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The Mandan are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the banks of the Missouri Rivermarker and two of its tributaries—the Heart and Knife Rivers—in present-day Northmarker and South Dakotamarker. Speakers of Mandan, a Siouan language, the Mandan were in contrast with other tribes in the Great Plainsmarker region in the establishment of permanent villages instead of leading a nomadic existence tracking herds of buffalo. These permanent settlements featured round, earthen lodges surrounding a central plaza. While the buffalo was key to the daily life of the Mandan, it was supplemented by agriculture and trade.

Archaeological research suggests the Mandan people migrated from the Ohio River valley to the banks of the Missouri River. They were first encountered there by Europeans in 1738 and their friendliness and willingness to trade brought many traders and fur trappers to their villages over the next century. By the turn of the 19th century, attacks by neighboring tribes and epidemics of smallpox and whooping cough, significantly diminished the Mandan's population. A major smallpox outbreak in 1837 reduced their numbers to approximately 125. With such meager numbers, the Mandan banded together with two neighboring tribes, the Arikara and Hidatsa.

Over the next few decades, the three tribes saw their land holdings reduced by various treaties. In an effort to establish good relations, the U.S. government founded the Fort Berthold Agency to care for the combined tribes. The Agency soon set up the Fort Berthold Reservation originally consisting of some 8 million acres (32,000 km²), but by 1910, the size of the reservation was about 900,000 acres (3,600 km²) of land. With the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act, the Mandan officially merged with the Hidatsa and the Arikara into the "Three Affiliated Tribes," known as the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Nation. The last full blooded Mandan died in 1971, with the remaining members of mixed ancestry. About half of the Mandan still reside in the area of the reservation, the rest residing around the United States and in Canada.

The Mandans also met with Lewis and Clark on their journey to the Pacific Oceanmarker and to give out peace medals.

Synonymy

The English name Mandan is derived from similar exonyms from surrounding Siouan languages, such as Teton Miwátąni, Yanktonai Miwátani, Yankton Mawátani or Mąwátanį, Dakota Mawátąna or Mawátadą, etc. The Mandan have used several terms at different times to refer to themselves:

  • Rųwą́ʔka·ki "men, people": before 1837 (transcribed by Westerners as Numakaki, Numangkake)
  • Wį́ʔti Ų́tahąkt "East Village" (after the village of the same name): late 19th century (transcribed by Westerners as Metutahanke or Mitutahankish)
  • Rų́ʔeta "ourselves, our people" (originally the name of a specific division): the currently-used term


The Mandan probably used Rųwą́ʔka·ki to refer to a general tribal entity. Later, this word fell to disuse and instead two divisions names were used, Nuweta or Ruptare (i.e. Mandan Rų́ʔeta). Later the term, Rų́ʔeta was extended to refer to a general tribal entity. The name Mi-ah´ta-nēs recorded by Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden in 1862 reportedly means "people on the river bank", but this is may be a folk etymology. Various other terms and alternate spellings that occur in the literature including: Mayátana, Mayátani, Mąwádanį, Mąwádąδį, Huatanis, Mandani, Wahtani, Mantannes, Mantons, Mendanne, Mandanne, Mandians, Maw-dân, Meandans, les Mandals, Me-too´-ta-häk, Numakshi, Rųwą́ʔkši, Wíhwatann, Mevatan, Mevataneo. Gloria Jahoda in her book Trail of Tears states that they also call themselves the "Pheasant people."

Language

The Mandan language belongs to the Siouan language family. It was initially thought to be closely related to the languages of the Hidatsa and the Crow. However, since the Mandan language has been in contact with Hidatsa and Crow for many years, the exact relationship between Mandan and other Siouan languages (including Hidatsa and Crow) has been obscured and is currently undetermined. For this reason, Mandan is most often considered to be a separate branch of the Siouan family.

