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Marble.


Marble is a non foliated metamorphic rock resulting from the metamorphism of limestone, composed mostly of calcite (a crystalline form of calcium carbonate, CaCO3). It is extensively used for sculpture, as a building material, and in many other applications.

Etymology



The word "marble" derives from the Ancient Greek μάρμαρον (mármaron) or μάρμαρος (mármaros), "crystalline rock", "shining stone", perhaps from the verb μαρμαίρω (marmaírō), "to flash, sparkle, gleam". This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal, meaning "marble-like."

Origins

Marble is a metamorphic rock resulting from regional or, rarely, contact metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks (either limestone or dolomite rock) or metamorphism of older marble. This metamorphic process causes a complete recrystallization of the original rock into an interlocking mosaic of calcite, aragonite and/or dolomite crystals. The temperatures and pressures necessary to form marble usually destroy any fossils and sedimentary textures present in the original rock.

Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of very pure limestones. The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay, silt, sand, iron oxides, or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism.

Types

Historically notable marble varieties and locations:

Marble name Color Location Country
Macael marble white Macaelmarker,(Almeriamarker) Spainmarker
Carrara marblemarker white or blue-gray Carraramarker Italymarker
Parian marble Fine-grained pure-white Island of Parosmarker Greecemarker
Penteli marble Fine-grained semitranslucent pure-white Penteliko Mountainmarker, Athensmarker Greecemarker
Rouge de Rance Red Rancemarker Belgiummarker
Macedonian Bianco Sivec White Prilepmarker Republic of Macedoniamarker
Tennessee marble Pale pink to cedar-red Knoxmarker, Blountmarker and Hawkins Countiesmarker, Tennesseemarker United Statesmarker
Yule Marble Uniform pure white Marble, Coloradomarker United Statesmarker
Murphy Marble White Pickensmarker and Gilmer Counties, Georgiamarker United Statesmarker


Uses

Sculpture

White marbles have been prized for sculpture since classical times. This preference has to do with the softness and relative isotropy and homogeneity, and a relative resistance to shattering. Also, the low index of refraction of calcite allows light to penetrate several millimeters into the stone before being scattered out, resulting in the characteristic "waxy" look which gives "life" to marble sculptures of the human body.

Construction marble

Construction marble is a stone which is composed of calcite, dolomite or serpentine which is capable of taking a polish. More generally in construction, specifically the dimension stone trade, the term "marble" is used for any crystalline calcitic rock (and some non-calcitic rocks) useful as building stone. For example, Tennessee marble is really a dense granular fossiliferous gray to pink to maroon Ordovician limestone that geologists call the Holston Formation.

Industrial use

Blocks of cut marble at the historic mill in Marble, Colorado.
Colorless or light-colored marbles are a very pure source of calcium carbonate, which is used in a wide variety of industries. Finely ground marble or calcium carbonate powder is a component in paper, and in consumer products such as toothpaste, plastics, and paints. Ground calcium carbonate can be made from limestone, chalk, and marble; about three-quarters of the ground calcium carbonate worldwide is made from marble. Ground calcium carbonate is used as a coating pigment for paper because of its high brightness and as a paper filler because it strengthens the sheet and imparts high brightness. Ground calcium carbonate is used in consumer products such as a food additive, in toothpaste, and as an inert filler in pills. It is used in plastics because it imparts stiffness, impact strength, dimensional stability, and thermal conductivity. It is used in paints because it is a good filler and extender, has high brightness, and is weather resistant. However, the growth in demand for ground calcium carbonate in the last decade has mostly been for a coating pigment in paper.

Calcium carbonate can also be reduced under high heat to calcium oxide (also known as "lime"), which has many applications including being a primary component of many forms of cement.


Production

According to the United States Geological Survey, U.S. dimension marble production in 2006 was 46,400 tons valued at $18.1 million, compared to 72,300 tons valued at $18.9 million in 2005. Crushed marble production (for aggregate and industrial uses) in 2006 was 11.8 million tons valued at $116 million, of which 6.5 million tons was finely ground calcium carbonate and the rest was construction aggregate. For comparison, 2005 crushed marble production was 7.76 million tons valued at $58.7 million, of which 4.8 million tons was finely ground calcium carbonate and the rest was construction aggregate. U.S. dimension marble demand is about 1.3 million tons. The DSAN World Demand for (finished) Marble Index has shown a growth of 12% annually for the 2000-2006 period, compared to 10.5% annually for the 2000–2005 period. The largest dimension marble application is tile.

Artificial marble

Marble dust is combined with cement or synthetic resins to make reconstituted or cultured marble. The appearance of marble can be simulated with faux marbling, a painting technique that imitates the stone's color patterns.

Cultural associations

Marble from Italy.
As the favorite medium for Greek and Roman sculptors and architects (see classical sculpture), marble has become a cultural symbol of tradition and refined taste. Its extremely varied and colorful patterns make it a favorite decorative material, and it is often imitated in background patterns for computer displays, etc.

Places named after the stone include Marbleheadmarker, Ohiomarker; Marble Archmarker, London; the Sea of Marmaramarker; India's Marble Rocks; and the towns of Marble, Minnesotamarker; Marble, Coloradomarker; and Marble Hill, Manhattan, New Yorkmarker. The Elgin Marbles are marble sculptures from the Parthenonmarker that are on display in the British Museummarker. They were brought to Britain by the Earl of Elgin.

See also



References

  1. Marble, Compact Oxford English Dictionary
  2. Marble Institute of America pp. 223 Glossary


External links




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