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Makra Peak
Mansehra District ( ) is in the North-West Frontier Provincemarker of Pakistanmarker, which contains the town of Mansehramarker and the Kaghan Valley area (a popular tourist destination in Pakistanmarker). The Karakoram Highwaymarker passes through the district.

History

Alexander the Great & Ashoka

Alexander the Great, after conquering parts of Punjab, established his rule over a large part of Mansehra District. In 327 B.C., Alexander handed this area over to Abisaras (Αβισαρης), the Raja of the Poonch state. Mansehra remained a part of Taxilamarker during the rule of the Maurya dynasty. Ashoka was the Governor of this area when he was a prince, after the death of Ashoka’s father, Bindusara, Ashoka inherited the throne and ruled this area as well as Gandhara. Today, the famous edicts of Ashoka, inscribed on three rocks near Bareri Hill, serve as evidence of his rule. These edicts also show that this area was a famous religious centre for pilgrims. The name Mansehra is a modified form of the name Maan Singh, who once ruled over this area.

The Tanoli territory of Amb State has also been part of Mansehra District, since the State was abolished by the Government of Pakistan in 1969. Amb and its surrounding areas of Hazara have a long history which can be traced to Alexander the Great's invasion of India. Arrian, Alexander's historian, did not indicate the exact location of Embolina, but since it is known that Aoronos was on the right bank of the River Indus, the town chosen to serve as Alexander's base of supplies may with good reason be also looked for there. The mention in Ptolemy's Geography of Embolima as a town of Indo-Scythia situated on the Indus supports this theory.

In 1854 General Abbott, the British frontier officer from whom Abbottabad, administrative centre of Hazara, takes its name, discussed his location of Aornos on the Mahaban range south of Buner. He proposed, as M. Court, one of Ranjit Singh's Frenchmarker generals had done before him in 1839, to recognize Embolima in the present village of Amb situated on the right bank of the Indus. It lies about eight miles to the east of Mahaban and is the place from which the Nawabs of Amb take their title.

Hindu Shahi dynasty & Kashmiris

In the 2nd century CE, a mythical Hindu king Raja Risalu, son of Raja Salbahan of Sialkotmarker, brought the area under his control. The local people consider him as their hero and, even today, parents tell their children the stories of Raja Risalu and his wife Rani Konklan on winter nights. When a Chinese pilgrim, Hiun-Tsang, visited this area, it was under the control of Durlabhavardhana, the ruler of Kashmirmarker.

The Turkish Shahi and Hindu Shahi Dynasties ruled Mansehra one after another. Among the Hindu Shahi dynasty rulers, Raja Jayapala is the best known. Mehmood of Ghazni defeated Raja Jayapala during his first Indian campaign. However, there is no historical evidence that Mehmood of Ghazni ever visited or passed through Mansehra. After the fall of Hindu Shahi dynasty, in the 11th century, the Kashmiris took control of this area under the leadership of Kalashan (1063 to 1089). From 1112 to 1120, King Susala ruled this area. In the 12th century, Asalat Khan captured this area but soon after Mohammad of Ghor's death the Kashmiris once again regained control of Mansehra.

Turkish rule

In 1399, the great Muslim warrior Timur, on his return to Kabulmarker, stationed his Turk soldiers in Manshera to protect the important route between Kabul and Kashmir. By 1472, Prince Shahab-ud-Din came from Kabul and established his rule over the region. Prince Shahab-ud-Din, a Turk of central Asian origin, founded the state and named it Pakhli Sarkar and chose Village Gulibagh as his capital. During the Mughal rule, these local Turkish chiefs acknowledged Mughal authority. In fact, Mansehra (Pakhli) provided the main route to Kashmir and was the most commonly used route for Emperor Akbar to travel to Kashmir. During the last days of Emperor Akbar's rule, the Turkish Chief Sultan Hussain Khan revolted against the Mughals. He claimed that the Mughals were interfering with his internal affairs. After this complaint, he was exiled by the Mughals, but later was pardoned and given back his land. Now, descendants of these Turkish rulers live in village Behalimarker and some other villages of Mansehra, Abbottabad, and Haripur districts.
Akbar as a boy around 1557


