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Marquette is a city in the U.S. state of Michiganmarker and the county seat of Marquette Countymarker. The population was 19,661 at the 2000 census. Marquette is a major port on Lake Superiormarker, primarily for shipping iron ore and is the home of Northern Michigan Universitymarker. It is the largest city of the Upper Peninsulamarker. The city of Marquette averages about 144 inches of snow per year, making it the second snowiest city in the contiguous United States among those cities large enough to be reported.

History

The land around Marquette was known to French missionaries of the early 17th century and the trappers of the early 19th century. Development of the area did not begin, however, until 1844, when William Burt and Jacob Houghton (the brother of geologist Douglass Houghton) discovered iron deposits near Teal Lake west of Marquette. In 1845, Jackson Mining Company, the first organized mining company in the region, was formed.

The village of Marquette began on September 14, 1849, with the formation of a second iron concern, the Marquette Iron Company. Three men participated in organizing the firm: Robert J. Graveraet, who had prospected the region for ore; Edward Clark, agent for Waterman A. Fisher of Worcester, Massachusettsmarker, who financed the company, and Amos Rogers Harlow. The village was at first called New Worcester, with Harlow as the first postmaster. On August 21, 1850, the name was changed to honor Jacques Marquette, the French Jesuit missionary who had explored the region. A second post office, named Carp River, was opened on October 13, 1851 by Peter White, who had come there with Graveraet at age 18. Harlow closed his post office in August 1852. The Marquette Iron Company failed, while its successor, the Cleveland Iron Mining Company, flourished and had the village platted in 1854. The plat was recorded by Peter White. White's office was renamed as Marquette in April 1856, and the village was incorporated in 1859. It was incorporated as a city in 1871.

The Lake Superior & Ishpeming Railroad Ore dock, in Upper Harbor, is still in use.


During the 1850s, Marquette was linked by rail to numerous mines and became the leading shipping center of the Upper Peninsula. The first ore pocket dock, designed by an early town leader, John Burt, was built by the Cleveland Iron Mining Company in 1859. By 1862, the city had a population of over 1,600 and a soaring economy.

In the late 19th century, during the height of iron mining, Marquette became nationally known as a summer haven. Visitors brought in by Great Lakes passenger steamships filled the city's hotels and resorts.

South of the city, K.I.marker Sawyer AFBmarker, was an important Air Force installation during the Cold War, host to B-52H bombers and KC-135 tankers of the Strategic Air Command, as well as a fighter interceptor squadron. The base closed in September 1995, and is now the county's Sawyer International Airportmarker.

Marquette continues to be a shipping port for hematite ores and, today, enriched iron ore pellets, from nearby mines and pelletizing plants. About 7.9 million gross tons of pelletized iron ore passed through Marquette's Presque Isle Harbor in 2005.

St. Peter Cathedral
The Roman Catholic Bishop Frederic Baraga is buried at St. Peter's Cathedral, which is the center for the Diocese of Marquette.

Postal and philatelic history

In addition to the Marquette #1 Post Office there is the "Northern Michigan University Bookstore Contract Station #384".

The first day of issue of a postal card showing Bishop Frederic Baraga took place in Marquette on 29 June 1984, and that of the Wonders of America Lake Superior stamp on May 27, 2006.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of , of which, of it is land and of it (41.09%) is water.

The city includes several small islands (principally Middle Island, Gull Island, Lover's Island, Presque Isle Pt. Rocks, White Rocks, Ripley Rock, and Picnic Rocks) in Lake Superior. The Marquette Underwater Preserve lies immediately offshore.

Marquette Mountainmarker, used for skiing, is located in the city, as is most of the land of Marquette Branch Prisonmarker of the Michigan Department of Corrections. Trowbridge Parkmarker (an unincorporated part of Marquette Township) is located to the west, and Marquette Townshipmarker to the northwest of the city.

Demographics

At the 2000 census , there were 19,661 people, 8,071 households and 4,067 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,723.9 per square mile (665.3/km²). There were 8,429 housing units at an average density of . The racial makeup of the city was 95% White, 0.8% African American, 1.7% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, and 1.33% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.77% of the population. 15.5% were of German, 12.6% Finnish, 8.9% French, 8.5% English, 8.2% Irish, 6.8% Italian and 6.7% Swedish ancestry according to Census 2000.

There were 8,071 households of which 23.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.2% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 49.6% were non-families. 37.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.81.

Age distribution was 16.8% under the age of 18, 25.9% from 18 to 24, 23.8% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, and 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.4 males.

