Mansehra District ( ) is in
Frontier Province of Pakistan, which
contains the town of Mansehra and the
Kaghan Valley area (a popular tourist
destination in Pakistan).
Highway passes through the district.
Alexander the Great & Ashoka
Alexander the Great
conquering parts of Punjab, established his rule over a large part
of Mansehra District. In 327 B.C., Alexander
handed this area over to
(Αβισαρης), the Raja of the Poonch
state. Mansehra remained a part of Taxila during the
rule of the Maurya dynasty.
was the Governor of this area when he
was a prince, after the death of Ashoka’s father, Bindusara
, Ashoka inherited the throne and ruled
this area as well as Gandhara
. Today, the
famous edicts of Ashoka, inscribed on three rocks near Bareri Hill,
serve as evidence of his rule. These edicts also show that this
area was a famous religious centre for pilgrims. The name Mansehra
is a modified form of the name Maan Singh, who once ruled over this
The Tanoli territory of Amb State has also been part of Mansehra
District, since the State was abolished by the Government of
Pakistan in 1969. Amb and its surrounding areas of Hazara have a
long history which can be traced to Alexander the Great's invasion
of India. Arrian, Alexander's historian, did not indicate the exact
location of Embolina, but since it is known that Aoronos was on the
right bank of the River Indus, the town chosen to serve as
Alexander's base of supplies may with good reason be also looked
for there. The mention in Ptolemy's Geography of Embolima as a town
of Indo-Scythia situated on the Indus supports this theory.
In 1854 General Abbott, the British frontier officer from whom
Abbottabad, administrative centre of Hazara, takes its name,
discussed his location of Aornos on the Mahaban range south of
Buner. He proposed, as M. Court, one of Ranjit Singh's French generals had
done before him in 1839, to recognize Embolima in the present
village of Amb situated on the right bank of the Indus.
lies about eight miles to the east of Mahaban and is the place from
which the Nawabs of Amb take their title.
Hindu Shahi dynasty & Kashmiris
In the 2nd
century CE, a mythical Hindu king Raja
Risalu, son of Raja Salbahan of
Sialkot, brought the area under his control.
local people consider him as their hero and, even today, parents
tell their children the stories of Raja
and his wife Rani Konklan
winter nights. When a Chinese pilgrim, Hiun-Tsang, visited this area, it was under the
control of Durlabhavardhana, the
ruler of Kashmir.
The Turkish Shahi
and Hindu Shahi Dynasties
ruled Mansehra one after another. Among the Hindu Shahi dynasty
rulers, Raja Jayapala
is the best known.
Mehmood of Ghazni
Jayapala during his first Indian campaign. However, there is no
historical evidence that Mehmood of Ghazni ever visited or passed
through Mansehra. After the fall of Hindu Shahi dynasty, in the
11th century, the Kashmiris took control of this area under the
leadership of Kalashan
(1063 to 1089). From
1112 to 1120, King Susala
area. In the 12th century, Asalat Khan
captured this area but soon after Mohammad of Ghor
's death the Kashmiris once
again regained control of Mansehra.
the great Muslim warrior Timur, on his return
to Kabul, stationed
his Turk soldiers in Manshera to protect the important route
between Kabul and Kashmir.