Sikh Rule

Turkish rule came to an end due to the increased aggression of the Pashtuns and their allied forces. In 1703, the Turks came under attack by the Swati under the leadership of Syed Jalal Baba, who was son in law of last Turkish ruler of Hazara, (Sultan Memud Khurd) took benefit of absence of his father in law and with the help of Swaties succeeded to overthrow the Turks from the throne of Pakhli Sarkar.The Turks were pushed towards the mountainous areas of Tanawel (Behali) and other parts of Hazara, including Haripur (Manakrai). The Turks remained in control of certain small areas, assuming the title of Raja. Raja Amanulla of Manakrai, Haripur, one of the descendants of the Turkish rulers of Hazara, rose to prominence during post-independence era, when he became the Speaker of the NWFP assembly in 1985.

When Ahmad Shah Durrani expanded his kingdom to Punjab, Mansehra also came under his control. Durrani considered it wise to rule the area through local tribal chiefs, like Saadat Khan of Garhi Habibullah. Saadat Khan was such an authoritative man amongst Swati, even disputed matters of Jadoons and Tannolis had been sent to him for rectification through jirgas . The Durranis ruled ended abruptly in the beginning of the 18th century.

The Tanolis had already established their authority over Tannawal and thus Tannawal was never annexed by the Durranis. The voluminous Urdu copy of the settlement report of Hazara compiled by Major Wace in 1872 contains many passages in its historical resume of the area. In a number of maps drawn at the time and enclosed in the report, showing Hazara under the Mughals and under the Durranis, the Amb state has been shown as Mulk-i-Tanawal. The original existence of that Mulk is as old as the middle period of the great Afghan invasions of India. Their leader Nawab Khan (Father of Painda Khan) never accepted the Durrani Rule and used to heavily tax the Durrani caravans which passed through the Mulk-e-Tanawal. He defeated the Durranis in battle but met his death at the hands of Sardar Azim Khan Durrani in 1818, who invited him to his camp and killed him by treachery. Upper Tanawal (mostly now in prsent day District Mansehra) and Lower Tanawal(mostly now in present day district Haripur), covering the greater part of Hazara, have been ruled by Tanolis for centuries.

The fall of the Durranis led way for the Sikhs to rise to power under Ranjit Singh. The Sikhs gained control of Mansehra in 1818, after stiff resistance from its inhabitants. When Mansehra fell under Sikh control, it was annexed to Punjab. Syed Ahmad Shaheed, with the help of the Mujahadeen, led many revolts and attacks against the Sikhs. At last, in 1831 during a fierce battle at Balakotmarker, Syed Ahmad Shaheed was killed. This allowed the Sikhs to consolidate their control of Mansehra. After Rajit Singh's death, the Sikh empire began to disintegrate. At this time, the British gained control of Punjab, and, through this, gained control of Mansehra.

Painda Khan Tanoli was the tribal chief of the Tanolis at the time of the invasion of Hazara by the Sikhs. Painda Khan is famed for his staunch rebellion against Maharaja Ranjit Singh's Governors of Hazara. From about 1813, he spent a life long rebellion against the Sikhs. Painda Khan's relentless rebellion against the Sikh empire, cost him a major portion of his Kingdom, leaving only his twin capitals Amb and Darband. However, this deterred him less and appeared to increase his resistance against the Sikh government.

Painda Khan son Jehandad Khan also followed the footsteps of his famed father. "Of all the tribal chiefs of Hazara, the most powerful said to be Jehandad Khan of the Tanoli, whose land straddled both banks of the Indus and whose fellow-tribesmen were 'brave and hardy and accounted for the best swordsmen in Hazara'.

When Sikh power was on the fall in 1845 Jehandad Khan blockaded the garrisons of no less than 22 Sikh posts in Upper Tanawal ; and when they surrendered at discretion, he spared their lives, as the servants of a fallen Empire.

