Mainz ( ) ( ) is a city in Germany and the
capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. It was a politically important seat of the
Prince-elector of Mainz (see:
Archbishopric of Mainz) under
the Holy Roman Empire, and
previously was a Roman fort city which
commanded the west bank of the Rhine and formed
part of the northernmost frontier of the Roman Empire.
until the twentieth century, Mainz was usually referred to in
English as Mayence.
Mainz is a city with over two thousand years of history. The first
European books printed using movable type were manufactured in
Mainz by Gutenberg
in the early
is located on the river Rhine across from
Wiesbaden, in the western part of the Frankfurt
Rhine-Main Region; in the modern age, Frankfurt shares much of its regional
located on the west bank of the river Rhine, opposite the
confluence of the Main with the
The 2008 population was 196,784, an additional 18,619
people maintain a primary residence elsewhere but have a second home
in Mainz and it is also a part of
the Rhein Metro area consisting of 5.8 million people. Mainz is easily
reached from Frankfurt International Airport in 25 minutes by commuter railway (Rhine-Main S-Bahn).
consists of 15 districts: Altstadt, Neustadt, Mombach, Gonsenheim,
Hartenberg-Münchfeld, Oberstadt, Bretzenheim, Finthen, Drais,
Lerchenberg, Marienborn, Hechtsheim, Ebersheim, Weisenau, and
Laubenheim. Until 1945, the districts of Bischofsheim (now an independent town), Ginsheim-Gustavsburg (which together are an independent town) belonged
to Mainz. The former suburbs Amöneburg, Kastel, and
Kostheim—in short AKK—now are administrated by the city of
Wiesbaden (on the north bank of the river).
was separated from Mainz when the Rhine was
designated the boundary between the French occupation zone (the
later state of Rhineland-Palatinate) and the U.S. occupation zone (Hesse) in
Image:Sattelite Wiesbaden Mainz.jpg|Satellite photograph of the
cities of Wiesbaden and Mainz and the junction of the Main with the
Pfalz.jpg|The Deutschhaus, the House of Parliament of
Mainz.jpg|Kaiserstraße ("Emperor Street") with boulevard and
churchImage:Mainz-Theodor-Heuss-Bruecke-2005-05-16a.jpg|Theodor Heuss Bridge
Image:Rathaus mainz1.jpg|City Hall, designed
by Arne Jacobsen
Mainz experiences an oceanic climate
The city of Mainz is divided into 15 local districts according to
the main statute of the city of Mainz. Each local district has a
district administration of 13 members and a directly elected mayor,
who is the chairman of the district administration. This local
council decides on important issues affecting the local area,
however, the final decision on new policies is made by the Mainz's
In accordance with § 29 Par. 2 of Local Government Regulations,
which refers to municipalities of more than 150,000 inhabitants,
the city council has 60 members.
Districts of the town are:
Former districts (until the end of WWII):
Coat of arms
The coat of arms of Mainz is derived from the coat of arms of the
Archbishops of Mainz
features two six-spoked silver wheels connected by a silver cross
on a red background.
Remains of a Roman town gate from the
late 4th century.
The Roman stronghold of castrum
Moguntiacum, the precursor to Mainz, was founded
by the Roman general Drusus
perhaps as early as 13 BC. As related by
Suetonius the existence of
Moguntiacum is well established by four years later (the
account of the death and funeral of Nero Claudius Drusus), though several
other theories suggest the site may have been established
earlier. Although the city is situated
opposite the mouth of the Main river, the
name of Mainz is not from Main, the similarity being perhaps due to
diachronic analogy. Main is from
Latin Menus, the name the Romans used for the
river. Linguistic analysis of the many forms that the
name "Mainz" has taken on, make it clear that it is a
simplification of Moguntiacum.
The name appears to be Celtic
ultimately it is. However, it had also become Roman and was
selected by them with a special significance. The Roman soldiers
had adopted the Gallic god
(Mogounus, Moguns, Mogonino), for the
meaning of which etymology offers two basic options: "the great
one", similar to Latin magnus, which was used in aggrandizing names
such as Alexander magnus
, "Alexander the Great" and
, "Pompey the great", or the god of "might"
personified as it appears in young servitors of any type whether of
noble or ignoble birth.
