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Marseille (in English also Marseilles, ; ; locally ; in Occitan Marselha or Marsiho, pronounced ), formerly known as Massalia (from ), is the 2nd most populous French city as well as the oldest city in France. It forms the third-largest metropolitan area, after those of Parismarker and Lyonmarker, with a population recorded to be 1,516,340 at the 1999 census and estimated to be 1,605,000 in 2007. Located on the south east coast of France on the Mediterranean Seamarker, Marseille is France's largest commercial port. Marseille is the administrative capital (préfecture de région) of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azurmarker region, as well as the administrative capital (préfecture départementale) of the Bouches-du-Rhônemarker department. Its inhabitants are called Marseillais.

Geography

View of the "Petit Nice" on the Corniche with Frioul and Château d'If in the background.
Marseille is the most populous commune in France after Paris and is the centre of the third largest metropolitan area in France. To the east, starting in the small fishing village of Callelongue on the outskirts of Marseille and stretching as far as Cassis, are the Calanquesmarker, a rugged coastal area interspersed with small fjords. Further east still are the Sainte-Baumemarker, a mountain ridge rising from a forest of deciduous trees, the town of Toulonmarker and the French Rivieramarker. To the north of Marseille, beyond the low Garlabanmarker and Etoile mountain ranges, is the Mont Sainte Victoiremarker. To the west of Marseille is the former artists' colony of l'Estaquemarker; further west are the Côte Bleue, the Gulf of Lionmarker and the Camarguemarker region in the Rhône delta. The airportmarker lies to the north west of the city at Marignanemarker on the Étang de Berremarker.

Marseille seen from Spot Satellite
The city's main thoroughfare, the wide boulevard called the Canebière, stretches eastward from the Old Port to the Réformés quarter. Two large forts flank the entrance to the Old Port - Fort Saint-Nicolas on the south side and Fort Saint-Jeanmarker on the north. Further out in the Bay of Marseille is the Frioul archipelagomarker which comprises four islands, one of which, If, is the location of Château d'Ifmarker, made famous by the Dumas novel The Count of Monte Cristo. The main commercial centre of the city intersects with the Canebière at rue St Ferréol and the Centre Bourse (the main shopping mall). The centre of Marseille has several pedestrianised zones, most notably rue St Ferréol, Cours Julien near the Music Conservatory, the Cours Honoré-d'Estienne-d'Orves off the Old Port and the area around the Hôtel de Ville. To the south east of central Marseille in the 6th arrondissement are the Prefecture and the monumental fountain of Place Castellane, an important bus and metro interchange. To the south west are the hills of the 7th arrondissement, dominated by the basilica of Notre-Dame-de-la-Gardemarker. The railway station - Gare de Marseille Saint-Charlesmarker - is north of the Centre Bourse in the 1st arrondissement; it is linked by the Boulevard d'Athènes to the Canebière.

Climate

Marseille has a Mediterranean climate, with mild, humid winters and hot, dry summers. January and February are the coldest months, averaging temperatures of around 8 to 9 °C. July and August are the hottest months. The mean summer temperature is around 23 to 24 °C (75 °F). In July the average maximum temperature is around 30°C.Marseille is known for the Mistral, a harsh cold wind originating in the Rhône valley that occurs mostly in winter and spring. Less frequent is the Sirocco, a hot sand-bearing wind, coming from the Sahara Desert.

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History

Prehistory and classical antiquity

Humans have inhabited Marseille and its environs for almost 30,000 years: palaeolithic cave paintings in the underwater Cosquer cavemarker near the calanquemarker of Morgiou date back to between 27,000 and 19,000 BC; and very recent excavations near the railway station have unearthed neolithic brick habitations from around 6,000 BC.