By 1472, Prince Shahab-ud-Din
came from Kabul and established
his rule over the region. Prince Shahab-ud-Din, a Turk of central
Asian origin, founded the state and named it Pakhli Sarkar and
chose Village Gulibagh as his capital. During the Mughal rule,
these local Turkish chiefs acknowledged Mughal authority. In fact,
) provided the main route to
Kashmir and was the most commonly used route for Emperor Akbar
to travel to Kashmir. During the
last days of Emperor Akbar's rule, the Turkish Chief Sultan Hussain
Khan revolted against the Mughals. He claimed that the Mughals were
interfering with his internal affairs. After this complaint, he was
exiled by the Mughals, but later was pardoned and given back his
descendants of these Turkish rulers live in village Behali and some
other villages of Mansehra, Abbottabad, and Haripur
Akbar as a boy around 1557
Turkish rule came to an end due to the increased aggression of the
and their allied forces. In 1703,
the Turks came under attack by the Swati
under the leadership of Syed Jalal Baba,
who was son in law of last Turkish ruler of Hazara, (Sultan Memud
Khurd) took benefit of absence of his father in law and with the
help of Swaties succeeded to overthrow the Turks from the throne of
Pakhli Sarkar.The Turks were pushed towards the mountainous areas
of Tanawel (Behali) and other parts of Hazara, including Haripur
(Manakrai). The Turks remained in control of certain small areas,
assuming the title of Raja. Raja Amanulla of Manakrai, Haripur, one
of the descendants of the Turkish rulers of Hazara, rose to
prominence during post-independence era, when he became the Speaker
of the NWFP assembly in 1985.
When Ahmad Shah Durrani expanded his kingdom to Punjab, Mansehra
also came under his control. Durrani
considered it wise to rule the area through local tribal chiefs,
like Saadat Khan of Garhi Habibullah. Saadat Khan was such an
authoritative man amongst Swati
disputed matters of Jadoons
had been sent to him for rectification
through jirgas . The Durranis ruled ended abruptly in the beginning
of the 18th century.
The Tanolis had already established their authority over Tannawal
and thus Tannawal was never annexed by the Durranis. The voluminous
Urdu copy of the settlement report of Hazara compiled by Major Wace
in 1872 contains many passages in its historical resume of the
area. In a number of maps drawn at the time and enclosed in the
report, showing Hazara under the Mughals and under the Durranis,
the Amb state has been shown as Mulk-i-Tanawal. The original
existence of that Mulk is as old as the middle period of the great
Afghan invasions of India. Their leader Nawab Khan (Father of
Painda Khan) never accepted the Durrani Rule and used to heavily
tax the Durrani caravans which passed through the Mulk-e-Tanawal.
He defeated the Durranis in battle but met his death at the hands
of Sardar Azim Khan Durrani in 1818, who invited him to his camp
and killed him by treachery. Upper Tanawal (mostly now in prsent
day District Mansehra) and Lower Tanawal(mostly now in present day
district Haripur), covering the greater part of Hazara, have been
ruled by Tanolis for centuries.
The fall of the Durranis led way for the Sikhs
to rise to power under Ranjit Singh
The Sikhs gained control of Mansehra in 1818, after stiff
resistance from its inhabitants. When Mansehra fell under Sikh
control, it was annexed to Punjab. Syed Ahmad Shaheed, with the
help of the Mujahadeen, led many revolts and attacks against the
last, in 1831 during a fierce battle at Balakot, Syed Ahmad Shaheed was killed.
This allowed the Sikhs to consolidate their control of Mansehra.
After Rajit Singh's death, the Sikh
began to disintegrate. At this time, the British gained control of
Punjab, and, through this, gained control of Mansehra.
Painda Khan Tanoli was the tribal chief of the Tanolis at the time
of the invasion of Hazara by the Sikhs. Painda Khan is famed for
his staunch rebellion against Maharaja Ranjit Singh's Governors of
Hazara. From about 1813, he spent a life long rebellion against the
Sikhs. Painda Khan's relentless rebellion against the Sikh empire,
cost him a major portion of his Kingdom, leaving only his twin
capitals Amb and Darband. However, this deterred him less and
appeared to increase his resistance against the Sikh
Painda Khan son Jehandad Khan also followed the footsteps of his
famed father. "Of all the tribal chiefs of Hazara, the most
powerful said to be Jehandad Khan of the Tanoli, whose land
straddled both banks of the Indus and whose fellow-tribesmen were
'brave and hardy and accounted for the best swordsmen in
When Sikh power was on the fall in 1845 Jehandad Khan blockaded the
garrisons of no less than 22 Sikh posts in Upper Tanawal ; and when
they surrendered at discretion, he spared their lives, as the
servants of a fallen Empire.