The Drusus monument (surrounded by the
17th century citadel) raised by Drusus' men to commemorate
To name the fort after this particular god was an ideological
statement. It was placed in the territory of the Vangiones
, a formerly Germanic tribe now
Celticised and working for the Romans. Their capital was at
Worms on the same
side of the Rhine not far to the south.
Dedications of their
troops serving in Britain mention the god frequently. Germania Superior
was a geographical
gateway between Gaul and Germany. The Romans were saying in essence
by placing the fort here and naming it that "You barbarians shall
not pass into the civilized and international state because the
might of its youth inspired by its ancient god will stop you." If
the barbarians needed any example, the previous fate of the
Vangiones, who had come as conquerors and were conquered, was
All that remains of the Roman
Moguntiacum was an important military town throughout Roman times,
probably due to its strategic position at the confluence of the
Main and the Rhine. The town of Moguntiacus
between the fort and the river. The castrum was the base of
Legio XIIII Gemina
(43–70), I Adiutrix
(70–88), XXI Rapax
and XIIII Gemina
(70–92), among others. Mainz was also the base of a Roman river
fleet (the remains of Roman patrol boats and cargo barges from
about 375/6 were discovered in 1982 and may now be viewed in the
Museum für Antike Schifffahrt
). The city was the
provincial capital of Germania
Superior, and had an important funeral monument dedicated to
Drusus, to which people made pilgrimages for an annual festival
from as far away as Lyon.
Among the famous buildings were the largest theatre
north of the Alps and a
bridge across the rhine.
forces under Rando sacked the city
in 368. In last days of 406, the Siling and Asding Vandals
, the Suebi
, the Alans
, and other Germanic tribes took advantage of the
rare freezing of the Rhine to
cross the river
at Mainz and overwhelm the Roman defences.
Christian chronicles relate that the bishop, Aureus, was put to
death by the Alamannian Crocus. The way was open to the sack of Trier and the
invasion of Gaul.
This event is familiar to many from the
historical novel, Eagle in the
, by Wallace Breem
Throughout the changes of time, the Roman castrum never seems to
have been permanently abandoned as a military installation, which
is a testimony to Roman military judgement. Different structures
were built there at different times. The current citadel originated
in 1660, but it replaced previous forts. It was used in World War
of the sights at the citadel is still the cenotaph raised by his legionaries to commemorate
Through a series of incursions during the 4th century Alsace
gradually lost its Belgic ethnic character of formerly Germanic
tribes among Celts ruled by Romans and became predominantly
influenced by the Alamanni
. The Romans
repeatedly reasserted control; however, the troops stationed at
Mainz became chiefly non-Italic and the emperors had only one or
two Italian ancestors in a pedigree that included chiefly peoples
of the northern frontier.
The last emperor to station troops serving the western empire at
Mainz was Valentinian III
relied heavily on his Magister militum per Gallias
. By that time the
army included large numbers of troops from the major Germanic
confederacies along the Rhine, the Alamanni, the Saxons
and the Franks
Franks were an opponent that had risen to power and reputation
among the Belgae of the lower Rhine during the 3rd century and
repeatedly attempted to extend their influence upstream. In 358 the
bought peace by
giving them most of Germania
, which they possessed anyway, and imposing service in
the Roman army in exchange.
The European chessboard in the time of master Aëtius included
Celts, Goths, Franks, Saxons, Alamanni, Huns, Italians, and Alans
as well as numerous minor pieces. Aëtius played them all off
against one another in a masterly effort to keep the peace under
Roman sovereignty. He used Hunnic troops a number of times. At last
a day of reckoning arrived between Aëtius and Attila
, both commanding polyglot, multi-ethnic
troops. Attila went through Alsace in 451, devastating the country
and destroying Mainz and Triers with their Roman garrisons. Shortly
after he was stalemated by Flavius
at the Battle of
, the largest of the ancient world.
Aëtius was not to enjoy the victory long. He was assassinated in
454 by the hand of his employer, who in turn was stabbed to death
by friends of Aëtius in 455. As far as the north was concerned this
was the effective end of the Roman empire there. After some
sanguinary but relatively brief contention a former subordinate of
, became emperor, taking the
name Patrician. His father was a Suebian; his mother, a princess of
. Patrician did not rule the
north directly but set up a client province there, which functioned
independently. The capital was at Soissons.
