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Malacca ( , dubbed The Historical State or Negeri Bersejarah amongst locals) is the third smallest Malaysian state, after Perlismarker and Penangmarker. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malaccamarker. It borders Negeri Sembilanmarker to the north and the state of Johormarker to the south. The capital is Malacca Townmarker. This historical city centre has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 7 July 2008.

Although one of the oldest Malay sultanates, the Yang di-Pertua Negeri or Governor, rather than a Sultan, acts as the head of state.

Geography

The state of Malacca covers an area of 1,650-km2, or 0.5 percent of the whole area of Malaysiamarker. The state is divided into 3 districts: Central Melaka (Melaka Tengah) (314 km²), Alor Gajahmarker (660 km²), and Jasinmarker (676 km²).

Malacca sits upon the southwestern coast of Malay Peninsula opposite Sumatramarker, with the state of Negeri Sembilanmarker to the north and Johormarker to the east. Malacca is also situated roughly two-thirds of the way down the West coast, 148 km south of Kuala Lumpurmarker, the capital of Malaysia and 245 km north of Singaporemarker and commands a central position on the Straits of Malaccamarker. The state capital Malacca Townmarker is strategically located between the two national capitals (of Malaysia and Singapore, respectively) and connected with excellent roads and highways. Malacca still harbors no train station, though the terminal at Tampin, Negeri Sembilanmarker is easily accessible. However, a domestic airport terminal rests in Batu Berendammarker.

The offshore Pulau Besar, Pulau Upeh and Tanjung Tuanmarker are also parts of Malacca.

Demographics

Canals in Malacca
Malacca has a population of 759,000 as of 2007, being composed of:

Major Malacca towns are Malacca Townmarker, Alor Gajahmarker, Masjid Tanahmarker, Jasinmarker, Merlimaumarker, Batu Berendammarker and Ayer Kerohmarker.

History

1630 map of the Portuguese fort and the city of Malacca
1854 map of the "British Territory of Malacca"

Sultanate of Malacca

Prior to the arrival of the first Sultan, Malacca was a simple fishing village inhabited by local Malays. Malacca was founded by Parameswara, a Srivijayan prince of Palembangmarker who fled Sumatramarker following a Majapahit attack in 1377. He found his way to Malacca c. 1400 where he found a good port accessible in all seasons and on the strategically located narrowest point of the Malacca Straitsmarker.

According to a popular legend, Parameswara was resting under a gray tree near a river while hunting, when one of his dogs cornered a mouse deer. In self-defence, the mouse deer pushed the dog into the river. Impressed by the courage of the deer, and taking it as a propitious omen of the weak overcoming the powerful, Parameswara decided on the spot to found an empire on the very place that he was sitting. He named it 'Melaka' after the tree under which he had taken shelter. Another version of the story says that Parameswara chose the name 'Malacca' from the Tamil word 'mallakka' which means upside down or on ones back. Old illustrations of the scene where the mousedeer kicks the dog shows the dog falling on its back into the river, hence the inspiration. Parameswara converted to Islam in 1414 and changed his name to 'Raja Iskandar Shah'.

In collaboration with allies from the sea-people (orang laut) the wandering proto-Malay privateers of the Straits, he established Malacca as major international port by compelling passing ships to call there, and establishing fair and reliable facilities for warehousing and trade. Mass settlement of Chinese, mostly from the imperial and merchant fleet occurred during the reign of Parameswara, occurred in the vicinity of the Bukit China ("Chinese Hill") area, which was perceived as having excellent Feng Shui (geomancy) in Malacca then. Sultan Iskandar Shah died in 1424, and was succeeded by his son, Sri Maharaja also called Sultan Muhammad Shah.

The prosperity of Malacca attracted the invasion of the Siamesemarker. Attempts in 1446 and 1456, however, were warded off by Tun Perak, the then Bendahara (a position similar to Prime Minister). The development of relations between Malacca and Chinamarker was at that time a strategic decision to ward off further Siamese attacks.

Because of its strategic location, Malacca was an important stopping point for Zheng He's fleet. To enhance relations, Hang Li Po, allegedly a princess of the Mingmarker Emperor of China, arrived in Malacca, accompanied by 500 attendants, to marry Sultan Manshur Shah who reigned from 1456 until 1477. Her attendants married the locals and settled mostly in Bukit China (Bukit Cina).(See Zheng He in Malacca).Scholars have disputed Hang Li Po's status in China as because she was never recorded as a princess in the Chinese court of the Ming Dynastymarker in the Ming Chronicles. At the time of the arrival of the Sultan's envoy, the reigning Ming Emperor was Jingtai Emperor. Records of his reign was expunged following the ascension of Tianshun in 1457. It is likely that if she were a princess in the Ming court, records of her might not exist. In many historical text, she was said to have been a princess in the court of the Yongle Emperor(1402-1424).