In the meantime other Chiefs of Hazara rushed to arms to
exterminate the Sikhs who were in their country. They invited Syud
Akbur, of Sitana (after wards king of Swat), to come over and be
King of Hazara, and make a holy war with them. Nawab Khan of
Thingri, became Syad Akbur's "Wazir", Pir Khan came down to join
with the Jaduns, Khan i Zeman brought the Tarkheylies; the Swatis
of Publi, and the Mushwanis, swelled the tumult. For two months
they besieged Diwan Mulraj, the Kardar, in the fort of
Hurkishengarh; and at last, after several gallant repulses, reduced
the garrison to evacuate by cutting off the water.
On 19 March, 1846, a peace treaty was signed between the Sikhs and
the British according to which Raja Gulab Singh took Kashmir and
Hazara from the British for 75,00,000 rupees. But due to widespread
civil disorder and resistance movement Raja asked the British
government to take over Hazara in exchange of the Jamu-Jehlum belt.
The British accepted this offer and took over Hazara from him. They
deputed James Abbot to Hazara to restore peace. He defeated Chuttar
Singh, a Sikh general, after coming to Hazara and thus completely
ousted the Sikhs from power.
By 1849, the British had gained control of all of Mansehra.
However, the western Pashtun
rebellious. These tribes included the clans
, and(batagram) the
, and the tribes
inhabiting both slopes of the Black Mountain of Hazara
In 1852, after three years of relative peace, Zaman Shah of Kaghan
turned against the British. James Abbot sent an expedition to
Kaghan which deprived Zaman Shah of his territory and he was exiled
to Pakhli plain. After four years the British forgave him and he
was permitted to get back his lost territory.
However, the British sent many expeditions against the Pashtun
tribes to crush the rebellion between 1852 and 1892, especially
against the Black Mountains.
To maintain peace in the area the British also took preventive
measures by co-opting the local rulers.
British divided Hazara District into
three Tehsils (administrative subdivisions)
: Mansehra, Abbottabad, andHaripur; and decided to annex it to the Punjab. In 1901, when the
Frontier Province (NWFP) was formed, Hazara was separated from Punjab
and made a part of NWFP.
Throughout their rule in Mansehra,
the British met fierce resistance from the local Pashtun tribes and
declared martial law. Meanwhile, the people of Mansehra's many
villages largely governed themselves. Many of Mansehra's citizens
joined the Khilafat
The British accepted the Independence of the Nawab of Amb; within
his own territory and thus no writ of the British Government, civil
or criminal, was ever enacted within the Tanoli State of Amb. The
smaller Tanoli State of Phulra, which was granted by Painda Khan to
his brother Madad Khan, was also ackhnowledged by the Britishers as
a semi-independent Princely State. Thus the British Government
agreed not to meddle with the affairs of the Tanoli territory of
Hazara, with the mutual understanding that the Tanolis would not
attack the British controlled territories.
When the Muslim League in Pakistan started its movement for a
separate land, the local people joined and struggled for liberation
under the leadership of Quaid-i-Azam
eventual victory culminated in the creation of Pakistan, an independent state for the Muslims of the
Nawab Sir Muhammad Farid Khan (K.B.E) of the Amb State had very
good relations with The Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and
Nawabzada Liaqat Ali Khan. His contributions to the Pakistan
movement have been acknowledged by letters from The Quaid e Azam.
In 1947 the Nawab of Amb, Mohammad Farid Khan, acceded to Pakistan
by signing the Instrument of
of his State, in favour of Pakistan. In 1969, the
State was incorporated into the North-West Frontier Province and in
1971 the royal status of the Nawab was abolished by the Government
Bhutto's regime, Mansehra was upgraded to a district, containing
two subdivisions: Mansehra and Batagram. Later, the Mansehra district had the
Balakot subdivision added to it.