Even then its status was equivocal. Many
insisted it was the Kingdom of
Previously the first of the Merovingians
been defeated by Aëtius at about 430. His son, Merovaeus
, fought on the Roman side against
Attila, and his son, Childeric
in the domain of Soissons. Meanwhile the Franks were gradually
infiltrating and assuming power in this domain. They also moved up
the Rhine and created a domain in the region of the former Germania
Superior with capital at Cologne
became known as the Ripuarian
as opposed to the Salian
. It is unlikely that much of a population transfer or
displacement occurred. The former Belgae simply became
Events moved rapidly in the late 5th century. Clovis, son of
Childeric, became king of the Salians in 481, ruling from Tournai.
In 486 he defeated Syagrius
, last governor of the Soissons domain, and
took northern France. He extended his reign to Cambrai and Tongeren in 490–491, and repelled the Alamanni is
Also in that year he converted to non-Arian
After the Fall of the Roman
in 476, the Franks
under the rule
of Clovis I
gained control over western
Europe by the year 496. Clovis annexed the kingdom of Cologne in
508. Thereafter, Mainz, in its strategic position, became one of
the bases of the Frankish kingdom. Mainz had sheltered a Christian
community long before the conversion of Clovis. His successor
reinforced the walls of Mainz
and made it one of his seats. A solidus
(534–548) was minted at Mainz.
The Franks united the Celtic and Germanic tribes of Europe. The
greatest Frank of all was Charlemagne
(768–814), who built a new empire in Europe, the Holy Roman Empire
. Mainz from its central
location became important to the empire and to Christianity.
Meanwhile language change was gradually working to divide the
Franks. Mainz spoke a dialect termed Ripuarian
. On the death of Charlemagne,
distinctions between France and Germany began to be made. Mainz was
not central any longer but was on the border, creating a question
of the nationality to which it belonged, which descended into
modern times as the question of Alsace-Lorraine.
In the early Middle Ages
, Mainz was a
centre for the Christianisation
and Slavic peoples
. The first Archbishop
in Mainz, Boniface, was killed in 754 while
trying to convert the Frisians to Christianity and is buried in
Fulda. Other early archbishops of Mainz include
Rabanus Maurus, the scholar and
author, and Willigis (975–1011), who began
construction on the current building of the Mainz
Cathedral and founded
the monastery of St. Stephan.
Monument to St. Boniface before Mainz
From the time of Willigis until the end of the Holy Roman Empire
in 1806, the Archbishops of Mainz
archchancellors of the Empire and the most important of the seven
of the German emperor.
Rome, the diocese of
Mainz today is the only diocese in the
world with an episcopal see that is
called a Holy See (sancta
The Archbishops of Mainz traditionally were
substitutes of the Pope
north of the Alps
In 1244, Archbishop Siegfried III
granted Mainz a city charter, which included the right of the
citizens to establish and elect a city council. The city saw a feud
between two Archbishops
in 1461, namely
Diether von Isenburg
, who was
elected Archbishop by the cathedral
and supported by the citizens, and Adolf II von Nassau
, who had been named
Archbishop for Mainz by the Pope
. In 1462, the
Archbishop Adolf II raided the city of Mainz, plundering and
killing 400 inhabitants. At a tribunal, those who had survived lost
all their property, which was then divided between those who
promised to follow Adolf II. Those who would not promise to follow
Adolf II (amongst them Johannes
) were driven out of the town or thrown into prison.
The new Archbishop revoked the city charter of Mainz and put the
city under his direct rule. Ironically, after the death of Adolf II
his successor was again Diether von Isenburg, now legally elected
by the chapter and named by the Pope.
Early Jewish community
The Jewish community of Mainz dates to the 10th century CE. It is
noted for its religious education. Rabbi Gershom ben Judah
(960–1040) taught there,
among others. He concentrated on the study of the Talmud
, creating a German Jewish tradition.
of Mainz, Speyer and Worms created a
supreme council to set standards in Jewish law and education in the
The city of Mainz responded to the Jewish population in a variety
of ways, behaving, in a sense, in a bipolar fashion towards them.
Sometimes they were allowed freedom and were protected; at other
times, they were persecuted. For example, they were expelled in
1462, invited to return, and expelled again in 1474. Outbreaks of
the Black Death
were usually blamed on
the Jews, at which times they were massacred. This unstable
pattern, which was not typical for Mainz only, but for whole Europe
at that time, went on until World War II.