A cultural result of the vibrant trade was the expansion of the Peranakan people, who spread to other major settlements in the region.

During its prime, Malacca was a powerful Sultanate which extended its rule over the southern Malay Peninsula and much of Sumatra. Its rise helped to hold off the Thai's southwards encroachment and arguably hasten the decline of the rival Majapahit Empire of Javamarker which was in decline as Malacca was rising. Malacca was also central in the spread of Islam in the Malay Archipelago.

Malacca Harbor in 1831.


European colonization

In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goamarker to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships. They conquered the city on August 24, 1511. It became a strategic base for Portuguese expansion in the East Indies. Sultan Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Malacca took refuge in the hinterland, and made intermittent raids both by land and sea, causing considerable hardship for the Portuguese. In the meantime the Portuguese built the fort named A Famosamarker to defend Malacca (its gate is all that remains of the ruins at present). "In order to appease the King of Ayudhya" (Siam, whom had always intended in invading Malacca if not due to the latter's good relationship with the Ming Emperor, China) "the Portuguese sent up an ambassador, Duarte Fernandes, who was well received by Ramathibodi." in 1511.Finally in 1526, a large force of Portuguese ships, under the command of Pedro Mascarenhas, was sent to destroy Bintanmarker, where Sultan Mahmud was based. Sultan Mahmud fled with his family across the Straitsmarker to Kampar in Sumatramarker, where he died two years later.
It soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca did not mean they now controlled Asian trade that centred around it. Their Malaccan rule was severely hampered by administrative and economic difficulties. Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating Asian trade, the Portuguese had fundamentally disrupted the organisation of the network. The centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth exchange had now gone, as was a Malay state to police the Straits of Malaccamarker that made it safe for commercial traffic. Trade was now scattered over a number of ports amongst bitter warfare in the Straits.

The Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier spent several months in Malacca in 1545, 1546 and 1549. In 1641 the Dutchmarker defeated the Portuguese to capture Malacca with the help of the Sultan of Johoremarker. The Dutch ruled Malacca from 1641 to 1795 but they were not interested in developing it as a trading centre, placing greater importance to Batavia (Jakartamarker) in Indonesiamarker as their administrative centre. However they still built their landmark better known as the Stadthuys or Red Building.
Malacca was ceded to the Britishmarker in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for Bencoolenmarker on Sumatra. From 1826 to 1946 Malacca was governed, first by the British East India Company and then as a Crown Colony. It formed part of the Straits Settlementsmarker, together with Singaporemarker and Penangmarker. After the dissolution of this crown colony, Malacca and Penang became part of the Malayan Unionmarker, which later became Malaysia.

State government



Malacca is administered by its State Assembly and Executive Committee (EXCO). The State Assembly represents the highest authority in the state and decides on policy matters. The EXCO is responsible to the State Assembly and comprises members who are appointed every five years by the political party in power. It is headed by the Governor (Yang Di-Pertua Negeri) who is appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia.

The Chief Minister's Department is the administrative pillar of the State Government, and is responsible for the overall administration of the State, as well as its political interest. The administrative complex houses the Chief Minister's office, as well as the office of the State Secretariat. For administrative purposes, Malacca is divided into three districts under separate jurisdiction:
  • Malacca Central District & Land Office
  • Alor Gajah District & Land Office
  • Jasin District & Land Office


These offices render various services and facilities to the people in their daily lives.

Economy

The tourism and manufacturing sectors are the two most important sectors in the state economy. Malacca has adopted as its slogan, "Visiting Malacca Means Visiting Malaysia" ("Melawat Melaka Bererti Melawati Malaysia"). It is rich in cultural heritage and bears several places of historical interest.

Malacca is home to several modern shopping complexes to attract more visitors to the state. Examples include Mahkota Parade Shopping Centre at Plaza Mahkota (City Centre), Dataran Pahlawan Melaka Megamall (which is situated on the historical field of Padang Pahlawan, where Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al Haj announced the independence day of the Federation Of Malaya), Melaka Mall Shopping Complex (formerly known as Kotamas Shopping Complexe), A'Famosa Safari and Theme Park and Plaza Melaka Raya at the Taman Melaka Raya.

Malacca also has its very own hypermarket and departmental store. A few examples include Parkson Departmental Store (Mahkota Parade and Melaka Mall), Jusco Supermarket and Departmental Store (Ayer Keroh and coming soon near Melaka Sentral), Tesco Hypermarket and Giant Hypermarket at Bachang Utama; also a Supermarket at (Mahkota Parade).

