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Malmesbury is a south Cotswoldmarker town and civil parish in south west Englandmarker in the county of Wiltshiremarker. The town is close to Cirencestermarker, Chippenhammarker and Swindonmarker and surrounded by rivers on three sides.

Geography and administration

Malmesbury is a hilltop town, shaped by the geography carved by two rivers. From the west, the infant Bristol Avon flows from Sherston, and from the north west, a tributary either known as the Tetburymarker Avon or, locally, as The Ingleburn. They flow within of each other but are separated by a narrow and high isthmus, just a few yards across, which forces the Bristol Avon south and the Tetbury Avon east. This creates a rocky outcrop as a south-facing, gently sloping hilltop, until the two rivers meet on the southern edge of the town.

With steep, and in places cliff-like sides, the town was described by Sir William Waller, as the best naturally-defended inland location he had seen. The hilltop contains several freshwater springs, which were regarded as holy wells from the 7th century.

Local government

At the most local level is Malmesbury Town Council, formed as successor to the municipal borough. The town council is made up of sixteen councillors, who elect annually a town mayor and deputy town mayor from their number.

For elections to Wiltshire Council, Malmesbury forms one electoral division, returning a single unitary councillor.

History

Malmesbury was the oldest borough in Englandmarker (although Barnstaplemarker has a counter claim: both were given royal borough status around 880AD). Recent archaeological excavations have revealed stone town wall defences, which have been dated to the Iron Age between 800 and 500BC, making Malmesbury arguably the oldest continually inhabited town in England.

The town has a 12th century Abbeymarker which once had a spire taller than that of Salisbury Cathedralmarker.

Malmesbury Market Cross (with the Abbey in background) from main shopping street


The present day abbey is the third built on or near the same spot at the north end of the hilltop. Henry VIII sold the remainder to a local clothier called William Stumpe. The extant part of the Abbey is now the parish church. The remains contain a parvise which still holds some fine examples of books from the Abbey library.

The town was of strategic importance during the English Civil War, being a strong defensive position on the road between Oxford and Bristol. The south face of Malmesbury Abbeymarker still bears pock-marks from cannon and gunshot.

Although once the centre of the lace-making industry, the industrial revolution had little effect on the town. The railway station, built in 1877, was closed down in 1960. The Malmesbury Branch, built by the Great Western Railway split from the main London-Bristol line at Dauntsey, although a later connection with the northern GWR 'mainline' to the Severn Tunnel and Wales was made at Somerford. Just short of its terminus, the line ran through a short tunnel: the only tunnel on the line between Malmesbury and Paddingtonmarker.

The Market Cross was built at the end of the 15th Century and was, according to a quote of the time "a place for poor folkes to stand when the rain cometh."
Today it remains one of the finest examples of its kind in England


People



Malmesbury Commoners

At the Battle of Brunanburh in 937, King Athelstan of Wessexmarker defeated an army of northern English and Scots and made a claim to become the first 'King of All England'. He was helped by many men from Malmesbury, and in gratitude is said to have given the townsfolk their freedom, along with 600 hides of land to the south of the town.

The status of freemen of Malmesbury was passed down through the generations and remains to this day. It is likely, however, that the title of freeman, or commoner, was given to tradesmen and craftsmen coming into the town during the early Middle Ages, so the claim of direct lineage from the men who fought with King Athelstan to the present day commoners is unlikely, though possible. Since at least the 17th century, however, the right has been only handed down from father to son or son-in-law. There is a maximum of 280 commoners. The organisation is said to be the 'most exclusive club' in the world, as to enter it one has to be born to a freeman or marry the daughter of one.

However, it is now impossible to marry into it. Since 2000, and with the possibility of falling numbers, women were admitted for the first time - the daughters of freemen. The organisation, The Warden and Freemen of Malmesbury, still owns the land to the south of the town, along with dozens of properties, pubs and shops within the town itself, providing affordable housing to townsfolk.

Education

Malmesbury has two primary schools, Malmesbury Church of England Primary Schoolmarker and St. Joseph's Catholic School and one secondary school called Malmesbury School.

Places of interest

Old Bell Hotel

On the other side of Abbey from Abbey House Gardensmarker is the Old Bell Hotel, which dates back to the 12th century, when it housed the VIP guests making pilgrimages to the Abbey.

Market Cross

In the centre of the town stands the Market Cross, built in c1490, possibly using stone salvaged from the recently-ruined part of the abbey. It was described by John Leland writing in the 1540s as a 'right costly piece of work', which was built to shelter the 'poore market folke' when 'rain cometh'. An elaborately carved octagonal structure, it is recognised as one of the best preserved of its kind in Englandmarker. It still serves its purpose today, nicknamed 'The Birdcage', because of its appearance, it shelters market traders by day and as a meeting point at night.