In the meantime other Chiefs of Hazara rushed to arms to exterminate the Sikhs who were in their country. They invited Syud Akbur, of Sitana (after wards king of Swat), to come over and be King of Hazara, and make a holy war with them. Nawab Khan of Thingri, became Syad Akbur's "Wazir", Pir Khan came down to join with the Jaduns, Khan i Zeman brought the Tarkheylies; the Swatis of Publi, and the Mushwanis, swelled the tumult. For two months they besieged Diwan Mulraj, the Kardar, in the fort of Hurkishengarh; and at last, after several gallant repulses, reduced the garrison to evacuate by cutting off the water.

On 19 March, 1846, a peace treaty was signed between the Sikhs and the British according to which Raja Gulab Singh took Kashmir and Hazara from the British for 75,00,000 rupees. But due to widespread civil disorder and resistance movement Raja asked the British government to take over Hazara in exchange of the Jamu-Jehlum belt. The British accepted this offer and took over Hazara from him. They deputed James Abbot to Hazara to restore peace. He defeated Chuttar Singh, a Sikh general, after coming to Hazara and thus completely ousted the Sikhs from power.

British rule

By 1849, the British had gained control of all of Mansehra. However, the western Pashtun tribes remained rebellious. These tribes included the clans of Allai Valley, and(batagram) the Nandhiar Valley, and the tribes inhabiting both slopes of the Black Mountain of Hazara.

In 1852, after three years of relative peace, Zaman Shah of Kaghan turned against the British. James Abbot sent an expedition to Kaghan which deprived Zaman Shah of his territory and he was exiled to Pakhli plain. After four years the British forgave him and he was permitted to get back his lost territory.

However, the British sent many expeditions against the Pashtun tribes to crush the rebellion between 1852 and 1892, especially against the Black Mountains.

To maintain peace in the area the British also took preventive measures by co-opting the local rulers.

The British divided Hazara District into three Tehsils (administrative subdivisions) : Mansehra, Abbottabadmarker, andHaripurmarker; and decided to annex it to the Punjab. In 1901, when the North-West Frontier Provincemarker (NWFP) was formed, Hazara was separated from Punjab and made a part of NWFP. Throughout their rule in Mansehra, the British met fierce resistance from the local Pashtun tribes and declared martial law. Meanwhile, the people of Mansehra's many villages largely governed themselves. Many of Mansehra's citizens joined the Khilafat movement.

The British accepted the Independence of the Nawab of Amb; within his own territory and thus no writ of the British Government, civil or criminal, was ever enacted within the Tanoli State of Amb. The smaller Tanoli State of Phulra, which was granted by Painda Khan to his brother Madad Khan, was also ackhnowledged by the Britishers as a semi-independent Princely State. Thus the British Government agreed not to meddle with the affairs of the Tanoli territory of Hazara, with the mutual understanding that the Tanolis would not attack the British controlled territories.

When the Muslim League in Pakistan started its movement for a separate land, the local people joined and struggled for liberation under the leadership of Quaid-i-Azam . Their eventual victory culminated in the creation of Pakistanmarker, an independent state for the Muslims of the sub-continent.

Nawab Sir Muhammad Farid Khan (K.B.E) of the Amb State had very good relations with The Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Nawabzada Liaqat Ali Khan. His contributions to the Pakistan movement have been acknowledged by letters from The Quaid e Azam. In 1947 the Nawab of Amb, Mohammad Farid Khan, acceded to Pakistan by signing the Instrument of Accession of his State, in favour of Pakistan. In 1969, the State was incorporated into the North-West Frontier Province and in 1971 the royal status of the Nawab was abolished by the Government of Pakistan.


During Bhutto's regime, Mansehra was upgraded to a district, containing two subdivisions: Mansehra and Batagrammarker. Later, the Mansehra district had the Balakotmarker subdivision added to it.

Swatis were given places by Turks in Hazara so that they can protect the valley from the foreign attacks. There was no fight between Turks and Swatis, Turks remained popular.

Geography

Batgram, Mansehra
Mansehra is located at the eastern border of the North-West Frontier Provincemarker, two hours away from Peshawarmarker and three hours away from Islamabadmarker. The district is located at 34° - 12' and 35° - 50' and 47° - 07' longitude. It is closely linked to Afghanistan in the west, which has increased the number of Afghan refugees in Mansehra over the past years.

