is a town and municipality in Vest-Agder county, Norway. The administrative center of the municipality is the town of Mandal.
The town of Mandal was established as a municipality on 1 January
1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt
). The rural
municipalities of Halse og Harkmark and Holum were merged
with Mandal on 1 January 1964.
borders Lindesnes to the west and northwest, Marnardal to the north, Søgne to the
It is the southernmost town of Norway and the skerry
(south of the town) is the southernmost
point of land.
Besides Mandal proper, Mandal municipality includes the villages
(delområde) of Bykjernen, Skjebstad, Sånum-Lundevik,
Skogsfjord-Hesland, Holum, Harkmark, Skinsnes-Ime,
The Old Norse
form of the name was
. The first element is the genitive case
of the river name Mörn
) and the last element
which means "valley" or "dale".
The old name of the town (before 1653) was Vesterrisør
("western Risør"). The name was originally referring to the island
outside the town, and the first element was added
in the 16th century to distinguish it from the town of
is from modern times.
They were granted on 2 July 1921. The arms show three salmon
, symbolizing the importance of salmon fishing
on the Mandalselva. Mandal is the southernmost municipality with a
large salmon population. Salmon fishing also played a major role in
the development of the village.
Mandal is a very popular holiday resort, with its mild and
refreshing summer climate. It is famous for its long-stretching
surrounding the town. Sjøsanden
(The Sea Sand) is the most famous
beach, as it stretches for almost a kilometre just outside the town
centre. It is frequently ranked as one of Norway's most popular
The city center is known for its charming concentration of old,
white wooden houses and the Mandal river running through it.
Another attraction is the city's church: Mandal kirke
. It is the largest wooden church
in Norway, with 1,800 seats and a pulpit on the wall behind the
The sculptor Gustav Vigeland
(1869-1943) was born in Mandal, and has a museum dedicated to him
here. Vigeland's main achievement is the Vigeland
Sculpture Park (Vigelandsparken) in Oslo.
The painter Adolph Tidemand
(1814-1876) was also born in Mandal. His most famous painting is
the national romantic image of a traditional wedding on the
Hardanger fjord, which he made together with Hans Gude
Because of these and other artists, like Amaldus Nielsen
and Olaf Isaachsen
, the town is sometimes called
"The Little Town with the Great Artists".
In September 2009, the discovery of a 5th century runestone
, bearing an Elder Futhark
inscription, was announced in
the Norwegian press. The runestone was found by one Arnfinn
Henriksen in Hogganvik, in the Sånum-Lundevik area, while working
in the garden. The inscription is on a stone slab of about 1.5 m
squared, weighing approximately 800 kg. The inscription extends to
some 60 characters, an exceptionally long text for a runic
inscription of the early period, rivalling the longest inscription
predating the 7th century known previously, that of the Tune stone
(known since 1627).
A preliminary report issued in October 2009 provided the following
transliteration of the runic
, which was in Proto-Norse
- A: [s]kelbaþewas s^tainaR aasrpkf
- B: aarpaa inana naloR/naboR/(nawoR)
- C: ek naudigastiR
- D: ek erafaR
The report gave a preliminary translation of the text into English:
- A: Skelba-þewaR’s [“Shaking-servant’s”] stone [=(grave)
monument]. | [Alphabet magic:]
- B: [Alphabet magic:] aarpaa | ?Within/From within the
?wheel-nave/?cabin-corner [or: ?needle].
- C: I [=the rune carver] [am called] NaudigastiR
- D: I, [nicknamed] the Wolverine.
- Fant runestein i hagen, Norwegian Broadcasting
Corporation, 29 September 2009; Kan ha funnet til nå ukjent runestein
28 September 2009.
- Knirk, James E. Runic inscription from Hogganvik, Mandal,
Vest-Agder (2009) (preliminary report), October 27,