, or officially,
, is the official residence
of the President of the Philippines
is located along the north bank of the Pasig
River in Manila.
is called Palasyo ng Malakanyang
, and Malacañan Palace
when referred to as the official residence of the President of the
Philippines. In popular media and everyday parlance, it is simply
referred to as Malacañang, and this shorter name is also used when
referring to its role as the office of the president. The term
"Malacañang" can be used as a metonym
the Philippine President's administration or the Executive branch
as a whole. Malacañang Palace is depicted on the verso
(back) side of the present-day 20-peso
Today the complex consists of several buildings in addition to
Malacañang Palace itself. Bonifacio
, formerly the Premier Guest House, was used as the main
office of Corazon C. Aquino
, the first female president of the
Phillipines and leader of the People Power Revolution
the previous president Ferdinand E.
in 1986. Later, President
Joseph Ejercito Estrada
adopted it as
his residence. Kalayaan Hall
former executive building built under the American administration.
is the the current
Administration Building. A New Executive Building was also built by
President Aquino. Additionally there are other, smaller buildings.
Across the river is Malacañang Park, which contains a golf course,
park, billets for the presidential guard, as well as a
Commonwealth-era presidential resthouse (Bahay Pangarap) and
The state and historical rooms of the Palace aren't often seen by
the public. The Palace is closed and heavily guarded during times
of political unrest, although prior to the Marcos
administration, access was far more restricted
than in the modern era. This lack of access by the public was
particularly notable during the Ramon
) administration in the 1950s. Rallyists often
congregate along Mendiola Street
nearby to air their protests against the government.
The official etymology from the 1930s says that the name comes from
a Tagalog phrase "may lakan diyan"
, which means "there is
a nobleman there", as it was the home of a wealthy Spanish merchant
before it hosted the nation's chief executive. The Spanish
themselves, on the other hand, said the name came from
"Mamalakaya," or the fishermen who once laid out their catch in the
bend of the river where the Palace now stands. A more mundane claim
is that the Palace actually got its name from the street where it
was located, the Calzada de Malacañang
Whatever its origin, the word Malacañang
Tagalog. Because the Spanish
avoids using "-ng" as the final sound of a word, the
Spanish colonialists hispanized Malacañang to Malacañán.
Spanish version of the name was maintained during the American occupation of the Philippines from 1898 until 1946,
despite the fact that "-ng" as a final sound is very familiar in
the English language.
"Malacañan" remains to this day an acceptable English version name
of the Palace. However, during the 1950s presidency
of Ramon Magsaysay
, the Philippine government
restored the dropped "g" to Malacañang in honor of its historical
Spanish Captains-General (before the independence of New Spain, from which the Philippines was directly
governed) and then the Governors-General of the
Philippines originally resided in the walled city of Intramuros, Manila, until an earthquake leveled the Palacio
del Gobernador (Governor's Palace) in 1869.
At this point,
Malacañang Palace, a summer home originally built in 1802 by
Spanish aristocrat Don Luis Rocha, then subsequently purchased by
an official and then purchased by the state, became the temporary
residence of the Governors-General. Governor General Rafael de Echague y
, previously governor of Puerto Rico, was therefore
the first Spanish governor to occupy Malacañang Palace.
When the Philippines came under American rule following the
Malacañang Palace became the residence of the American
Governor-General. In 1900, William
became the first American Civil Governor resident.
The palace was expanded, and an Executive building added by
Governors-General Francis Burton
and Dwight Davis. The complex reverted to the
President of the Philippines upon the establishment of the
Commonwealth of the Philippines, on November 15, 1935. President
Manuel L. Quezon
became the first Filipino resident
of Malacañang Palace. It has been the official residence of the
President of the Philippines since. After his inauguration on
December 30, 1953, President Ramon
issued an Executive Order formally changing the name
from "Malacañang Palace" to "Malacañang: Residence of the President
of the Philippines." The new nomenclature rapidly caught on and was
maintained until informally abandoned during the Marcos
administration. During the
administration of President Corazon
, for historical reasons, government policy has been to
make the distinction between "Malacañan Palace", official
residence of the president
, and "Malacañang", office of
The palace was made famous as the home of President Ferdinand and
, who were its longest
residents, from 1965 to 1986. As first lady, Mrs. Marcos oversaw
the reconstruction of the palace to her own extravagant tastes.
Including the former San Miguel Brewery Buildings, which was
demolished upon Expansion, paving away to a park near the San
Miguel Church. Following a student uprising that nearly breached
the palace gates in the early 1970s, martial
was declared, and the complex was closed to the public.
When President Marcos was deposed in 1986, the palace complex was
stormed by the local populace, and the international media
subsequently exposed the excesses of the Marcos family, including
Mrs. Marcos' infamous collection of thousands of shoes.
The Presidential Study
It is the
official office of the President, equivalent to the United States'
Oval Office of the White House.
Malacañang Palace in 1898.
It is on the second floor of the Palace
itself, while the old Executive Office in Kalayaan Hall has been
renamed the Quezon Room. The desk is the presidential desk in use
since the Commonwealth of the Philippines, when the official desk
of the American governor-generals was brought to the United States;
it was used by all presidents from Quezon to Marcos (officially
until 1978, then in his private study), restored by President
Ramos, used by President Joseph
, and restored once more by President Arroyo.
- Office of the President website
- Quezon, Manuel III L. (2005) Malacañang Palace: The
Official Illustrated History Studio 5 Publishing, Manila, ISBN