The district of Mansehra has been blessed with wonderful scenery. Some of Mansehra's main features are mountain ranges, plains, valleys, and numerous lakes and rivers.

Bordering districts

Mansehra shares its borders with numerous other districts: the Kohistanmarker and Diamir districts to the north, Abbottabad Districtmarker to the south, the Neelum District of Azad Kashmirmarker to the west, and the Swatmarker district to the east and Batagram District to the northeast.

Lakes

There are three lakes in the district: Lulusar Lake, Dudipatsarmarker Lake and Saiful Mulukmarker Lake. All three are located in the beautiful Kaghan Valley and act as a mirror reflecting the snow-clad mountains surrounding them.

Lulusar Lake is approximately 48 kilometres away from Naran and has an altitude of 3325 meters. Surrounded by wildflowers in almost all colours imaginable, this lake is the main source for the Kunhar Rivermarker. Lake Lulusar is said to be one of the most tranquil spots on the Kaghan Valley, the lake is fenced by snowcapped mountains whose image is reflected on the standstill blue-green waters of the lake.

Dudipat Lake is enclosed with beautiful, high, snow-drizzled peaks, it is one of the hardest places to reach, requiring a tough hike lasting four to seven hours. The hike is rewarding, as tourists are greeted with green pastures and the lake's blue-green waters.

The most famous of the district's many lakes is Lake Saiful Mulukmarker, named in a folktale—the Qissa Saiful Muluk—about a romance between a Persia prince and a fairy princess. In the folktale, the lake was the meeting site for the two lovers. Lake Saiful Muluk is located at the northern end of the Kaghan valley. At an altitude of above sea level, it is one of the highest lakes in Pakistan. The water is spectacularly clear with a slight green tone. It is accessible by a jeep road during the summer months or can be hiked up from the village below in four to six hours. The clarity of the water comes from the multiple glaciers all around the high basin feeding the lake.

Education

Mansehra is considered a good place for education because of its natural beauty and climate, it is the location of Hazara University and also contains colleges and many good schools.The First primary school in the district was established in 1872 in Behalimarker village. Almost at the same time in Baffa and in 1892 in Mansehra city.


Schools

Starting in 1997, Agahi has established several community-owned schools in villages in Mansehra district, a commercial academy and a teacher training center. In each village, a Community Based Organization (CBO), composed of parents, is responsible for the over all management of the school. A School Management Committee (SMC), a sub-committee of active members of this CBO, handles daily operational issues, motivates parents to enroll their children in the school and identifies village-based teachers. Agahi uses best practices of learner-centered education with small classes, 50% girl ratio and village-based women teachers with ongoing teacher skills upgrading, mentoring and monitoring.


Mansehra International Public School or MIPS, was founded in 1995 by Engr Sher Afzal Khan Swati, who served as a Member Advisory Committee to Governor of NWFP. He later hired some of the teachers from different areas in his school. The school is now administrated by Engr Sher Afzal Khan Swati and Faisal Khan Swati.
MIPS, like many others in Mansehramarker, is divided into separate sections for boys and girls. Both the school and the college provide boarding. Currently, there are over 750 students studying in the school from all across Pakistanmarker. The college enrols roughly 400 students.


  • Sky International Public School
  • Mansehra Public School
  • Khyber public School
  • Hazara convent
  • Iqra collegiate
  • Al Quran
  • All Government Higher Secondary school
  • Government High school Baffa , Bherkund , Khaki, Pherhina
  • GGC GBC Mansehra also famous in district
  • The Educators - Main Mansehra Campus (Baidra Road) and Ibra Pre-School Campus (Shah Rah-e-resham)
  • Islamia Public School & College Mansehra (The Oldest private instiute in Mansehra)


  • SDC Khaki mansehra. SDC khaki mansehra is powered by TUSDEC (Technology Upgradation and Skill Development Company) and Federal Government to enhance the Technical Capbilities of the habitant of the Area. SDC khaki Offer many course which are absolutely free of cost on the successful completion then course SDC khaki Rewards a Certificate from the Approval Of PIDC (Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation) Pakistan. Courses Offered: Civil, Electricians, Electrical Supervisiors, Plumbing, Welding, Tourism, Trekking, Hotel Management, F & B productions, Computer Courtesy Driving, English, Motor rewinding. Also Advance diploma in Hotel managment and tourism is introduced.