Swatis were given places by Turks in Hazara so that they can
protect the valley from the foreign attacks. There was no fight
between Turks and Swatis, Turks remained popular.
is located at the eastern border of the North-West
Frontier Province, two hours away from Peshawar and three hours away from Islamabad.
The district is located at 34° - 12' and
35° - 50' and 47° - 07' longitude. It is closely linked to
Afghanistan in the west, which has increased the number of Afghan refugees
in Mansehra over the past
The district of Mansehra has been blessed with wonderful scenery.
Some of Mansehra's main features are mountain ranges, plains,
valleys, and numerous lakes and rivers.
shares its borders with numerous other districts: the Kohistan and Diamir districts
to the north, Abbottabad District to the south, the Neelum
District of Azad
Kashmir to the west, and the Swat district to
the east and Batagram District to
three lakes in the district: Lulusar Lake,
Dudipatsar Lake and Saiful Muluk Lake.
All three are located in the beautiful
and act as a mirror
reflecting the snow-clad mountains surrounding them.
Lake is approximately 48 kilometres
away from Naran
and has an altitude of 3325
meters. Surrounded by wildflowers in almost all
colours imaginable, this lake is the main source for the Kunhar River.
Lake Lulusar is said to be one of the most
tranquil spots on the Kaghan Valley
the lake is fenced by snowcapped mountains whose image is reflected
on the standstill blue-green waters of the lake.
Lake is enclosed with beautiful,
high, snow-drizzled peaks, it is one of the hardest places to
reach, requiring a tough hike lasting four to seven hours. The hike
is rewarding, as tourists are greeted with green pastures and the
lake's blue-green waters.
famous of the district's many lakes is Lake Saiful Muluk, named in a folktale—the
Qissa Saiful Muluk—about
a romance between a Persia prince and
a fairy princess.
In the folktale, the
lake was the meeting site for the two lovers. Lake Saiful Muluk is
located at the northern end of the Kaghan valley. At an altitude of
above sea level, it is one of the highest lakes in Pakistan. The
water is spectacularly clear with a slight green tone. It is
accessible by a jeep road during the summer months or can be hiked
up from the village below in four to six hours. The clarity of the
water comes from the multiple glaciers all around the high basin
feeding the lake.
Mansehra is considered a good place for education because of its
natural beauty and climate, it is the location of Hazara University
and also contains
colleges and many good schools.The First primary school in the district was
established in 1872 in Behali
Almost at the same time in Baffa and in 1892 in
- Starting in 1997, Agahi has established several community-owned schools
in villages in Mansehra district, a commercial academy and a
teacher training center. In each village, a Community Based
Organization (CBO), composed of parents, is responsible for the
over all management of the school. A School Management Committee
(SMC), a sub-committee of active members of this CBO, handles daily
operational issues, motivates parents to enroll their children in
the school and identifies village-based teachers. Agahi uses best
practices of learner-centered education with small classes, 50%
girl ratio and village-based women teachers with ongoing teacher
skills upgrading, mentoring and monitoring.
International Public School or MIPS, was founded in 1995 by
Engr Sher Afzal Khan Swati, who served as a Member Advisory
Committee to Governor of NWFP. He later hired some of the teachers
from different areas in his school. The school is now administrated
by Engr Sher Afzal Khan Swati and Faisal Khan Swati.
like many others in Mansehra, is divided into separate sections for boys and
girls. Both the school and the college provide boarding.