The interior of Malmesbury Abbey


Tower House

A large building of medieval origins, now a private home, Tower House stands at the end of Oxford Street. It contains a high-roofed main hall where it is said Henry VIII dined after hunting in nearby Bradon Forest. In the 1840s, a doctor living in the house, with a passion for astronomy, built a narrow tower protruding high from the roof. It dominates the skyline of the east of the town.

Daniel's Well

A part of the River Avon (Sherstonmarker branch) to the west of the town centre, named after the monk Daniel, who lived at the abbey in the 9th century. He is said to have submerged himself in the cold water every day for decades to quell fiery passions.

Bremilham Church

Near the town lies Bremilham Church, located on Cowage Farm, Foxley-cum-Bremilham, which measures just 4 m by 3.6 m. Its single pew has space for four people and there is standing room for six more. The church, which is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the smallest church in use in Britain, holds one service to mark Rogationtide. The church can be found by heading west from Malmesbury along Foxley Road.

Present day industry

Traditionally a market town serving the rural area of north west Wiltshire, farming has been the main industry.Now, Malmesbury's main employer is Dyson who have their headquarters on the edge of the town, and employ around 1,600 people. The HQ is now mainly a design organisation, with manufacturing carried out in Malaysiamarker.The town also has a High Street with numerous independent shops and a regular market. It is increasingly a tourist centre, popularised initially by John Betjeman.In the late 1990s, the town gained a new tourism attraction, the Abbey House Gardensmarker, a garden attraction based around the medieval Abbott's House next to the Abbey. The gardens, which stretch from close to the town centre down to the River Avon below, were created by Ian and Barbara Pollard, also known as 'The Naked Gardeners' and opened to the public in the late 1990s.

The EKCO Factory

At the beginning of the World War II, the electronics company EKCO moved part of its operations from Southend-on-Seamarker to Cowbridge House, Malmesbury to avoid the danger of bombing and established a shadow factory to produce radar equipment. The factory continued production after the war and eventually became part of AT&T. The site was in use as offices until 2004 when the owners, Lucent Technologies moved their operations to Swindonmarker.

Miscellaneous

  • Malmesbury natives are known as Jackdaws. This originates from the colony of jackdaws that inhabit the abbey walls and roof.
  • Malmesbury has a thriving carnival which takes place in the last two weeks of August, with the finale a procession through the town held on the first Saturday in September. It has grown in recent years to now include more than 30 events, ranging from music events to an attempt on the world record for the largest pillow fight.
  • Malmesbury had a nine-day wonder in January 1998, when two Tamworth pigs (the Tamworth Two) escaped from the town's abattoir. They swam the Tetbury branch of the River Avon, across a few fields and lived in an orchard for a week. The story made international headlines with tabloid newspapers and TV news stations fighting each other to sight and then capture the pigs. They now live a comfortable life at the South of England Rare Breeds Centre, near Ashford in Kent where they can be visited.
  • Malmesbury is known as the ancestral home of the Hanks family.
  • The Malmesbury Singers [38677] are a choir that practices every Monday during term time in Malmesbury Abbey. They put on two concerts a year.
  • The world music festival Womad Charlton Park was held in Charlton Park in Malmesbury in 2007, 2008 and 2009.
  • Malmesbury has its own Morris Dancing side - named Malmesbury Morris - which was founded in 2004. They meet on Thursdays at the Reading Room in Corston, Wiltshiremarker - just South of Malmesbury itself.


Twin towns



See also



References

  1. Malmesbury Electoral Division (Wiltshire County Council)
  2. The inscription reads: Memorand that whereas King Athelstan did give unto the Free School within this borough of Malmesbury ten pounds and to the poor people my almshouse at St John's, ten pounds to be paid yearly by the Aldermen and Burgess of the same borough for ever. That now Michael Wickes Esquire, late of this said borough and now citizen of London hath augmented and added to the aforesaid gift, viz. to the said Free School ten pounds and to the said almshouse, ten pounds only be paid yearly at St. John's aforesaid within this said borough and by his trustees for ever, and hath also given to the minister of this town for the time being 20s. only by the year for life to preach a sermon yearly on the 19th day of July and to his said trustees 20s. by the year beginning on the 25th day of August. Anno Domini 1694.
  3. Browning, B (2005). EKCO's of Cowbridge: House and War Factory. Cowbridge Publishing. ISBN 978-0955184208.


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