The median household income was US$29,918, and the median family income was US$48,120. Males had a median income of US$34,107 versus US$24,549 for females. The per capita income for the city was US$17,787. About 7.2% of families and 17.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.3% of those under age 18 and 5.1% of those age 65 or over.

Business

Along with Northern Michigan Universitymarker, the largest employers in Marquette are the Marquette School System, Marquette General Hospital (a regional medical center which is the only Level 2 Trauma center in the Upper Peninsulamarker), the Michigan State Prison, Pioneer Surgical Technology, Charter Communications and The Mining Journal.

Marquette in film and literature

The Marquette County Courthouse was used for the courtroom scenes in the film, Anatomy of a Murder.
Robert Traver (John Voelker) set his novels Anatomy of a Murder (1958) and Laughing Whitefish (1965) in Marquette. The film version of Anatomy of a Murder, dramatizing an incident that happened in the area, was partly filmed in Marquette and Big Baymarker. However, much of it was filmed in the Marquette Countymarker Courthouse.

Danny and the Boys (1951) is a collection of short stories set in and around Marquette.

Philip Caputo set his novel Indian Country (1987) in the Upper Peninsula and several scenes depict Marquette.

Jim Harrison's novel True North (2005) tells about a Marquette family whose wealth is based on exploiting Upper Peninsula timber.

A large portion of the acclaimed graphic novel Blankets, by Craig Thompson, takes place in Marquette.

Marquette was the site of many key events in the investigation of a murder in Dave Distel's The Sweater Letter, a true story of a murder that occurred near Ontonagan.

Parks, sports and recreation

The city of Marquette has a number of parks and recreational facilities which are used by city and county residents. Presque Isle Park is Marquette's most popular park located on the north side of the city. It includes 323 acres (131 hectares) of mostly forested land and juts out into Lake Superior. The park was designed by Fredrick Law Olmsted, the same Olmsted that designed Central Park in New York. Amenities include a wooden band shell for concerts, a park pavilion, a gazebo, a marina, a concession stand, picnic tables, barbecue pits, walking/skiing trails, playground facilities, Moosewood Nature
Lake Superior shore at Presque Isle Park in winter


The city has two popular beaches, South Beach Park and McCarty's Cove. McCarty's Cove, flanked by the red U.S. Coast Guard Station lighthouse on its south shore, serves as a reprieve from hot summer days, where city and county residents alike take advantage of the cool, but tolerable, water temperatures and the cooling effects of the lake-generated sea breeze. Both beaches have picnic areas, grills, children's playgrounds and lifeguard stands.

Other parks include Tourist Park, Founder's Landing, LaBonte Park, Mattson Lower Harbor Park, Park Cemetery, Shiras Park, Williams Park, Harlow Park, Pocket Park, Spring Street Park and Father Marquette Park.

There are also numerous other recreational facilities located within the city. Lakeview Arena is best known for its use as an ice hockey facility, but it also hosts a number of public events. A skateboard park is located just outside of the arena and open during the summer. Lakeview Arena is home to the Marquette Rangers, Marquette Electricians, the Marquette Redmen high school hockey teams. In 1974, the arena replaced the historic Palestra, which had been located a few blocks away.

The Superior Dome.


Marquette has the largest man-made wooden dome in the world, the Superior Domemarker - unofficially but affectionately known as the YooperDome. (The second largest, located in Japan, is just one square foot smaller.) During the football season, the Dome is used primarily for football on its newly renovated astro turf field. The turf was installed in July of 2009. Northern Michigan University holds its home football games in the Dome, as does the Michigan High School Athletic Association with the upper peninsula's High School football playoffs. The dome also hosts numerous private and public events which draw in thousands from around the region.

The Marquette Golf Club has brought international recognition to the area for its unique and dramatic Greywalls course, opened in 2005. The course features several panoramic views of Lake Superior and winds its way through rocky outcroppings, heaving fairways and a rolling valley, yet is located less than two miles from the downtown area.

Marquette also has an extensive network of biking and walking paths throughout the city. The city has been gradually expanding the paths and has been promoting itself as a walkable and livable community. Cross Country ski trails are also located at Presque Isle Park and the Fit Strip.

Camping facilities are located at Tourist Park.

Live theatrical productions are provided through Northern Michigan University's Forest Roberts Theatre and Black Box Theatre, Marquette's Graverate School Kaufman Auditorium and Lake Superior Theatre, a semi-professional summer stock theatre.