Marseille, the oldest city of France, was founded in 600 BC by Greeks from Phocaeamarker (as mentioned by Thucydides Bk1,13) as a trading port under the name Μασσαλία (Massalia; see also List of traditional Greek place names). The precise circumstances and date of founding remain obscure, but nevertheless a legend survives. Protis, while exploring for a new trading outpost or emporion for Phocaea, discovered the Mediterranean cove of the Lacydon, fed by a freshwater stream and protected by two rocky promontories. Protis was invited inland to a banquet held by the chief of the local Ligurian tribe for suitors seeking the hand of his daughter Gyptis in marriage. At the end of the banquet, Gyptis presented the ceremonial cup of wine to Protis, indicating her unequivocal choice. Following their marriage, they moved to the hill just to the north of the Lacydon; and from this settlement grew Massalia.

Massalia was one of the first Greek ports in Western Europe, growing to a population of over 1000. It was the first settlement given city status in France. Facing an opposing alliance of the Etruscansmarker, Carthagemarker and the Celts, the Greek colony allied itself with the expanding Roman Republic for protection. This protectionist association brought aid in the event of future attacks, and perhaps equally important, it also brought the people of Massalia into the complex Roman market. The city thrived by acting as a link between inland Gaul, hungry for Roman goods and wine (which Massalia was steadily exporting by 500 BC), and Rome's insatiable need for new products and slaves. Under this arrangement the city maintained its independence until the rise of Julius Caesar, when it joined the losing side (Pompey and the optimates) in civil war, and lost its independence in 49 BC.

It was the site of a siege and naval battle, after which the fleet was confiscated by the Roman authorities. During Roman times the city was called Massilia. It was the home port of Pytheas. Most of the archaeological remnants of the original Greek settlement were replaced by later Roman additions.

Marseille adapted well to its new status under Rome. During the Roman era, the city was controlled by a directory of 15 selected "first" among 600 senators. Three of them had the preeminence and the essence of the executive power. The city's laws amongst other things forbade the drinking of wine by women and allowed, by a vote of the senators, assistance to allow a person to commit suicide.

It was during this time that Christianity first appeared in Marseille, as evidenced by catacombs above the harbour and records of Roman martyrs. According to provencal tradition, Mary Magdalen evangelised Marseille with her brother Lazarus. The diocese of Marseille was set up in the first century AD (it became the Archdiocese of Marseille in 1948).

Middle Ages and Renaissance

Marseille in 1575
With the decline of the Roman Empire, the town fell into the hands of the Visigoths. Eventually Frankish kings succeeded in taking the town in the mid sixth century. Emperor Charlemagne and the Carolingian dynasty granted civic power to Marseille, which remained a major French trading port until the medieval period. The city regained much of its wealth and trading power when it was revived in the tenth century by the counts of Provence. In 1262, the city revolted under Bonifaci VI de Castellana and Hugues des Baux, cousin of Barral des Baux, against the rule of the Angevins but was put down by Charles I. In 1348, the city suffered terribly from the bubonic plague, which continued to strike intermittently until 1361. As a major port, it is believed Marseille was one of the first places in France to encounter the epidemic, and some 15,000 people died in a city that had a population of 25,000 during its period of economic prosperity in the previous century. The city's fortunes declined still further when it was sacked and pillaged by the Aragonese in 1423.
Marseille's population and trading status soon recovered and in 1437, the Count of Provence René of Anjou, who succeeded his father Louis II of Anjou as King of Sicily and Duke of Anjoumarker, arrived in Marseille and established it as France's most fortified settlement outside of Paris. He helped raise the status of the town to a city and allowed certain privileges to be granted to it. Marseille was then used by the Duke of Anjou as a strategic maritime base to reconquer his kingdom of Sicily. King René, who wished to equip the entrance of the port with a solid defense, decided to build on the ruins of the old Maubert tower and to establish a series of ramparts guarding the harbour. Jean Pardo, engineer, conceived the plans and Jehan Robert, mason of Tarascon, carried out the work. The construction of the new city defenses took place between 1447 and 1453.Trading in Marseille also flourished as the Guild began to establish a position of power within the merchants of the city. Notably, René also founded the Corporation of Fisherman.