Apart from tourism, Malacca is also a manufacturing centre for products ranging from food and consumer products, through high-tech weaponry and automotive components to electronic and computer parts. There are at least 23 industrial estates that houses some 500 factories from the United Statesmarker, Germanymarker, Japanmarker, Taiwanmarker, and Singaporemarker.

Education

Malacca has given birth to numerous successful Malaysians who have achieved immense success in Malaysia and abroad .

The state is much sought after for medical education with the establishment of the Melaka Manipal Medical College in Bukit Baru. It has produced many doctors who are serving the country or working abroad since its inception in 1997.

The state also has a twin campus of Multimedia University which is located in Bukit Beruang. The campus currently attracts many foreign students, especially from the Middle East and Africa, through its computer and engineering programmes. The university also features degree programmes in fields like robotics, bio-instrumentation and law. Most of the student population of Multimedia University is drawn from its foundation programmes, also known as the Alpha Programmes.

Malacca also has several public universities and colleges such as Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) in Lendu, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, UTeM (previously known as Kolej Universiti Teknikal Kebangsaan Malaysia, KUTKM) located in Ayer Kerohmarker, Kolej Yayasan Melaka (KYM), Bukit Baru and Kolej Teknologi Islam Antarabangsa Melaka (KTIAM).

Malacca has its own boarding school called Sekolah Berasrama Penuh Integrasi Selandar (SBPIS). The intake of students to this school is based on the Ministry of Education of Malaysia. Usually students with great achievement will be chosen to enter this school. Students normally come from this state, Negeri Sembilan, Johor or from the Klang Valley.Students with second class or third class achievement will be on the list for Sekolah Menengah Sains Muzaffar Syah Melaka intake which is the second best after SBPIS.

Also in Malacca,there is the infamous school for crime convicting juveniles,School of Henry Gurney.This is where young criminals stay until they are old enough to sent to normal prison.Here,the students learn living skills such as sewing, cooking and learning mechanical repairing.

Health care

Hospitals in Malacca state are listed below:

  • Government hospitals
    • Melaka General Hospital
    • Jasin District Hospital


Currently, both these government hospitals serve as teaching hospitals for Melaka Manipal Medical College.

  • Private Hospitals
    • Putra Hospital (formerly known as Southern Hospital, owned by the state government)
    • Pantai Ayer Keroh
    • Mahkota Hospital (opposite Mahkota Parade)


Culture



The historic centre of Malaccamarker was inscribed on the World Heritage List on 7 July 2008 together with George Townmarker, the capital of Penangmarker.

The Malays who are the original settlers of Malacca since 1400, form the largest community. The Malaccan Malays are rich in culture from their daily life to the building arts. The famous Malacca Steps or Tangga Melaka are common in front of many Malay houses in Malacca.

Two of the most important museums in Malacca are the Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum and the Melaka Sultanate Palace Museum.

Malacca is well-known for its food. Most notable of all is the traditional Malay dishes like ikan asam pedas, sambal belacan and cencaluk.

Belacan, a Malay variety of shrimp paste, is prepared from fresh tiny shrimp of a species known as keragu in Malay. These are mashed into a paste and dried in little mashed lumps, pounded and formed into large balls, dried again for a week or so, wrapped in plastic and stored for future use. It is in this form that most of these blachan balls are sold. Belacan is used as an ingredient in many dishes, or eaten on its own with rice. A common preparation is sambal belacan, made by mixing belacan with chili peppers, minced garlic, shallot paste and sugar and then fried. The aroma from the frying mixture can be unpalatable to Westerners who have not become accustomed to it, but is an absolute delight to the Asian connoisseur.Melaka is also famous for satay celup. Raw fish and meat are skewered onto sticks which is then cooked in a peanut sauce. The satay celup is often self-service where you pay for individual sticks.

There is also Nyonya-Baba cuisine which is a mixture of Chinese (mostly southern Hokkien or Fujian influence), Portuguese, Dutch, Indian, British and Malay cooking with most dishes being spicy in nature. Interesting dishes of the Peranakan include Itik Tim (a soup containing duck and salted vegetables), Ayam Pong Teh (chicken casserole with salted brown-bean sauce which is usually served with potatoes) as well as the famous Nyonya Laksa. Chicken Rice Ball is another dish popular with domestic Chinese tourists.

Malacca's ethnic Portuguese population are the descendants of Portuguese colonists from the 16th and 17th centuries. Even to this day, many of the ancient traditions passed down since the Portuguese occupation are still practised, i.e. "Intrudu" from Portuguese word "Entrudo" (a water festival that marks the beginning of Lent, the Catholic fasting period), "branyu" (traditional dance), "Santa Cruz" (a yearly Festival of street celebrations).

