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Malay is a group of languages closely related to each other to the point of mutual intelligibility but that linguists consider to be separate languages. They are grouped into a group called "Local Malay", part of a larger group called "Malayan" within the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian language family. The various forms of Malay are spoken in Bruneimarker, Indonesiamarker (where the national language, Indonesian, is a variety of it), Malaysiamarker, Singaporemarker, Philippinesmarker, and southern Thailandmarker.

Malay is the official language of Bruneimarker and is the national language of Singaporemarker. It was also formerly the official language of Malaysia. The national language of Indonesiamarker is Indonesian, formally referred to as Bahasa Indonesia which literally translates as "Indonesian language". It is also called Bahasa Nasional (National Language) and Bahasa Persatuan/Pemersatu (Unifying Language) in Indonesia. Indonesian is also used in East Timormarker, a consequence of more than 20 years of Indonesian administration and is now a "working language" of that country. In Malaysia, the language is now officially known as Bahasa Malaysia ("Malaysian language"), though constitutionally it is called Bahasa Melayu or BM for short. Malaysians use the term Malay to refer not to the language but to an ethnic group i.e. those who are Muslim. Singapore, Brunei and southern Thailand refer to the language as Bahasa Melayu ("Malay language").

Origin

There are many hypotheses as to where the Malay language originated. One of these is that it came from Sumatramarker island. The oldest written documents in Malay, dated from the end of the 7th century AD, were found on Bangka Islandmarker, off the southeastern coast of Sumatra and in Palembangmarker in southern Sumatra. "Malayu" was the name of an old kingdom located in Jambi province in eastern Sumatra. It was known in ancient Chinese texts as "Mo-lo-yo" and mentioned in the Nagarakertagama, an old Javanese epic written in 1365, as one of the "tributary states" of the Majapahit kingdom in eastern Javamarker.

The use of Malay throughout insular and peninsular Southeast Asia is linked to the rise of Muslim kingdoms and the spread of Islam, itself a consequence of growing regional trade.

Indonesia pronounced a variety of Malay its official language when it gained independence, calling it Bahasa Indonesia. However, the language had already been used as the lingua franca throughout the archipelago since the 15th century. Since 1928, nationalists and young people throughout the Indonesian archipelago declared it to be Indonesia's only official language, as proclaimed in the Sumpah Pemuda "Youth Vow." Thus Indonesia was the first country to designate it as an official language. In several parts of Indonesia, in Sumatramarker and Borneomarker Islands, Malay is spoken as local dialect of ethnic Malays.

In Malaysia, the term Bahasa Malaysia, which was introduced by the National Language Act of 1967, was in use until the 1990s, when most academics and government officials reverted to "Bahasa Melayu," used in the Malay version of the Federal Constitution. According to Article 152 of the Federal Constitution, Bahasa Melayu is the official language of Malaysiamarker. "Bahasa Kebangsaan" (National Language) was also used at one point during the 1970s. However, at present day, Malaysians prefer to identify their national language as Bahasa Malaysia once again. Similar to Malaysia in the mid 1990's, "Bahasa Melayu" was defined as Brunei's official language in the country's 1959 Constitution.

Indonesian and Malay are separated by some centuries of different vocabulary development, partly due to the influence of different colonial languages; Dutch in the case of Indonesia, formerly the Dutchmarker East Indiesmarker and English in the case of Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei, which were formerly under Britishmarker rule.

Some Malay dialects, however, show only limited mutual intelligibility with the standard language; for example, Kelantanese pronunciation is difficult even for some fellow Malay speakers to understand, while Indonesian contains a lot of words unique to it that are unfamiliar to speakers of Malay.

The language spoken by the Peranakan (Straits Chinese, a hybrid of Chinese settlers from the Ming Dynastymarker and local Malays) is a unique patois of Malay and the Chinese Hokkien dialect, which is mostly spoken in the former Straits Settlementsmarker of Penangmarker and Malaccamarker in Malaysia, and the Indonesian Archipelago.

History

The history of the Malay language can be divided into five periods: Old Malay, the Transitional Period, the Malacca Period, Late Modern Malay, and modern Malay.