The Educators was founded by Col Afteb S Ahmed(R),LT Col Salahuddin Swati(R) and Maj Tanvir Anwar(R) in 2003. Currently, there are about 800 students in the school.
  • Pak International public school is the old and major school of Hadobandi village .Malik Nadeem khan Tanoli is the first principal of this school pak international school plays an important role in hadobandi village


Rivers

The largest river is the Kunhar Rivermarker, also known as the Kunnar (not to be confused with the Kunar River of the Chitral Districtmarker). The river is the gateway to the Kaghan Valley and runs through Balakotmarker.Siran is a largest river in the area of Pakhhal it comes from mountain namely Musa Da Masalla and ends in the lake of Tarbela Dammarker.

Administration

Subdivisions

The district consists of three tehsils, which are divided into 58 Union Councils, and two PATA (Provincially Administered Tribal Areas):

  1. Balakot
  2. Mansehramarker
  3. Oghi
  4. Kala Dhaka (PATA)
  5. Upper Tanawal area of Hazara Division. (Former Princely State of Amb) (PATA)


Balakot

Balakot Tehsil consists of 16 Union Councils:


Mansehra

Mansehra Tehsil consists of 33 Union Councils:



Oghi

Tehsil Oghi consists of 11 Union Councils:























Constituencies

The district is represented in the provincial assembly by six elected MPAs who represent the following constituencies:

  • PF-53 (Mansehra-1)
  • PF-54 (Mansehra-2)
  • PF-55 (Mansehra-3)
  • PF-56 (Mansehra-4)
  • PF-57 (Mansehra-5)
  • PF-58 (Mansehra-6)


Demographics

Mansehra is home to a diverse group of people, including Gujjars, Pashtuns, Paharis, Hindkowans, Rajputs, Maliars, Punjabis, Kashmiris, Sayyids, Karlugh Turks and Afghan refugees among many other ethnic groups. Its population in 1998 was 1,152,839.

References

  1. On Alexander's Track to the Indus By Aurel Stein, Published by B. Blom, 1972, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized 2 Sep 2008, 182 pages
  2. Allen 2001, p. 139.
  3. In a letter dated; Peshawar, 10th December 1858, from Lt.Col. H. B. Edwards, Commissioner and Supdt, Peshawar Division, to the Financial Commissioner of the Punjab. extracted from 'A Collection of Papers realting to the HIstory, Status and Powers of The Nawab of Amb, pg 83,Published 1874, Punjab Secretariat
  4. letter dated 21st March 1863. From T. D. Forsyth, Officiating Secretary to the Government Punjab to Secretary to the Governemnt of India, Foreign Department, Collection of Papers Relating To The HISTORY, STATUS AND POWERS Of THE CHIEF OF AMB, 97 Pages, Published 1874, Punjab Secretariat, pg 58
  5. Quaid-I-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah Papers: First Series, Volume III: On the Threshold of Pakistan, July 1 - July 25, 1947 By Mahomed Ali Jinnah, Z. H. Zaidi Contributor Z. H. Zaidi Edition: illustrated Published by Oxford University Press, 1997 Original from the University of Michigan Digitized 29 Aug 2008 ISBN 9698156070, 9789698156077 1120 pages
  6. Frontier of faith: Islam in the Indo-Afghan borderland By Sana Haroon Edition: illustrated Published by Columbia University Press, 2008 ISBN 023170013X, 9780231700139 254 pages
  7. Tehsils & Unions in the District of Mansehra - Government of Pakistan
  8. Constituencies and MPAs - Website of the Provincial Assembly of the NWFP
  9. 1998 Census of Pakistan


External links




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