku, Kalto (Nahali), and Nihali (Nahali), all spoken by tribal groups. Due to rule of Marathas, Marathi is spoken by a substantial number of people.

In addition, Saraiki and Pashto are spoken by the large number of immigrants from Afghanistanmarker and NWFPmarker, Pakistanmarker.

In an attempt to "reduce Western influence" on children, Madhya Pradesh government has forbidden the teaching of English nursery rhymes in primary schools.

Tribals

A family from Baiga tribal, the third largest tribal in the state.


Madhya Pradesh is dominated by the Tribal population. The differences in the tribal community, spread over in various parts of the state, is clearly seen not only on the basis of their heredity, lifestyle and cultural traditions, but also from their social, economic structure, religious beliefs and their language and speech. Due to the different linguistic, cultural and geographical environment, and its peculiar complications, the diverse tribal world of Madhya Pradesh has not only been largely cut-off from the mainstream of development.

The population of Tribals in Madhya Pradesh is 122.33 lakh constituting 20.27% of the total population of Madhya Pradesh (603.85 Lakh), according to the 2001 census. There were 46 recognized Scheduled Tribes and three of them have been identified as "Special Primitive Tribal Groups" in the State.

The main tribal groups in Madhya Pradesh are Gond, Bhil, Baiga, Korku, Bhadia, Halbamarker, Kaul, Mariya, and Sahariya. Dharmarker, Jhabuamarker and Mandlamarker districts have more than 50 percent tribal population. In Khargonemarker, Chhindwaramarker, Seonimarker, Sidhimarker and Shahdolmarker districts 30 to 50 percent population is of tribes. Maximum population is that of Gond tribes.

Culture

A man playing flute.

Heritage and architecture

Several cities in Madhya Pradesh are extraordinary for their architecture and or scenic beauty. Three sites in Madhya Pradesh have been declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCOmarker: the Khajuraho Group of Monumentsmarker (1986) including Devi Jagadambi temple, Buddhist Monuments at Sanchimarker (1989) and the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetkamarker (2003). Other architecturally significant or scenic sites include Ajaigarhmarker, Amarkantakmarker, Asirgarhmarker, Bandhavgarhmarker, Bawangajamarker, Bhopalmarker, Chanderimarker, Chitrakutamarker, Dharmarker, Gwaliormarker, Indoremarker, Maheshwarmarker, Mandleshwarmarker, Mandu, Omkareshwar, Orchhamarker, Pachmarhimarker, Shivpurimarker, Sonagiri and Ujjainmarker. MP being very large geographically, and the history being spread over several millennia, a developing a comprehensive picture of heritage and architecture is a monumental task.

Media

Raj Express, Nai Duniya, Patrika (Rajsthan Patrika), Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Jagran and Nav Bharat & Hindi weekly news papar Akbar Times ,are prominent Hindi news paper. Various other local news papers are also published in various cities.

In English, Times of India, Hindustan Times, Central Chronicle, Pioneer and Free Press have editions from Bhopal. Urdu journals is common in Bhopalmarker. Nadeem, the oldest Urdu newspaper of the state, is published from Bhopal. Urdu Action and Haq-o-Insaf are also published. Farz, a Sindhi daily is published from Bhopal is the only Sindhi newspaper in State.

Games

Cricket is commonly played game. Football (Soccer), Basket-Ball, Volley-Ball, Cycling, Swimming, Tracking, Badminton, Table-Tennis, Lawn Tennis are common games.

Also some traditional games are played in rural areas:

1. Kho kho2. Gulli Danda3. Pittu

Various awards in M.P to honour the sportspersons are:1.Vikram Award2.Vishwamitra Award3.Eklavya Award

References

Further reading

  • Chishti, R̥ta Kapur, Martand Singh, and Amba Sanyal. Saris of India: Madhya Pradesh. New Delhi: Wiley Eastern & Amr Vastra Kosh, 1989. ISBN 8122401872
  • Gyanendra Singh. Farm Mechanization in Madhya Pradesh. Bhopal: Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, 2000.
  • Madhya Pradesh (India). The Madhya Pradesh Human Development Report 2002: Using the Power of Democracy for Development. [Bhopal: Govt. of Madhya Pradesh, 2002.
  • Parmar, Shyam. Folk Tales of Madhya Pradesh. Folk tales of India series, 12". New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1973.
  • Rag, Pankaj, and O. P. Misra. Masterpieces of Madhya Pradesh. Bhopal: Directorate of Archaeology, Archives & Museums, Government of Madhya Pradesh, 2005.
  • Rag, Pankaj. Vintage, Madhya Pradesh: A Collection of Old Photographs. Bhopal: Madhya Pradesh Madhyam jointly with the Directorate of Archaeology, Archives, and Museums, 2005. ISBN 8190270273
  • Sampath, M. D., H. V. Trivedi, and Mandan Trivedi. Epigraphs of Madhya Pradesh. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India, 2001.
  • Sati, Vishwambhar Prasad. Madhya Pradesh, a Geo-Economic Appraisal. Delhi: Abhijeet, 2004. ISBN 8188683434
  • Shah, Shampa, and Aashi Manohar. Tribal Arts and Crafts of Madhya Pradesh. Living traditions of India. Ahmedabad: Mapin Pub./in Association with Vanya Prakashan, Bhopal, 1996. ISBN 0944142710
  • Shrivastava, Divya. The Development of Scheduled Tribes in Madhya Pradesh. New Delhi: Gyan Pub. House, 2000. ISBN 8121206987
  • Singh, R. V. Dairy Co-Operatives and Development: A Study of Tribal Dairy Co-Operatives in Madhya Pradesh. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications, 2006. ISBN 8178353318


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