Nowadays the Jewish community is growing rapidly, and a new
synagogue is under construction on the site of the one destroyed
under the Third Reich
. The community
itself has 1,034 members, according to the Central Council of Jews
in Germany, and at least twice as many Jews altogether since many
are unaffiliated with Judaism.
Republic of Mainz
the French Revolution, the French
Revolutionary army occupied Mainz in 1792; the Archbishop of Mainz, Friedrich Karl
Josef von Erthal, had already fled to Aschaffenburg by the time the French marched in.
March 1793, the Jacobins
of Mainz, with
other German democrats from about 130 towns in the Rhenish Palatinate
, proclaimed the
‘Republic of Mainz
’. Led by Georg Forster representatives of the Mainz
Republic in Paris requested
political affiliation of the Mainz Republic with France, but too
late: As Prussia was not entirely happy with
the idea of a democratic free state on German soil, Prussian troops
had already occupied the area and besieged Mainz by the end of
After a siege
of 18 weeks, the French troops
in Mainz surrendered on 23 July 1793; Prussians occupied the city
and ended the Republic of Mainz. Members of the Mainz Jacobin Club
were mistreated or imprisoned and
punished for treason.
In 1797, the French returned. The army of Napoléon Bonaparte occupied the German
territory to the west of the Rhine river, and
the Treaty of Campo Formio
awarded France this entire area. On 17 February 1800,
the French Département du
Mont-Tonnerre was founded here, with Mainz as its capital,
the Rhine river being
the new eastern frontier of la Grande Nation. Austria and Prussia could not but
approve this new border with France in 1801.
several defeats in Europe during the next years, the weakened
Napoléon and his troops had to leave Mainz in May 1814.
the part of the former French Département which is known today as
Rhenish Hesse ( ) was awarded to the
Hesse-Darmstadt, Mainz being the capital of the new Hessian province of Rhenish Hesse. From 1816 to 1866, to
Confederation Mainz was the most important fortress in the
defence against France, and had a strong garrison of Austrian and Prussian
In the afternoon of 18 November 1857, a huge explosion rocked Mainz
when the city’s powder magazine, the Pulverturm
Approximately 150 people were killed and at least 500 injured; 57
buildings were destroyed and a similar number severely damaged in
what was to be known as the Powder Tower Explosion
the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, Mainz was declared a neutral zone.
founding of the German
Empire in 1871, Mainz no longer was as important a
stronghold, because in the war of
1870/71 France had lost the territory of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany, and this defined the new border between
the two countries.
centuries the inhabitants of the fortress of Mainz had suffered from a severe shortage of space which
led to disease and other inconveniences.
Mainz towards the Rhine river (around
In 1872 Mayor
and the council of Mainz
persuaded the military government to sign a contract to expand the
city. Beginning in 1874, the city of Mainz
assimilated the Gartenfeld, an idyllic area of meadows and
fields along the banks of the Rhine River to the north of the rampart.
expansion more than doubled the urban area which allowed Mainz to
participate in the industrial
which had previously avoided the city for
Eduard Kreyßig was the man who made this happen. Having been the
master builder of the city of Mainz since 1865, Kreyßig had the
vision for the new part of town, the Mainz Neustadt.
also planned the first sewer system for the old part of town since
Roman times and persuaded the city government to relocate the
railway line from the Rhine side to the west end of the town.
station was built from 1882 to 1884 according to the plans
of Philipp Johann Berdellé (1838–1903).
The Mainz master builder constructed a number of state-of-the-art
public buildings, including the Mainz town hall — which was the
largest of its kind in Germany at that time — as well a synagogue,
the Rhine harbour and a number of public baths and school
buildings. Kreyßig's last work was Christ Church
), the largest Protestant church in the
city and the first building constructed solely for the use of a
In the 20th century
World War I the French occupied
Mainz between 1919 and 1930 according to the Treaty of Versailles which went into
effect 28 June 1919.
(in which Mainz is located) was to be a demilitarized zone until
1935 and the French garrison, representing the Triple Entente
, was to stay until
reparations were paid.