Mandan has two main dialects: Nuptare and Nuetare. Only the Nuptare variety survived into the 20th century, and all speakers were bilingual in Hidatsa. Linguist Mauricio Mixco of the University of Utahmarker has been involved in fieldwork with remaining speakers since 1993. As of 1999, there were only six fluent speakers of Mandan still alive, though there are currently programs in local schools to encourage the use of the language.

The Mandan and their language received much attention from Euro-Americans because of their lighter skin color, causing some to speculate they were of European origin. In the 1830s, Prince Maximilian of Wied spent more time recording Mandan over all other Siouan languages and additionally prepared a comparison list of Mandan and Welsh words (he thought that the Mandan may be displaced Welsh). The theory of the Mandan/Welsh connection, now discounted, was also supported by George Catlin.

Mandan has different grammatical forms that depend on gender of the addressee. Questions asked of men must use the suffix while the suffix is used when asking of women. Likewise the indicative suffix is when addressing men and when addressing women, and also for imperatives: (male), (female). Mandan, like many other North American languages, has elements of sound symbolism in their vocabulary. A sound often denotes smallness/less intensity, denotes medium-ness, denotes largeness/greater intensity:

  • síre "yellow"
  • šíre "tawny"
  • xíre "brown"


  • sró "tinkle"
  • xró "rattle"


Culture

Lodges and villages

Mandan lodge, circa 1908.
Photographed by Edward S.
Curtis.
One of the most recognizable features of the Mandan was their permanent villages made up of earthen lodges. Each lodge was circular with a dome-like roof and a square hole at the apex of the dome through which smoke could escape. The exterior was covered with a matting made from reeds and twigs and then covered with hay and earth. The lodge also featured a portico-type structure at the entrance. The interior consisted of four large pillars upon which crossbeams supported the roof. These lodges were designed, built and owned by the women of the tribe, and ownership was passed through the female line. They could hold up to 30 or 40 people and villages usually had around 120 lodges. Reconstructions of these lodges may be seen at Fort Abraham Lincoln State Park near Mandan, North Dakotamarker, and the Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Sitemarker. Originally lodges were rectangular, but around 1500 CE, lodges began to be constructed in a circular form. Towards the end of the 19th century, the Mandan began constructing small log cabins, usually with two rooms. When traveling or hunting, the Mandan would use skin tipis. Today, Mandan live in modern dwellings.


Villages were usually oriented around a central plaza that was used for games(chunkey) and ceremonial purposes. In the center of the plaza was a tree surrounded by a wood enclosure representing the Lone Man, one of the main figures in Mandan mythology who built a wooden wall thus saving the people of the world from a deluge. Villages were often situated on high bluffs over the river. Often, villages would be constructed at the meeting of tributaries in order to use the water as a natural barrier. Where there were few or no natural barriers, the villages utilized some type of fortification including ditches and palisades.

Family life

The Mandan were originally divided into thirteen clans organized around successful hunters and their kin. Each clan was expected to care for its own, including orphans and the elderly, from birth to death. Clans held a sacred bundle, which consisted of a few gathered objects believed to hold sacred powers. Those in possession of the bundles were considered to have sacred powers bestowed to them by the spirits and thus were considered the leaders of the clan and tribe.

Children were named ten days after their birth in a naming ceremony, which also officially linked the child with their family and clan. Girls would be taught domestic duties, farming, and how to keep a home, while boys were taught hunting and fishing, and would begin fasting at the age of ten or eleven. Marriage among the Mandan was generally arranged by members of one's own clan, though occasionally it would take place without the approval of the couple's parents. Divorce could be easily obtained.



Upon the death of a family member, a scaffold would be erected near the village to contain the body. The body would be placed with the head towards the northwest and feet to the southeast. (Southeast is the direction of the Ohio River Valley, from whence the Mandan came. The Mandan would not sleep in this orientation, because it invited death.) After a ceremony to send the spirit away, the family would mourn at the scaffold for four days. After the body rotted and the scaffold collapsed, the bones would be gathered up and buried except for the skull, which was placed in a circle near the village. Family members would visit the skulls and talk to them, sometimes bearing their problems or regaling the dead with jokes. After the Mandan moved onto the Fort Berthold Reservation, they resorted to placing the bodies in boxes or trunks or wrapped them in fur robes and placed them in rocky crevices.