Marseille was united with Provence in 1481 and then incorporated in France the following year, but soon acquired a reputation for rebelling against the central government. Some 30 years after its incorporation, Francis I visited Marseille, drawn by his curiosity to see a rhinoceros that King Manuel I of Portugal was sending to Pope Leo X, but which had been shipwrecked on the Île d'If. As a result of this visit, the fortress of Château d'Ifmarker was constructed; this did little to prevent Marseille being placed under siege by the army of the Holy Roman Empire a few years later. Marseilles became a naval base for the Franco-Ottoman alliance in 1536, as a Franco-Turkish fleet was stationed in the harbour, threatening the Holy Roman Empire and especially Genoamarker. Towards the end of the sixteenth century Marseille suffered yet another outbreak of the plague; the hospital of the Hôtel-Dieu was founded soon afterwards. A century later more troubles were in store: King Louis XIV himself had to descend upon Marseille, at the head of his army, in order to quash a local uprising against the governor.As a consequence, the two forts of Saint-Jean and Saint-Nicholas were erected above the harbour and a large fleet and arsenal were established in the harbour itself.

18th and 19th centuries

La Marseillaise 1792
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the port's defences were improved and Marseille became more important as France's leading military port in the Mediterranean. In 1720, the last Great Plague of Marseille, a form of the Black Death, killed 100,000 people in the city and the surrounding provinces. Jean-Baptiste Grosson, royal notary, wrote from 1770 to 1791 the historical Almanac of Marseille, published as Recueil des antiquités et des monuments marseillais qui peuvent intéresser l’histoire et les arts, ("Collection of antiquities and Marseilles monuments which can interest history and the arts"), which for a long time was the primary resource on the history of the monuments of the city.

The local population enthusiastically embraced the French Revolution and sent 500 volunteers to Paris in 1792 to defend the revolutionary government; their rallying call to revolution, sung on their march from Marseille to Paris, became known as La Marseillaise, now the national anthem of France.

During the nineteenth century the city was the site of industrial innovations and a growth in manufacturing. The rise of the French Empire and the conquests of France from 1830 onward (notably Algeriamarker) stimulated the maritime trade and raised the prosperity of the city. Maritime opportunities also increased with the opening of the Suez Canalmarker in 1869. This period in Marseille's history is reflected in many of its monuments, such as the Napoleonic obelisk at Mazargues and the royal triumphal archmarker on the Place Jules Guesde.

20th century

The Place du Général de Gaulle in Marseille.
During the first half of the twentieth century, Marseille celebrated its 'port of the empire' status through the colonial exhibitions of 1906 and 1922; the monumental staircase of the railway stationmarker, glorifying French colonial conquests, dates from then. In 1934 Alexander I of Yugoslavia arrived at the port to meet with the French foreign minister Louis Barthou. He was assassinated there by Vlada Georgieff.

During World War II, Marseille was bombed by the German and the Italian forces in 1940. The city was occupied by Germans from November 1942 to August 1944. The Old Port was bombed in 1944 by the Allies to prepare for liberation of France.After the war much of the city was rebuilt during the 1950s. The governments of East Germanymarker, West Germanymarker and Italy paid massive reparations, plus compound interest, to compensate civilians killed, injured or left homeless or destitute as a result of the war.

From the 1950s onward, the city served as an entrance port for over a million immigrants to France. In 1962 there was a large influx from the newly independent Algeriamarker, including around 150,000 returned Algerian settlers (pieds-noir). Many immigrants have stayed and given the city a French-African quarter with a large market.

After the oil crisis of 1973 and an economic downturn, Marseille saw an increase in crime and higher levels of poverty. The city has worked to combat these problems, and through plans from the AT in Paris and funds from the European Union, the city has developed a modern and advanced economy based on high technology manufacturing, oil refining and service sector employment.