Old Malay is unintelligible to a speaker of modern Malay. It was heavily influenced by Sanskrit, the lingua franca of Hinduism and Buddhism. The earliest known inscription in the Old Malay language was found in Sumatra, written in Pallava script and dates back to 7th century - known as Kedukan Bukit Inscription, it was discovered by the Dutchman M. Batenburg on 29 November, 1920, at Kedukan Bukit, South Sumatra, on the banks of the River Tatang, a tributary of the River Musi. It is a small stone of 45 by 80 cm.

The Malay language came into widespread use as the trade language of the Sultanate of Malacca (1402 – 1511). During this period, the Malay language developed rapidly under the influence of Islamic literature. The development changed the nature of the language with massive infusion of Arabic, Persian and Hindi or Sanskrit vocabularies. Under the Sultanate of Malacca the language evolved into a form recognizable to speakers of modern Malay.

Classification and related languages

Malay is a member of the Austronesian family of languages which includes languages from Southeast Asia and the Pacific Oceanmarker, with a smaller number in continental Asia. Malagasy, a geographic outlier spoken in Madagascarmarker in the Indian Oceanmarker, is also a member of this linguistic family.

Malay belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the family, which includes the Languages of the Philippines and Malagasy, which is further subdivided into Outer Hesperonesian languages and Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian of which Malay is a member. Malay's closest relatives therefore include Javanese, Acehnese, Chamorro and Palauan.

Although each language of the family is mutually unintelligible, their similarities are rather striking. Many roots have come virtually unchanged from their common Austronesian ancestor. There are many cognates found in the languages' words for kinship, health, body parts and common animals. Numbers, especially, show remarkable similarities.

Writing system

Malay is normally written using Latin alphabet called Rumi, although a modified Arabic script called Jawi also exists. Rumi is official in Malaysia and Singapore, and Indonesian has a different official orthography also using the Latin script. Rumi and Jawi are co-official in Brunei. Efforts are currently being undertaken to preserve Jawi script and to revive its use amongst Malays in Malaysia, and students taking Malay language examination in Malaysia have the option of answering questions using Jawi script. The Latin alphabet, however, is still the most commonly used script in Malaysia, both for official and informal purposes.

Historically, Malay has been written using various scripts. Before the introduction of Arabic script in the Malay region, Malay was written using Pallava, Kawi and Rencong script and these are still in use today by the Champa Malay in Vietnammarker and Cambodiamarker. Old Malay was written using Pallava and Kawi script, as evident from several inscription stones in the Malay region. Starting from the era of kingdom of Pasai and throughout the golden age of the Sultanate of Malacca, Jawi gradually replaced these scripts as the most commonly used script in the Malay region. Starting from the 17th century, under Dutch and British influence, Jawi was gradually replaced by the Rumi script.

Extent of use and dialects

The extent to which Malay is used in these countries varies depending on historical and cultural circumstances. Bahasa Melayu is the national language in Malaysia by Article 152 of the Constitution of Malaysia, and became the sole official language in West Malaysiamarker in 1968, and in East Malaysia gradually from 1974. English continues, however, to be widely used in professional and commercial fields and in the superior courts. Other minority languages are also commonly used by the country's large ethnic minorities. The situation in Brunei is similar to that of Malaysia.

Phonology

Note: this article uses the orthography of Malaysian Malay. For Indonesian orthography, see Indonesian language.Table of consonant phonemes of Malay
Bilabial Labio-
Dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
Alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ny ng
Plosive p b t d k g
Affricate c j
Fricative f v s z sy h
Approximant y w
Lateral l
Trill r


Orthographic Note:
  • The combination of is represented as ngg.


Table of vowel phonemes of Malay
Height Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e , e o ,
Open a a


Table diphthongs of Malay
Orthography IPA
ai ,
au ,
ua


There are two vowels represented by the letter "e", i.e. , and . Learners of Malay are expected to distinguish between the two sounds while learning each new word.

In some parts of Peninsular Malaysia, especially in the central and southern regions, most words which end with the letter a tend to be pronounced .

Grammar

Word Formation

Malay is an agglutinative language, and new words are formed by three methods. New words can be created by attaching affixes onto a root word (affixation), formation of a compound word (composition), or repetition of words or portions of words (reduplication).