The combination of hilly terrain (a 600 foot vertical difference from top to bottom) and large area snow falls makes downhill skiing a reality on the edge of town.

Panorama of Lower Harbor and downtown Marquette, from Lower Harbor Park.
The Lower Harbor Ore Dock is no longer in operation.


Transportation

Marquette is served by Sawyer International Airportmarker with daily flights to Chicagomarker, Detroitmarker, Milwaukeemarker and Minneapolismarker.

Marquette is served by a public transportation bus system called the "MarqTran" that runs through the city and to nearby places such as Sawyer International Airport and Ishpemingmarker.

Highways



The city is also known for fishing for deep water lake trout, whitefish, salmon and brown trout.

Museums, galleries, lighthouses

Marquette County History Museum
The Marquette Maritime Museum is located along the Lake Superior shoreline near the U.S. Coast Guard Station. The museum is open during the summer season and offers an extensive collection of maritime artifacts involving the maritime history of Marquette. Tours of the historic Marquette Harbor Lighthousemarker are also available; and just to the west of Marquette, the Big Bay Point Lightmarker is operated as a bed and breakfast.

The Upper Peninsula Children's Museum is located along Baraga Avenue. Those familiar with Marquette's past will recognize the former Bunny Bread sign that is located on the outside of the building. The museum features hands-on exhibits for children to learn and have fun doing so. The museum is open year-round.

The Marquette County History Museum is located along Front Street in the downtown district. The museum features many exhibits and artifacts of Marquette County's past. The museum includes a library and gift shop and is open year-round.

The DeVos Art Museum is the art museum at Northern Michigan University.

The Oasis Gallery for Contemporary Art is an ongoing project of the Marquette Arts Council.

Climate

Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Rec High °F 48 61 71 92 93 96 99 96 93 87 73 59
Norm High °F 19.7 24.2 33.1 45.8 61.5 70.3 75.2 72.6 63.2 50.9 35.4 24.1
Norm Low °F 3.3 5.4 14.3 26.9 39.1 48.3 53.5 52 43.8 34 22.4 10.2
Rec Low °F -27 -34 -30 -9 17 28 36 34 24 14 -8 -28
Precip (in) 2.6 1.85 3.13 2.79 3.07 3.21 3.01 3.55 3.74 3.66 3.27 2.43
Source: USTravelWeather.com


Education

Peter White Public Library
Northern Michigan University

Public schools

  • Marquette Senior High School Redmen and Redettes
  • Bothwell Middle School School Scots
  • Graveraet Intermediate School Comets
  • Cherry Creek Elementary School Panthers
  • Sandy Knoll Elementary School Explorers
  • Superior Hills Elementary School Huskies
  • Vandenboom Elementary School Stars
  • North Star Academy
  • Marquette Alternative High School


Private schools

  • Father Marquette Elementary School Golden Eagles
  • Father Marquette Middle School Golden Eagles
  • Crossroads Christian Academy


Universities



Media

City Hall
Multiple media outlets provide local coverage of the Marquette area.

Suburbs of Marquette



Festivals and events

  • Art on the Rocks - An art festival originally held at Presque Isle Park, but moved to the Lower Harbor Park in 2009.
  • Hiawatha Music Festival Traditional music festival at Tourist Park (30th Annual 18-20 July 2008)
  • Marquette's 4th of July Celebration
  • Superior Bike Fest
  • Ore to Shore Mountain Bike race.
  • Exchange Club International Food Fest
  • Seafood Fest
  • UP 200 Dog Sled Race
  • Noquemanon Ski Marathon
  • Marquette Area Blues Fest
  • Marquette Scandinavian Midsummer Festival and Wife-Carrying Contest


Sister Cities

Marquette has two sister cities.

See also



Notes

  1. Eckert, Kathryn Bishop (2000). The Sandstone Architecture of the Lake Superior Region, pp. 89-91. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0814328075.
  2. Bogue, Margaret Beattie (2007). Around the Shores of Lake Superior: A Guide to Historic Sites, pp. 237-39. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0299221741.
  3. Marquette (NMU Bookstore CS #384), MI 49855, Postmark Collector's Club
  4. http://www.bigbaylighthouse.com
  5. Upper Peninsula Children's Museum, general information
  6. DeVos Art Museum, general information
  7. http://www.ustravelweather.com/michigan/marquette/
  8. http://mmnow.com/mm_archive_folder/07/0706/city_notes.html
  9. http://hunts-upguide.com/marquette_peter_white_library.html


External links




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