In 1923 Mainz participated in the Rhineland separatist movement
that proclaimed a republic in the Rhineland. It collapsed in 1924.
The French withdrew on 30 June 1930. Adolf
became chancellor of Germany in January, 1933 and his
political opponents, especially those of the Social Democratic
Party, were either incarcerated or murdered. Some were able to move
away from Mainz in time. One was the political organizer for the
SPD, Friedrich Kellner
, who went
to Laubach, where as the chief justice inspector of the district
court he continued his opposition against the Nazis by recording
their misdeeds in a 900-page diary
1933, a detachment from the National Socialist
Party in Worms brought the
party to Mainz.
They hoisted the swastika
on all public buildings and began to
denounce the Jewish population in the newspapers. In 1936 the
forces of the Third Reich
Rhineland with a great fanfare, the first move of the Third Reich's
meteoric expansion. The former Triple Entente took no action.
During World War II
the citadel at
Mainz hosted the Oflag XII-B prisoner of war camp.
The Bishop of Mainz formed an organization to help Jews escape from
During World War II
, more than 30 air
raids destroyed about 80 percent of Mainz city centre, including
most of the historic buildings. Mainz fell to XII Corps, 90th Division
, of the
Third Army under the command of General George S. Patton
, Jr. on 22 March 1945. Patton used the
ancient strategic gateway through Germania Superior to
cross the Rhine south of Mainz, drive down the Danube towards Czechoslovakia and end the possibility of a Bavarian redoubt
crossing the Alps in Austria when the war ended.
to the Roman road over which Patton attacked Trier, he said:
one could almost smell the coppery sweat and see the
low dust clouds where those stark fighters moved forward into
From 1945 to 1949, the city was part of the French zone of
occupation. When the federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate was founded on 18 May 1947, Koblenz was the temporary capital; in 1950 Mainz became the
capital of the new state.
In 1962, the diarist, Friedrich Kellner
, returned to spend his
last years in Mainz. His life in Mainz, and the impact of his
, is the subject of the
Canadian documentary My Opposition:
the Diaries of Friedrich Kellner
Following the withdrawal of French forces from Mainz, the U.S. Army
occupied the military bases in Mainz. Today USAREUR only
occupies McCulley Barracks in Wackernheim and the Mainz Sand
Dunes for training area.
Mainz is home to the
headquarters of the Bundeswehr'
II and other units.
Mainz Rad and FSV Mainz 05 flags on the Domplatz
The local football club 1. FSV Mainz 05
has a long history in the
German football leagues, but could reach the Fußball-Bundesliga
soccer league) a few years ago. It is currently intending to build a new
stadium called Coface
Arena. In 2007 the Mainz Athletics won the German Men's
Championsship in baseball.
As a result of the 2008
invasion of Georgia by Russian troops, Mainz acted as a neutral
venue for the Georgian Vs Republic of Ireland football game.
- Roman-Germanic central
museum (Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum). It is
home to Roman, Medieval, and earlier artifacts.
- Antique Maritime Museum
(Museum für Antike Schifffahrt). It houses the remains of
five Roman boats from the late 4th century, discovered in the
- Roman remains, including Jupiter's column, Drusus' mausoleum,
the ruins of the theatre and the aqueduct.
- Mainz Cathedral of St. Martin (Mainzer Dom), over 1,000 years
- The Iron Tower (Eisenturm, tower at the former iron
market), a tower from the 13th century.
- The Wood Tower (Holzturm, tower at the former wood
market), a tower from the 14th century.
- The Gutenberg Museum – exhibits
an original Gutenberg Bible amongst many other printed books from
the 15th century and later.
- The Mainz Old Town – what's left of it, the quarter south of
the cathedral survived World War II.
Palace (Kurfürstliches Schloss), residence of the
- Marktbrunnen, one of the largest Renaissance fountains
- Domus Universitatis (1615), for centuries the tallest
edifice in Mainz.
- Christ Church (Christuskirche), built 1898–1903,
bombed in 1945 and rebuilt in 1948–1954.
St. Stephan, with post-war windows by Marc Chagall.
- Schönborner Hof (1668).
- Rococo churches of St. Augustin (the
Augustinerkirche, Mainz) and
St. Peter (the Petruskirche, Mainz).
- Church of St. Ignatius (1763).
- Erthaler Hof (1743).