The Portuguese colonists contributed dishes like Devil's Curry and Portuguese egg tart to the town's already rich cuisine. Ikan Bakar (roasted fish) restaurants in Umbai, Serkam and Alai are also popular.

[[Image:BECA (17).JPG|thumb|left|Heavily decorated bicycle rickshaw in Melakamarker|400px]]

Transport

Pulau Sebangmarker at Alor Gajahmarker district, a town 30 km north of Malacca town, is the nearest train station that serves Malacca. There were railway tracks from Pulau Sebang to Malacca before World War II but were dismantled by the Japanesemarker during the war for the construction of the infamous Burmesemarker Death Railwaymarker. It was never rebuilt after the war though traces of the line remain and Malacca Monorail.

Malacca has a bus station, Melaka Sentral which has air-conditioned waiting areas and separate areas for buses plying the town routes and for buses plying the intertown routes with regular bus services to Singaporemarker, Kuala Lumpurmarker, Johor Bahrumarker, and other places in Malaysia. Batu Berendam Airport in Batu Berendam mainly serves chartered flights from around the region. It also serves as a flight school for Malaysia Flying Academy. It is now refurbished into a brand new international airport for the state of Melaka.

The Ayer Keroh exit at the North-South highway is the main entry to Malacca. There are two additional exits along the North-South highway, namely the Simpang Ampat and Jasin exits

Popular historical attractions

St. John's Fort in Melaka
Christ Church, Melaka.
Example of gravestone from St Francis Xavier Church.
  • Fort A Famosamarker: Constructed by the Portuguese in 1511, it suffered severe structural damage during the Dutch invasion. The plan by the British to destroy it was aborted as a result of the intervention of Sir Stamford Raffles in 1808.
  • St. John's Fort: Reconstructed by the Dutch in the third quarter of the 18th century, the cannons in this fort point inwards towards the mainland because at that time, the threat to Malacca was mainly from inland rather than the sea.
  • St. Peter's Church: Constructed in 1710 under the Dutch administration, the church is the oldest Catholic church in Malaysia. Its facade and decorative embellishment is a mix of both eastern and western architecture. Its bell was delivered from Goamarker in 1608.
  • St. Paul's Church: Constructed by the Portuguese captain, Duarte Coelho, this church was named "Our Lady of The Hill", but was later turned into a burial ground by the Dutch for their noble dead, and renamed "St. Paul's Church". Currently the church is part of the Malaccan Museums Complex. The body of St. Francis Xavier was interred here temporarily before it was taken to Goa, India.
  • Christ Church: Constructed in 1753, the structure reflects original Dutch architecture. The building houses hand-crafted church benches, jointless ceiling skylight, a copper replica of the Bible, a headstone written in the Armenian language, and a replica of "The Last Supper".
  • Francis Xavier Church: This Gothic church was built by a French priest, Rev. Fabre, in 1849, to commemorate St. Francis Xavier who is also known as the "Apostle of the East". St. Francis Xavier is credited for his Catholic missionary work in Southeast Asia during the 16th century.
  • Stadthuys: Constructed in 1650 as the residence of the Dutch Governor and his deputy, the structure reflects Dutch architecture. It is today the "Museum of History and Ethnography". The museum exhibits traditional wedding clothes and artifact of Melaka, dating back to its days of glory.
  • Jonker Street (Jalan Hang Jebat): This street is famous for its antique goods. It is also famous for its carnival-like atmosphere during weekend nights.
  • Portuguese Square: Located within the Portuguese Settlement, the square is the culmination of Portuguese culture in its full splendour and colours.
  • [Tranquerah mosque: Oldest mosque in melaka
In order to attract more tourists to Malacca, the State government has built a number of museums to house its rich cultural heritage.

Key people from Malacca

The following is a list of historically significant as well as well-known contemporary personages who are either born in Malacca, or otherwise, significantly linked to the history of Malacca:

Image gallery

Image: CHRIST_CHURCH_MALACCA_0872.jpg|Christ Church MalaccaImage: FRANCIS_XAVIER_0925.jpg|Statue of St Francis XavierImage: CLOCK_TOWER_0088_01.jpg|Tan Beng Swee ClocktowerImage: KG_KELING_MOSQUE_0010.jpg|Kampong Kling's MosqueImage: ORANG_UTAN_HOUSE_0100_01.jpg|Orang Utan HouseImage: RED_BUILDINGS_0064_01.jpg|Historical BuildingsImage: CHENG_HOON_TENG_0468.jpg|Cheng Hoon Teng TempleImage: BIG_MARKET_0580.jpg|Malacca Big Market

See also



References



Notes

  • "Popular History of Thailand" by M.L. Manich Jumsai, C.B.E., M.A.


External links




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