Currently, there are over 750 students
studying in the school from all across Pakistan. The college enrols roughly 400
- Sky International Public School
- Mansehra Public School
- Khyber public School
- Hazara convent
- Iqra collegiate
- Al Quran
- All Government Higher Secondary school
- Government High school Baffa , Bherkund , Khaki, Pherhina
- GGC GBC Mansehra also famous in district
- The Educators - Main Mansehra Campus (Baidra Road) and Ibra
Pre-School Campus (Shah Rah-e-resham)
- Islamia Public School & College Mansehra (The Oldest
private instiute in Mansehra)
- SDC Khaki mansehra. SDC khaki mansehra is powered by TUSDEC
(Technology Upgradation and Skill Development Company) and Federal
Government to enhance the Technical Capbilities of the habitant of
the Area. SDC khaki Offer many course which are absolutely free of
cost on the successful completion then course SDC khaki Rewards a
Certificate from the Approval Of PIDC (Pakistan Industrial
Development Corporation) Pakistan. Courses Offered: Civil,
Electricians, Electrical Supervisiors, Plumbing, Welding, Tourism,
Trekking, Hotel Management, F & B productions, Computer
Courtesy Driving, English, Motor rewinding. Also Advance diploma in
Hotel managment and tourism is introduced.
- The Educators was founded by Col Afteb S Ahmed(R),LT Col
Salahuddin Swati(R) and Maj Tanvir Anwar(R) in 2003. Currently,
there are about 800 students in the school.
- Pak International public school is the old and major school of
Hadobandi village .Malik Nadeem khan Tanoli is the first principal
of this school pak international school plays an important role in
largest river is the Kunhar
River, also known as the Kunnar (not to
be confused with the Kunar River of the
District). The river is the gateway to the Kaghan Valley and runs through Balakot.Siran is a largest
river in the area of Pakhhal it comes from
mountain namely Musa Da Masalla and
ends in the lake of Tarbela
The district consists of three tehsils
are divided into 58 Union Councils, and two PATA
- Kala Dhaka (PATA)
- Upper Tanawal
area of Hazara Division. (Former Princely State of Amb)
Balakot Tehsil consists of 16 Union Councils:
consists of 33 Union
Tehsil Oghi consists of 11 Union Councils:
The district is represented in the provincial
assembly by six elected MPAs who represent the following
- PF-53 (Mansehra-1)
- PF-54 (Mansehra-2)
- PF-55 (Mansehra-3)
- PF-56 (Mansehra-4)
- PF-57 (Mansehra-5)
- PF-58 (Mansehra-6)
Mansehra is home to a diverse group of people, including Gujjars, Pashtuns, Paharis, Hindkowans,
Punjabis, Kashmiris, Sayyids, Karlugh Turks and Afghan refugees among many other ethnic
groups. Its population in 1998 was 1,152,839.
- On Alexander's Track to the Indus By Aurel Stein, Published by
B. Blom, 1972, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized
2 Sep 2008, 182 pages
- Allen 2001, p. 139.
- In a letter dated; Peshawar, 10th December 1858, from Lt.Col.
H. B. Edwards, Commissioner and Supdt, Peshawar Division, to the
Financial Commissioner of the Punjab. extracted from 'A Collection
of Papers realting to the HIstory, Status and Powers of The Nawab
of Amb, pg 83,Published 1874, Punjab Secretariat
- letter dated 21st March 1863. From T. D. Forsyth, Officiating
Secretary to the Government Punjab to Secretary to the Governemnt
of India, Foreign Department, Collection of Papers Relating To The
HISTORY, STATUS AND POWERS Of THE CHIEF OF AMB, 97 Pages, Published
1874, Punjab Secretariat, pg 58
- Quaid-I-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah Papers: First Series, Volume
III: On the Threshold of Pakistan, July 1 - July 25, 1947 By
Mahomed Ali Jinnah, Z. H. Zaidi Contributor Z. H. Zaidi Edition:
illustrated Published by Oxford University Press, 1997 Original
from the University of Michigan Digitized 29 Aug 2008 ISBN
9698156070, 9789698156077 1120 pages
- Frontier of faith: Islam in the Indo-Afghan borderland By Sana
Haroon Edition: illustrated Published by Columbia University Press,
2008 ISBN 023170013X, 9780231700139 254 pages
- Tehsils & Unions in the District of Mansehra -
Government of Pakistan
- Constituencies and MPAs - Website of the Provincial
Assembly of the NWFP
- 1998 Census of Pakistan