Subsistence

A Mandan hunter with his sacred buffalo skull, circa 1909.
Photograph by Edward S.
Curtis.
The Mandan survived by hunting, farming and gathering wild plants, though some food came from trade. Mandan gardens were often located near river banks, where annual flooding would leave the most fertile soil, sometimes in locations miles from villages. The gardens were owned and tended by the women, and they would plant corn, beans and squash, usually enough to last a single year.

The buffalo which the Mandan hunted played an important part in Mandan rituals; calling the buffalo near to the village was one of the main objectives of the Okipa ceremony at the beginning of each summer. In addition to eating the flesh, the Mandan used all remaining parts of the buffalo, so nothing went to waste. The hides were used for buffalo-fur robes or were tanned, and the leather used for clothing and other uses. The Mandan were known for their painted buffalo hides that often recorded historic events. The bones would be carved into items such as needles and fish hooks. Bones were also used in farming, such as the scapula, which was used as a hoe-like device for breaking the soil. Besides buffalo, the Mandan trapped small mammals for food and hunted deer. Deer antlers were used to create rake-like implements used in farming. Birds were hunted for feathers, which were used for adornment.

Dress

Mandan girls gathering berries, circa 1908.
Photographed by Edward S.
Curtis.
Up until the late 19th century when they began adopting Western-style dress, the Mandan commonly wore clothing made from the hides of buffalo as well as deer and sheep. From the hides, tunics, dresses, buffalo-fur robes, moccasins, gloves, loincloths and leggings could be made. These items were often ornamented with quills and bird feathers and sometimes even the scalps of enemies.

Mandan women wore ankle-length dresses made of deerskin or sheepskin. This would often be girded at the waist with a wide belt. Sometimes the hem of the dress would be ornamented with pieces of buffalo hoof. Underneath the dress, leather leggings would be worn with ankle-high moccasins. Women's hair was worn straight down in braids.

A pair of Mandan men in a print by Karl Bodmer.
Note the buffalo-fur robes, moccasins, and the treatment of the hair.
During the winter months, men would commonly wear deerskin tunics and leggings with moccasins. They also kept themselves warm by wearing a robe of buffalo fur. During the summer months, however, a loincloth of deerskin or sheepskin would often suffice. Unlike the women, men would wear various ornaments in their hair. The hair was parted across the top with three sections hanging down in front. Sometimes the hair would hang down the nose and would be curled upwards with a curling stick. The hair would hang to the shoulders on the side, and the back portion would sometimes reach to the waist. The long hair in the back would create a tail-like feature, as it would be gathered into braids then smeared with clay and spruce gum then tied with cords of deerskin. Headdresses of feathers were often worn as well.

Crow's Heart, a Mandan, circa 1908.
He is wearing a traditional deerskin tunic.
Photographed by Edward S.
Curtis.


Religion

Of the tribes living on the Great Plains, the Mandan's religion was one of the more complex. Much of their mythology centered on a figure known as Lone Man. Lone Man was involved in many of the creation myths as well as one of the deluge myths. In their creation myth, the world was created by two rival deities, the First Creator and the Lone Man. The Missouri River divided the two worlds that the beings created. First Creator created the lands to the south of the river with hills, valleys, trees, buffalo, antelope and snakes. To the north of the river, Lone Man created the Great Plains, domesticated animals, birds, fish and humans. The first humans lived underground near a large lake. Some of the more adventurous humans climbed a grapevine to the surface and discovered the two worlds. After returning underground they shared their findings and decided to return with many others. As they were climbing the grapevine it broke and half of the Mandan were left underground.

