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Jalāl al-Dawlah Malik-shāh or simply Malik Shāh (Persian: , Turkish: Melikşah) (died 1092) was the Seljuk sultan from 1072 to 1092.

He drove the Byzantine Empire out of most of Anatoliamarker following their defeat by his father Alp Arslan at the Battle of Manzikertmarker in 1071. Likewise, he reformed the calendar with the Jalāli calendar in 1079. Malik Shah expanded Seljuk power into Syriamarker at the expense of the Fatimids of Egyptmarker, setting up client princes in Edessamarker, Aleppomarker and Damascusmarker and is remembered as one of the greatest of the Seljuk sultans.

Revolt in Anatolia

Suleyman revolted against Malik Shah I and proclaimed himself the Sultan of Rûm, establishing his capital at Nicaeamarker. Suleyman expanded his realm but was killed near Antiochmarker in 1086 by Tutush I, the Seljuk ruler of Syriamarker. Suleyman's son, Kilij Arslan I, was captured and taken as a hostage by Malik Shah I to Isfahanmarker. It is uncertain whether Tutush killed Suleyman out of loyalty to Malik Shah I or simply for personal gain.

State Organization

The principal post in the organization was that of the vizier Nizam al-Mulk who served both him and his father and achieved a near mythic stature in contemporary Muslim histories.

He moved the capital from Rayymarker to Isfahanmarker.


After his death in 1092, the Seljuk empire dissolved into smaller, warring states, as Malik Shah's brother and four sons quarreled over the apportioning of the empire between themselves. Kilij Arslan I reestablished the Sultanate of Rûm in Anatolia, and Tutush I established himself in Syriamarker. In Persia, Malik Shah was succeeded by his son Mahmud I whose reign was contested by his other three brothers: Barkiyaruq in Iraqmarker, Muhammad I in Baghdadmarker, and Ahmed Sanjar in Khorasan.

The disunity within the Seljuk lands contributed to the success of the First Crusade.

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