Affixes

Root words are either nouns or verbs, which can be affixed to derive new words, e.g. masak (to cook) yields memasak (cooks, is cooking, etc.), memasakkan (cooks, is cooking for etc.), dimasak (cooked - passive) as well as pemasak (cook - person), masakan (a meal, cookery). Many initial consonants undergo mutation when prefixes are added: e.g. sapu (sweep) becomes penyapu (broom); panggil (to call) becomes memanggil (calls, is calling, etc.), tapis (sieve) becomes menapis (sieves, is sieving, etc.)

Other examples of the use of affixes to change the meaning of a word can be seen with the word ajar (teach):
  • ajar = teach
  • ajar'an = teachings
  • 'belajar = to learn
  • 'mengajar = to teach
  • 'diajar = being taught (intransitive)
  • 'diajarkan = being taught (transitive)
  • 'mempelajari = to study
  • 'dipelajari = being studied
  • 'pelajar = student
  • 'pengajar = teacher
  • 'pelajaran = subject
  • 'pengajaran = lesson, moral of story
  • 'pembelajaran = learning
  • 'terajar = taught (accidentally)
  • 'terpelajar = well-educated
  • 'berpelajaran = is educated


There are four types of affixes, namely prefixes (awalan), suffixes (akhiran), circumfixes (apitan) and infixes (sisipan). These affixes are categorised into noun affixes, verb affixes, and adjective affixes.

Noun affixes are affixes that form nouns upon addition to root words. The following are examples of noun affixes:

Type of noun affixes Affix Example of root word Example of derived word
Prefix pe(N)- duduk (sit) penduduk (population)
ke- hendak (want) kehendak (desire)
juru- acara (event) juruacara (event host)
Infix -el- tunjuk (point) telunjuk (index finger, command)
-em- kelut (dishevelled) kemelut (chaos, crisis)
-er- gigi (teeth) gerigi (toothed blade)
Suffix -an bangun (wake up, raise) bangunan (building)
Circumfix ke-...-an raja (king) kerajaan (kingdom)
pe(N)-...-an kerja (work) pekerjaan (occupation)


(N) and (R) indicate that if a word begins with certain letters (most often vowels or consonants k, p, s, t), the letter will either be omitted or will undergo nasal mutation or be replaced by the letter l.

Similarly, verb affixes are attached to root words to form verbs. In Malay, there are:

Type of verb affixes Affix Example of root word Example of derived word
Prefix be(R)- ajar (teach) belajar (to study) - Intransitive
me(N)- tolong (help) menolong (to help) - Active transitive
di- ambil (take) diambil (is being taken) - Passive transitive
mempe(R)- kemas (tidy up, orderly) memperkemas (to arrange further)
dipe(R)- dalam (deep) diperdalam (is being further deepen)
te(R)- makan (eat) termakan (to have accidentally eaten)
Suffix -kan letak (place, keep) letakkan (keep) - Imperative transitive
-i jauh (far) jauhi (avoid) - Imperative transitive
Circumfix be(R)-...-an pasang (pair) berpasangan (in pairs)
be(R)-...-kan tajuk (title) bertajukkan (to be titled, to entitle)
me(N)-...-kan pasti (sure) memastikan (to make sure)
me(N)-...-i teman (company) menemani (to accompany)
mempe(R)-...-kan guna (use) mempergunakan (to utilise, to exploit)
mempe(R)-...-i ajar (teach) mempelajari (to study)
ke-...-an hilang (disappear) kehilangan (to lose)
di-...-i sakit (pain) disakiti (to be hurt by)
di-...-kan benar (right) dibenarkan (is allowed to)
dipe(R)-...-kan kenal (know, recognise) diperkenalkan (is being introduced)


Adjective affixes are attached to root words to form adjectives:

Type of adjective affixes Affix Example of root word Example of derived word
Prefix te(R)- kenal (know) terkenal (famous)
se- lari (run) selari (parallel)
Infix -el- serak (disperse) selerak (messy)
-em- cerlang (radiant bright) cemerlang (bright, excellent)
-er- sabut (husk) serabut (dishevelled)
Circumfix ke-...-an barat (west) kebaratan (westernized)


In addition to these affixes, Malay also has a lot of borrowed affixes from other languages such as Sanskrit, Arabic and English. For example maha-, pasca-, eka-, bi-, anti-, pro- etc.