According to pre-Christian Mandan beliefs, each person possessed four different, immortal souls. The first soul was white and often seen as a shooting star. The second soul was colored a light brown and was seen in the form of the meadowlark. The third soul, called the lodge spirit, remained at the site of the lodge after death and would remain there forever. The final soul was black and after death would travel away from the village. These final souls existed as did living people; residing in their own villages, farming and hunting.
The okipa ceremony as witnessed by George Catlin, circa 1835.


One notable feature of the Mandan's religious life was the Okipa, which was first recorded by George Catlin. The ceremony opened with a Bison Dance followed by a variety of torturous ordeals through which warriors proved their courage and gained the approval of the spirits. The Okipa began with the young man not eating, drinking, or sleeping for four days. Then they were led to a hut, where they had to sit with smiling faces while the skin of their chest and shoulders was cut off and wooden skewers were thrust behind the muscles. Using the skewers to support the weight of their bodies, the warriors would be suspended from the roof of the lodge and would hang there until they fainted. To add agony, heavy weights were added to the initiates legs. After fainting, the warrior would be pulled down and the men (women were not allowed to attend this ceremony) would watch the warrior until he awoke, proving the spirits' approval. After awakening, the warrior would sacrifice the little finger on both hands, each finger being severed by the initiate with a hatchet. Finally, the warrior would be taken outside where he would run around the central plaza of the village a number of times. Those finishing the ceremony were seen as being honored by the spirits; those completing the ceremony twice would gain everlasting fame among the tribe. Chief Four Bears, or Ma-to-toh-pe, completed this ceremony twice. The last Okipa ceremony was performed in 1889 but the ceremony was resurrected in a somewhat different form in 1983. The version of the Okipa as practiced by the Lakota may be seen in the 1970 film A Man Called Horse starring Richard Harris.



History

Origins and early history

Like all Native American peoples, the exact origins and early history of the Mandan is unknown. Early studies by linguists gave evidence that the Mandan language may have been closely related to the language of the Ho-Chunk or Winnebago people of present-day Wisconsinmarker, which has given rise to the theory that they may have settled in the region at one time. This idea is possibly confirmed in their mythology, where reference is made to having come from an eastern location near a lake.

Ethnologists and scholars studying the Mandan subscribe to the theory that, like other Sioux people (possibly including the Hidatsa), they originated in the area of the upper Mississippi River and the Ohio River in present-day Ohiomarker. If this is the case, the Mandan would have migrated north towards the Missouri River valley and its tributary the Heart River in present-day North Dakotamarker, where Europeans first encountered them. This migration is believed to have occurred possibly as early as the 7th century but probably between 1000 CE and the 13th century.

After their arrival on the banks of the Heart River, the Mandan constructed nine villages, two on the east side of the river and seven on the west side. At some point during this time, the Hidatsa people also moved into the region. Mandan tradition states that the Hidatsa were a nomadic tribe until their encounter with the Mandan, who taught them to build stationary villages and agriculture. The Hidatsa continued to maintain amicable relations with the Mandan and constructed villages north of them on the Knife River.

European encounter

The first encounter with Europeans occurred with the visit of the French Canadian trader Sieur de la Verendrye in 1738. It is estimated that at the time of his visit there were approximately 15,000 Mandan residing in the nine villages on the Heart River. Horses were acquired by the Mandan in the mid-18th century and were used for transportation and hunting. The horses helped with the expansion of Mandan hunting territory. The encounter with the French in the 18th century created a trading link between the French and the Native Americans of the region with the Mandan serving as middlemen in the of trade in furs, horses, guns, crops and buffalo products.

In 1796 the Mandan were visited by the Welsh explorer John Evans, who was hoping to find proof that their language contained Welsh words. Evans spent the winter of 1796–97 with the Mandan but found no evidence of any Welsh influence. In July 1797 he wrote to Dr. Samuel Jones "Thus having explored and charted the Missurie for 1,800 miles and by my Communications with the Indians this side of the Pacific Ocean from 35 to 49 degrees of Latitude, I am able to inform you that there is no such People as the Welsh Indians".

