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Marinera norteña, one type of marinera dance.


Marinera is a coastal dance of Perumarker, generally called the "National Dance of Peru." Marinera is a graceful and romantic couple's dance that uses handkerchiefs as props. The dance is an elegant and stylized reenactment of a courtship, and it shows a blend of the different cultures of Peru. The dance itself has gained a lot of recognition and is one of the most popular traditional dances of Peru. Ever since the 1960s, during the month of January, in the city of Trujillomarker a National Contest of Marinera Nortena is held.

The origin of the Marinera is generally traced back to the Zamacueca. Nevertheless, there are various other theories about where it comes from. Traditional accompaniment for the dance is provided by a cajón, guitars and bugle.

History

The exact origin of the dance is unknown, but it is an unmistakable blend of , Spanish, Moorish, Andean, and Gypsy rhythm influences. Though the marinera dance style had been around for centuries in Peru, it gained the name "marinera" in honor of the Peruvian Navy or the Marina de Guerra del Peru in 1879 when Peru entered war against Chile. The former name of the dance was "chilena" due to the friendly situations between the two nations , but due to the hostile situation, in a patriotic moment, it was agreed to be renamed.

During the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, the dance was named "la chilena" due to its similarity to the Chilean cueca.

According to Peruvian historian Romulo Cuneo Vidal, the zamacueca was itself a dance of rest during the times of the Inca empire (And in some Pre-Inca cultures). Thus, coming from such a far natively Peruvian background, the dance is itself simply a derivation of an ancient Peruvian dance. What helps validate this statement are the ancient huacos depicting people resting in the zamacueca positions.

The first Marinera to be written in musical notation was La Concheperla of Abelardo Gamarra and Jose Alvarado, by Rosa Mercedes Ayarza de Morales in 1894.

Creation Theories

Peruvian proposal

The claim coming from Peru is that the dance is exclusively Peruvian. According to Peruvian historian Rómulo Cúneo Vidal, the zamacueca was itself a dance of rest during the times of the Inca empire (And in some Pre-Inca cultures). Thus, coming from such a far natively Peruvian background, the dance is itself simply a derivation of an ancient Peruvian dance. A fact that may validate this statement are the ancient huacos depicting people resting in zamacueca positions.

African proposal

The African claim is that the Marinera has African roots. African slaves in South America danced the "Zamba culeca," a dance which later was renamed as the "Zamacueca." Thus, since the "Zamacueca" derives from African roots, then all dances that derive from it are also of African descent.

Hispanic proposal

Some favor the idea that the ballroom dances of the days of the Viceroyalty (Brought from Europe) are what later evolved into the Latin American dances such as the Marinera. According to its supporters, the European rhythms such as "Fandango" and "Cashuas" led to the creation of the Chilean Sajuriana, the Venezuelan Zambo, the Argentine Cielo Gaucho, the Mexican Tas-be, the Colombian Bambuco, the Ecuadorian Amor Fino, and the Peruvian Toro Mata.

Varieties

Peruvian Paso.


Different schools and dancing styles of the Marinera exist, based on location. There are Marinera dance academies all over Peru, and competitions are frequently held. The most important competition is the National Competition of the Marinera (Concurso Nacional de Marinera) held during the National Festival of the Marinera (Festival Nacional de Marinera), held in Trujillomarker, every January.

The three main variations are the Marinera Limeña, the Marinera Norteña, and the Marinera Serrana. Sometimes the Marinera is danced with a Chalan mounted on a Peruvian Paso (The horse dancing, and the Chalan directing it).

Marinera Limeña

This Marinera is elegant and a little slow-paced in comparisson to other variations. The dance can be interpreted in low or high tones. The Marinera of contrapunto or "canto de jarana" usually consists of three Marineras, Resbalosa (Slippery), and a succession of "fugas" (Escapes).

Nowadays, the Marinera Limeña seems to be becoming overshadowed by the Marinera Norteña, because of its popular qualities. Nevertheless, the dance still has a small number of fans that dance it during October fests or during the anniversary of Limamarker.

Marinera Norteña

This Marinera had its origins in the Tondero of Piuramarker. It acquired characteristics of the Marinera Limeña, and soon enough it became a new variation of the dance. The dance itself tends to be quick-paced and though not as "elegant" as the Limeña, it can also be very stylish. Even though the dance originated in the Northern coasts of the country, it has become quite popular throughout Peru.

It is thanks to that popularity that the Marinera is considered the National Dance of Peru, along with the Peruvian Waltz.

Marinera Serrana

This Marinera is typical from the highland and mountain regions of Peru. It usually has a minor tone and is characterized by a slower movement. This marinera is also repeated twice, and then is followed by a "fuga de huayno". The second part is more sentimental than the first one.

See also



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