Compound word

In Malay, new words can be formed by joining two or more root words. Compound words, when they exist freely in a sentence, are often written separately. Compound words are only attached to each other when they are bound by circumfix or when they are already considered as stable words.

For example, the word kereta which means car and api which means fire, are compounded to form a new word kereta api (train). Similarly, ambil alih (take over) is formed using the root words ambil (take) and alih (move), but will link together when a circumfix is attached to it, i.e. pengambilalihan (takeover). Certain stable words, such as kakitangan (personnel), and kerjasama (corporation), are spelled as one word even when they exist freely in sentences.

Reduplication

There are four types of words reduplication in Malay, namely
  • Full reduplication
  • Partial reduplication
  • Rhythmic reduplication
  • Reduplication of meaning


Measure words

Another distinguishing feature of Malay (include Indonesian Malay) is its use of measure words (penjodoh bilangan). In this way, it is similar to many other languages of Asia, including Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Burmese, and Bengali.

Measure words are similar to the English two head of cattle or a sheet of paper. Examples are :
measure word used for measuring literal translation example
buah thing (in general) 'fruit' dua buah meja (two tables), lima buah rumah (five houses)
ekor animal 'tail' seekor ayam (a chicken), tiga ekor kambing (three goats)
orang person, human 'person' seorang lelaki (a man), enam orang petani (six farmers), seratus orang murid (a hundred students)
biji/ butir rounded object 'grain' sebiji/ sebutir telur (an egg)


Part of Speech

In Malay, there are 4 parts of speech:
  • Nouns
  • Verbs
  • Adjectives
  • Function words


Function words

There are 16 types of function words in Malay which perform a grammatical function in a sentence. Amongst these are conjunctions, interjections, prepositions, negations and determiners.

Negations
There are two negation words in Malay (include Indonesian Malay), that is bukan and tidak. Bukan is used to negate noun phrases and prepositions in a predicate, whereas tidak is used to negate verbs and adjectives phrases in a predicate.

Subject Negation Predicate
Lelaki yang berjalan dengan Birsilah itu
(That boy who is walking with Birsilah)
bukan
(is not)
teman lelakinya
(her boyfriend)
Surat itu
(The letter)
bukan
(is not)
daripada/ dari teman/ sahabat penanya di Perancis/ Prancis
(from his penpal in France)
Pelajar-pelajar itu
(Those students)
tidak
(do not)
mengikuti peraturan sekolah
(obey school regulations)
Penguasaan Bahasa Melayunya
(His command of Malay language)
tidak
(is not)
sempurna
(perfect)


The negative word bukan however, can be used before verb phrases and adjective phrases if the sentence shows contradictions.

Subject Negation Predicate Contradiction
Karangannya
(His composition)
bukan
(is not)
baik sangat/ sangat baik,
(very good,)
tetapi/ melainkan dia mendapat markah yang baik
(but he received good marks)
Kilang/ Pabrik itu
(The factory)
bukan
(is not)
menghasilkan kereta Kancil,
(producing Kancil cars)
sebaliknya menghasilkan Proton Wira
(instead is producing Proton Wira)


Grammatical gender

Malay does not make use of grammatical gender, and there are only a few words that use natural gender; the same word is used for he and she or for his and her. Most of the words that refer to people (family terms, professions, etc.) have a form that does not distinguish between the sexes. For example, adik can both refer to a younger sibling of either sex. In order to specify the natural gender of a noun, an adjective has to be added: adik laki-laki corresponds to "brother" but really means "male younger sibling". There are some words that are gendered, for instance puteri means "princess", and putera means "prince"; words like these are usually absorbed from other languages (in these cases, from Sanskrit).

Pluralization

There is no grammatical plural in Malay. Plurality is expressed by the context, or the usage of words expressing plurality, and by reduplication when needed. However, reduplication has most of the time many other functions and meanings.

Verbs

Verbs are not inflected for person or number, and they are not marked for tense; tense is instead denoted by time adverbs (such as "yesterday") or by other tense indicators, such as sudah, "already". On the other hand, there is a complex system of verb affixes to render nuances of meaning and denote active and passive voices or intentional and accidental moods. Some of these affixes are ignored in daily conversations.