By 1804 when Lewis and Clark visited the tribe, the number of Mandan had been greatly reduced by smallpox epidemics and warring bands of Assiniboins, Lakota and Arikaras (with whom they would later join together to fight against the Lakota). The nine villages at this point had consolidated into two villages. The Lewis and Clark expedition met with such hospitality in the Upper Missouri River villages that the expedition stopped there for the winter. In honor of their hosts, the expedition dubbed the settlement they constructed Fort Mandan. It was here that Lewis and Clark first met Sacagawea, a Shoshone woman who had been captured by the Hidatsa. Sacagawea guided the expedition westward towards the Pacific Oceanmarker. Upon their return to the Mandan villages, Lewis and Clark took the Mandan Chief Sheheke (Coyote or Big White) to Washington to meet with President Thomas Jefferson. Chief Sheheke was killed in a battle with Hidatsa Indians in 1812.

In 1833, artist George Catlin visited the Mandan near Fort Clark. Catlin painted and drew scenes of Mandan life as well as portraits of chiefs including Four Bears or Ma-to-toh-pe. His skill at rendering so impressed Four Bears that Catlin was the first man of European descent to be allowed to watch the Okipa ceremony. The winter months of 1833 and 1834 brought Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied and Swiss artist Karl Bodmer to stay with the Mandan.

Speculation about pre-Columbian European contact

18th century reports about characteristics of Mandan lodges, religion and occasional physical features among tribal members, such as blue and grey eyes along with lighter hair coloring, stirred speculation about the possibility of pre-Columbian European contact. Catlin believed the Mandan were the "Welsh Indians" of folklore, descendants of Prince Madoc and his followers who emigrated to America from Walesmarker in about 1170. This view was very popular at the time but has since been disputed by the bulk of scholarship.

Later speculation has suggested the Mandan may have had pre-Columbian contact with Viking explorers. Controversial interpretations of the Kensington Runestonemarker, found in 1898 in the largely rural township of Solem, Douglas County, Minnesotamarker, have cited the runestone as evidence of Viking presence there. However there is no known evidence of Mandan-Viking contact and this interpretation has very little support among anthropologists and professional historians.

Smallpox epidemic of 1837–38

The Mandan were first plagued by smallpox in the 16th century and had been hit by similar epidemics every few decades. Between 1837 and 1838, another smallpox epidemic swept the region. In June 1837, an American Fur Company steamboat traveled westward up the Missouri River from St. Louis. Its passengers and traders aboard infected the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara tribes. There were approximately 1,600 Mandan living in the two villages at that time. The disease effectively destroyed the Mandan settlements. Almost all the tribal members, including the chief, Four Bears, died. Estimates of the number of survivors vary from only 27 individuals to up to 150, though most sources usually give the number 125. The survivors banded together with the nearby Hidatsa in 1845 and created Like-a-Fishhook Village.

Mandan chief Four Bears reportedly stated “a set of Black harted [sic] Dogs, they have deceived Me, them that I always considered as Brothers, has turned Out to be My Worst enemies”. Francis Chardon, in his "Journal at Fort Clark 1834–1839", wrote that the Gros Ventres (ie. Hidatsa), “swear vengeance against all the Whites, as they say the small pox was brought here by the S[team] B[oat].” (Chardon, Journal, p. 126). In the earliest detailed study of the event, in The American Fur Trade of the Far West (1902), Hiram M. Chittenden blamed the American Fur Company for the epidemic. Oral tradition of the affected tribes continue to claim that whites were to blame for the disease. R. G. Robertson in his book Rotting Face: Smallpox and the American Indian places blame on Captain Pratte of St. Peter’s for failing to quarantine once the epidemic broke out, stating that while “not guilty of premeditated genocide, but he was guilty of contributing to the deaths of thousands of innocent people. The law calls his offence criminal negligence. Yet in light of all the deaths, the almost complete annihilation of the Mandans, and the terrible suffering the region endured, the label criminal negligence is benign, hardly befitting an action that had such horrendous consequences”.