Botanischer Garten der Johannes
Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, a botanical
garden maintained by the university
Mainz is one of the centers of the German
economy as a center for wine trade and the seat of the
state's wine minister. Due to the importance and history of the
wine industry for the federal state, Rhineland-Palatinate is the
only state to have such a department. The city is member of the
Great Wine Capitals Global Network. Many wine traders also work in
the town. The sparkling wine
Kupferberg produces in Mainz-Hechtsheim and even Henkell
— now located on the other side of the river
Rhine — had been founded once in Mainz. The famous Blue Nun
, one of the first branded wines, had been
marketed by the family Sichel.
Mainz had been a wine growing region since Roman times and the
image of the wine town Mainz is fostered by the tourist center. The
Haus des Deutschen Weines
(English: House of the German
Wine), is located in beside the theater. It is the seat of the
German Wine Academy, the German Wine Institute (DWI) and the German
Wine Fund (DWF). The Mainzer Weinmarkt (wine market) is one of the
great wine fairs in Germany.
The Schott AG
, one of the world's largest
glass manufactures, as well as the Werner & Mertz
, a large chemical
factory, are based in Mainz. Other companies such as IBM
or Novo Nordisk
their German administration in Mainz as well.
, founder of
France's famous Krug
in 1843, was born in Mainz in 1800.
Mainz, now handling mainly containers, is a sizable
industrial area to the north of the city, along the banks of the
It will soon shift further northwards to open up
space along the city's riverfront for residential
After the last ice age
, sand dunes were
deposited in the Rhine valley at what was to become the western
edge of the city. The Mainz Sand Dunes area is now a nature reserve with a unique
landscape and rare steppe vegetation for this
Forum of the Johannes Gutenberg
, credited with
the invention of the modern printing
with movable type, was born here and died here.
University, which was refounded in 1946, is named after
Gutenberg; the earlier University
of Mainz that dated back to 1477 had been closed down by Napoleon's
troops in 1798.
Mainz was one of three important centers of Jewish
theology and learning in Central Europe during
the Middle Ages. Known collectively as Shum, the
cities of Speyer, Worms and Mainz
played a key role in the preservation and propagation of Talmudic
(See also: Gershom ben Judah
Mainz is famous for its Carnival
, which has
developed since the early 19th century. Carnival in Mainz has its
roots in the criticism of social and political injustices under the
shelter of cap and bells; today, the uniforms of many traditional
Carnival clubs still imitate and caricature the uniforms of the
French and Prussian troops of the past. The height of the carnival
season is on Rosenmontag ("rose Monday", before Ash Wednesday
), when there is a large parade
in Mainz, with more than 500,000 people celebrating in the
The first ever Katholikentag
festival-like gathering of German Catholics, was held in Mainz in
is well-known in Germany as the seat of Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen
(literally, "Second German Television", ZDF), one of
two federal nationwide TV broadcasters.
There are also a
couple of radio stations based in Mainz.
According to legend, Mainz is the supposed birthplace of Pope Joan
(John Anglicus), the woman who,
disguised as a man, was elected pope, and served for two years
during the Middle Ages
Twin towns — Sister cities
Mainz is twinned
- Watford, United
Kingdom, since 1956
- Dijon, France, since
- Longchamp, France, since
- Zagreb, Croatia, since 1967
- Rodeneck/Rodengo, Italy, since
- Valencia, Spain, since
- Haifa, Israel, since
- Erfurt, former
Germany, since 1988
- Baku, Azerbaijan, since 1984
- Louisville, Kentucky, USA, since
Mainz is called by a number of different
in other languages and dialects. These include:
) in the local West Middle German
dialect, and Mentz
latter name was also used in English, but this usage of Mayence has
almost completely disappeared, although Google Maps
use it. Other names for this city are: Magonza
) and Mohuč
References and notes
- Denis B. Saddington: The stationing of auxiliary regiments
in Germania Superior in the Julio-Claudian period.
- Valerie M. Hope: Constructing Identity: The Roman Funerary
Monuments of Aquelia, Mainz and Nimes; British Archaeological
Reports (16. Juli 2001) ISBN 978-1841711805
- Michael Imhof, Simone Kestin: Mainz City and Cathedral
Guide. Michael Imhof Verlag; (15. September 2004) ISBN
- Mainz , since 1981