Word order

The basic word order is Subject Verb Object. Adjectives, demonstrative pronouns and possessive pronouns follow the noun they modify.

Borrowed words

The Malay language has many words borrowed from Arabic (mainly religious terms), Sanskrit, Tamil, Persian, Portuguese, Dutch, certain Chinese dialects and more recently, English (in particular many scientific and technological terms).

Simple phrases in Malay

In Malaysia, to greet somebody with "Selamat pagi" or "Selamat sejahtera" would be considered very formal, and the borrowed word "Hi" would be more usual among friends; similarly "Bye-bye" is often used when taking one's leave.

Malay Phrase IPA English Translation
Selamat datang Welcome (Used as a greeting)
Selamat jalan Have a safe journey (equivalent to "goodbye", used by the party staying)
Selamat tinggal Goodbye (Lit translation: "Good stay", used by the party going)
Terima kasih Thank you
Sama-sama You are welcome (as in a response to Thank You)
Selamat pagi Good morning
Selamat petang Good afternoon/evening (note that 'Selamat petang' must not be used at night as in English. For a general greeting, use 'Selamat sejahtera')
Selamat sejahtera Greetings (formal)
Selamat malam Good night
Jumpa lagi See you again
Siapakah nama awak?/Nama awak apa? What is your name?
Nama saya ... My name is ... (The relevant name is placed in front. For example, if your name was Munirah, then you would introduce yourself by saying "Nama saya Munirah", which translates to "My name is Munirah")
Apa khabar? How are you? / What's up? (literally, "What news?")
Khabar baik Fine, good news
Saya sakit I'm sick
Ya Yes
Tidak ("tak" colloquially) No
Ibu (Saya) sayang engkau/kamu (awak) I love you (In a more of a family or affectionate sort of love, e.g.: mother to daughter, the Mother addresses herself as "Ibu" (mother) or Emak (Mother) instead of "Saya" for "I". And the mother also uses the informal "engkau" instead of "awak" for "you".)
Aku (Saya) cinta pada mu (awak) I love you (romantic love. In romantic situation, use informal "Aku" instead of "Saya" for "I". And "Kamu" or just "Mu" for "You". In romance, in immediate family communication and in songs, informal pronouns are used). Please note that in Malay language, appropriate personal pronouns must be used depending on (1) whether the situation is formal or informal, (2) the social status of the people around the speaker and (3) the relationship of the speaker with the person spoken to and/or with people around the speaker. For learners of Malay language, it is advised that you stick to formal personal pronouns when speaking Malay to Malays and Indonesians. You risk being considered as rude if you use informal personal pronouns in inappropriate situations.
Saya benci awak I hate you
Saya tidak faham (or simply "tak faham" colloquially) I do not understand
Saya tidak tahu (or "tak tau" colloquially or "sik tau" in Sarawak) I do not know
(Minta) maaf I apologise ('minta' is to request)
Tumpang tanya "May I ask...?" (used when trying to ask something)
(Minta) tolong Please help (me) ('Tolong!' on its own just means "help")
Apa What
Tiada Nothing


Colloquial and contemporary usage

Contemporary usage of Malay includes a set of slang words, formed by innovations of standard Malay words or incorporated from other languages, spoken by the urban speech community, which may not be familiar to the older generation, e.g. awek (girl); balak (guy); usha (survey); skodeng (peep); cun (pretty); poyo/slenge (horrible, low-quality) etc. New plural pronouns have also been formed out of the original pronouns and the word orang ("people"), i.e. kitorang (kita + orang, the exclusive "we", in place of kami); korang (kau + orang, "you"); diorang or derang (dia + orang, "they").

The Malay-speaking community, especially in Kuala Lumpur, also code-switch between English and Malay in their speech, forming Bahasa Rojak. Examples of the borrowings are: 'Bestlah tempat ni (This place is cool);kau ni terror lah (How daring you are; you're fabulous). Consequently, this phenomenon has raised the displeasure of language purists in Malaysia, in their effort to uphold the proper use of the national language.