Ward Churchill has alleged that the US Army gave smallpox infected blankets to the Mandan Indians in 1837, as part of a genocidal conspiracy. No historian specializing in that event has agreed with Churchill's accusations against the Army. A University of Colorado investigation into Churchill's research found that in this instance he had misrepresented his sources and "created myths under the banner of academic scholarship."

Late 19th and the 20th centuries

The Mandan joined with the Arikara in 1862. By this time, Like-a-Fishhook Village had become a major center of trade in the region. By the 1880s, though, the village was abandoned. With the second half of the 19th century there was a gradual decrease in the holdings of the Three Affiliated Tribes (the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara). The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 recognized 12 million acres (49,000 km²) of land in the territory owned jointly by these tribes. With the creation of the Fort Berthold Reservation by Executive Order on April 12, 1870, the federal government recognized the holdings as only being 8 million acres (32,000 km²). On July 1, 1880, another executive order deprived the tribes of 7 million acres (28,000 km²) lying outside the boundaries of the reservation.

With the arrival of the 20th century, the government seized more land, and by 1910, the reservation had shrunk to a mere 900,000 acres (3,600 km²). This land is located in Dunnmarker, McKenziemarker, McLeanmarker, Mercermarker, Mountrailmarker and Wardmarker counties in North Dakota. In 1951, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began construction of Garrison Dammarker on the Missouri River. This dam created Lake Sakakaweamarker, which flooded portions of the Fort Berthold Reservation including the villages of Fort Berthold and Elbowoods as well as a number of other villages. The former residents of these villages were moved and New Townmarker was established for them.

While a new town was constructed for the displaced tribal members, much damage was done to the social and economic foundations of the reservation. The flooding claimed approximately one quarter of the reservations land. This land contained some of the most fertile agricultural land upon which the agricultural economy had been constructed. In addition, the flooding claimed the sites of historic villages and archaeological sites.

Present day

The Mandan and the two related tribes while being combined have intermarried but do maintain, as a whole, the varied traditions of their ancestors. The last full-blood Mandan died in 1971. The tribal residents have recovered from the trauma of their displacement in the 1950s and part of their recovery has been aided by two recent additions to New Town. The Four Bears Casino and Lodge was constructed in 1993 drawing tourists and money to the impoverished reservation. The most recent addition to the New Town area has been the new Four Bears Bridge, which was built in a joint effort between the three tribes and the North Dakota Department of Transportation. The bridge, spanning the Missouri River, replaces an older Four Bears Bridge that was built in 1955. The new bridge—the largest bridge in the state of North Dakota—is decorated with medallions celebrating the cultures of the three tribes. The bridge was opened to traffic September 2, 2005 and was officially opened in a ceremony on the October 3.

Notes

Offering of the Mandan Indians
  1. This number is given by most sources though there is some controversy regarding it.
  2. Synonymy section written by D. R. Parks in Wood & Irwin pp. 362–364.
  3. Jahoda p. 174.
  4. Personal communication from Mauricio Mixco in 1999, reported in Parks & Rankin p. 112.
  5. Chafe pp. 37–38.
  6. Hollow 1970, p. 457 (in Mithun p. 280).
  7. Hollow & Parks 1980, p. 82.
  8. Pritzker p. 336.
  9. Zimmerman pp. 298–299.
  10. Mandan Social and Ceremonial Organization by Alfred W. Bowers and Gerard Baker 1950 republished 2004
  11. Zimmerman pp. 299–300.
  12. Dying Tongues
  13. Jahoda pp. 177–182.
  14. Hodge p. 796.
  15. Mandan entry in The Catholic Encyclopedia.
  16. Williams, Gwen A., Madoc, the Making of a Myth, Eyre Methuen, 1979
  17. Potter, Tracy, "Sheheke: Mandan Indian Diplomat" Farcountry Press and Fort Mandan Press, 2003, page 178.
  18. Viking settlement and the Mandans
  19. Smithsonian Magazine | Science & Nature | Tribal Fever
  20. Robertson, Rotting Face, pp. 299–303.
  21. Pritzker p. 335.
  22. Indian Gaming Association press release For casino opening date.


References

Books and articles

  • Hayden, Ferdinand Vandeveer. (1862). Contributions to the ethnography and philology of the Indian tribes of the Missouri Valley: Prepared under the direction of Capt. William F. Reynolds, T.E.U.S.A., and published by permission of the War Department. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 12 (2), 231–461. Philadelphia: C. Sherman and Son.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb, Ed. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Originally published by the Bureau of American Ethnology and the Smithsonian Institution in 1906. (Reprinted in New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 1971. ISBN 1-58218-748-7)
  • Jahoda, Gloria. Trail of Tears: The Story of the American Indian Removals, 1813–1835. New York: Wings Books, 1975. ISBN 0-517-14677-0
  • Newman, Marshall T "The Blond Mandan: A Critical Review of an Old Problem", Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 6, No. 3 (Autumn, 1950), pp. 255–272
  • Potter, Tracy A., Sheheke: Mandan Indian Diplomat, The Story of White Coyote, Thomas Jefferson, and Lewis and Clark, Farcountry Press and Fort Mandan Press, Helena, 2003. ISBN 1-56037-255-9
  • Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture and Peoples. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-513877-5
  • Robertson, R. G. (2001). Rotting Face. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Press. ISBN 0870044192.
  • Wood, W. Raymond, & Lee Irwin. "Mandan". In R. J. DeMallie (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 1, pp. 94–114). W. C. Sturtevant (Gen. Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 2001. ISBN 0-16-050400-7
  • Zimmerman, Karen. "Mandan". In The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes, Vol. III. Detroit: Gale, 1998. ISBN 0-7876-1088-7


Language

  • Chafe, Wallace. (1976). The Caddoan, Iroquoian, and Siouan languages. Trends in linguistics: State-of-the-art report (No. 3). The Hague: Mouton. ISBN 90-279-3443-6.
  • Hollow, Robert C. (1970). A Mandan dictionary. (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley).
  • Hollow, Robert C.; & Parks, Douglas. (1980). Studies in plains linguistics: A review. In W. R. Wood & M. P. Liberty (Eds.), Anthropology on the Great Plains (pp. 68–97). Lincoln: University of Nebraska. ISBN 0-8032-4708-7.
  • Kennard, Edward. (1936). Mandan grammar. International Journal of American Linguistics, 9, 1–43.
  • Lowie, Robert H. (1913). Societies of the Hidatsa and Mandan Indians. In R. H. Lowie, Societies of the Crow, Hidatsa, and Mandan Indians (pp. 219–358). Anthropological papers of the American Museum Of Natural History (Vol. 11, Part 3). New York: The Trustees. (Texts are on pp. 355–358).
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Mixco, Mauricio C. (1997). Mandan. Languages of the world series: Materials 159. Münich: LINCOM Europa. ISBN 3-89586-213-4.
  • Parks, Douglas R.; Jones, A. Wesley; Hollow, Robert C; & Ripley, David J. (1978). Earth lodge tales from the upper Missouri. Bismarck, ND: Mary College.
  • Parks, Douglas R.; & Rankin, Robert L. (2001). The Siouan languages. In R. J. DeMallie (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, Part 1, pp. 94–114). W. C. Sturtevant (Gen. Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-050400-7.
  • Will, George; & Spinden, H. J. (1906). The Mandans: A study of their culture, archaeology and language. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University (Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 81–219). Cambridge, MA: The Museum. (Reprinted 1976, New York: Kraus Reprint Corporation).
  • Williams, Gwen A., Madoc, the Making of a Myth, Eyre Methuen, 1979


External links

Idols of the Mandan Indians



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