The following are some contractions used by Malay-speaking youths:

Non-formal
Word
Formal
Word
English
Translation
bleh/leh boleh can, able to
takleh/tokleh tidak boleh cannot
ko engkau you
nape kenapa why
camne macam mana/bagaimana how
gi pergi go
kat dekat/di at
ne mana where
tau tahu know
je sahaja only
a'ah ya that's right
awek gadis girl/girlfriend
balak pemuda boy/boyfriend
skodeng mengintai peep
cun cantik awesome/cool/fly
jom mari let's go
poyo/selenge teruk horrible
blah beredar go away
meh mari come
apsal apa pasal why
tak yah tidak payah not necessary
pastu selepas itu after that
amik ambil take
pekena makan/minum to eat/drink


There are also words used by LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transsexual) community which are unique to them. This slang is widely called, bahasa nyah. For example:

Non-formal
Word
Formal
Word
English
Translation
dosi sudah have, done, completed
choi celaka damn
uols engkau you
motif kenapa/sebab reason
harus harus/wajib must
cikcur melacur hooking
deyols mereka them
ciknek zakar penis
cikki/kiki/lala/pepuks wanita women
jah/jork/sajork sahaja only
noks kak sister
gorgonz kacak gorgeous
hanjeng anjing dog
ciktek payu dara breast
vranganz berangan dreaming
gerdus gersang horny
tak koser tak kuasa can, able
dinch tidak no
ado hodoh ugly
nan ado tidak berfungsi malfunction
vogi anggun vogue
vass hebat, dahsyat vast
kekwat sombong arrogant
gayah homoseks gay, homosexual
veryder sangat very
tacap bersolek makeup, makeover
kaedahnya bagaimanapun however
katanya fakta facts
over melampau over, so much, overboard
sesuatuh menimbulkan syak curious
sesuwei/sesowei sesuai appropriate
apom rogol rape
sentap terasa annoyed, irritated
taste/tasty citarasa type, taste
menjalang berlayar cruising
cikcap melancap masturbate
anak ikan lelaki muda young men
askoke askar army
clust taraf tinggi high class
muskuls berotot muscular, athletic
mrasa rasakan take that
dragoon berpakaian wanita drag queen
mak/iols/hem saya me, I
sheols dia (perempuan) she/her
heols dia (lelaki) he/his
melertz meletup exploding
gurik senja pondan tua old faggot
hadek pondan muda young faggot
chantek/santek cantik beautiful
charutan mengejek teasing
ittew itu that
innew ini this
gittew gitu like that
can-do/can-dew boleh tahan not bad
vley? boleh? can?
sinnew sini here
sittew sana there
bagai dan lain-lain etc.
segala semua all
hokey baiklah okay
taw tau know
feeling2 perasan acting like someone
gigih rajin hardworking
felda kekampungan unrefined
sendu sedih sad
nonoks pondan-pondan faggots
kertu tua old
lentis melentik slanting
hansi/hansuang buruk jerk
hansi buruk jerk
cikloi/loi membuat seks oral performing oral sex
nala kepondanan faggot-ish
ciktot punggung butt
shubenz suami husband


Dictionary

There are not many different Malay dictionaries. In Malaysia, the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP)'s Kamus Dewan dictionary is the chief arbiter for the language, and is considered the authority in defining Malay usage. Some other dictionaries are:

See also





References

  1. ethnologue.com : "Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay"
  2. " Alpha-3 Codes Arranged Alphabetically by the English Name of Language." _The Library of Congress_. 7-11-2006. Accessed 13-11-2007.
  3. " Codes for the Representation of Names of Languages Part 2: Alpha-3 Code." _The Library of Congress_. 14-11-2006. Accessed 13-11-2007. Note: "ISO 639 provides two sets of language codes, one as a two-letter Giblin code set (639-1) and another as a three-letter code set (this part of ISO 639) for the representation of names of languages."
  4. Ethnologue report for Netherlands
  5. http://www.bahasa-malaysia-simple-fun.com/bahasa-melayu-kuno.html
  6. Malay (Bahasa Melayu). Retrieved 30 August 2008.
  7. http://faculty.unitarklj1.edu.my/ALD0063/week/week6/MORFOLOGI/GOLONGAN%20KATA.doc


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