Economy

Historically, the economy of Marseille was dominated by its role as a port of the French Empire, linking the North African colonies of Algeriamarker, Moroccomarker and Tunisiamarker with metropolitan France. The Old Port was replaced as the main port for trade by the Port de la Joliette during the Second Empire and now contains restaurants, offices, bars and hotels and functions mostly as a private marina. The majority of the port and docks, which experienced decline in the 1970s after the oil crisis, have been recently redeveloped with funds from the European Union. Fishing, however, remains important in Marseille and the food economy of Marseille is still dominated by the local catch, and a daily fish market is still held on the Quai des Belges of the Old Port.

Today, the economy of Marseille is dominated by the New Port, which lies north of the Old Port, a commercial container port and a transport port for the Mediterranean seamarker. 100 million tons of freight pass annually through the port, 60% of which is petroleum, making it number one in France and the Mediterranean and number three in Europe. However, its recent growth in container traffic is being stifled by the constant strikes and social upheaval. Petroleum refining and shipbuilding are the principal industries, but chemicals, soap, glass, sugar, building materials, plastics, textiles, olive oil, and processed foods are also important products. Marseille is connected with the Rhône via a canal and thus has access to the extensive waterway network of France. Petroleum is shipped northward to the Paris basin by pipeline. The city also serves as France's leading centre of oil refinement.

Marseille is a major French centre for trade and industry,with excellent transportation infrastructure (roads, sea port and airport). Marseille Provence Airportmarker, is the fourth largest in France. It is the main arrival base for millions of tourists each year and serves a growing business community. All three universities of Aix-Marseille - the University of Provence, the University of the Mediterranean and Paul Cézanne University - are represented to varying degrees in both Marseille and Aix-en-Provencemarker, forming France's second largest research centre with 3,000 research scientists.

The Marseille region is home to thousands of companies, 90% of which are small businesses. Among the most famous ones are CMA CGM, container-shipping giant; Compagnie maritime d'expertises (Comex), world leader in sub-sea engineering and hydraulic systems; Eurocopter Group, an EADS company; Azur Promotel, an active real estate development company; La Provence, the local daily newspaper; L'Olympique de Marseille, the famous football club; RTM, Marseille's public transport company; and Société Nationale Maritime Corse Méditerranée (SNCM), a major operator in passenger, vehicle and freight transportation in the Western Mediterranean.

In recent years, the city has also experienced a large growth in service sector employment and a switch from light manufacturing to a cultural, high-tech economy. Marseille acts as a regional nexus for entertainment in the south of France and has a high concentration of museums, cinemas, theaters, clubs, bars, restaurants, fashion shops, hotels, and art galleries, all geared towards a tourist economy.

In May 2005, the French financial magazine L'Expansion named Marseille the most dynamic of France's large cities, citing figures showing that 7,200 companies had been created in the city since 2000.

Employment

Unemployment in the economy fell from 20% in 1995 to 14% in 2004. However Marseille unemployment rate remains higher than the national average. In some parts of Marseille, youth unemployment is reported to be as high as 40%.

Administration

Marseille is divided into 16 municipal arrondissements, which are themselves informally divided into quartiers (111 in total). The arrondissements are regrouped in pairs, into 8 secteurs, each with a mayor and council (like the arrondissements in Paris and Lyon).

Municipal elections are held every six years and are carried out by secteur. There are 303 councillors in total, two thirds sitting in the secteur councils and one third in the city council.
The sectors and arrondissements of Marseille


From 1950 to the mid 1990s, Marseille was a socialistmarker and communist stronghold. The socialist Gaston Defferre was consecutively re-elected six times as Mayor of Marseille from 1953 until his death in 1986. He was succeeded by Robert Vigouroux of the RDSE. Jean-Claude Gaudin of the right-wing UMP was elected mayor in 1995. Gaudin won re-election in 2001 and 2008.

In recent years, the Communist Party has lost most of its strength in the northern boroughs of the city, whereas the far-right National Front has received significant support.

At the last municipal election in 2008, Marseille was divided between the northern boroughs dominated by the left and the more affluent southern Marseille, dominated by the right, with the centre and eastern parts of the city as battlegrounds, allowing for a narrow re-election of the UMP administration.

The cantons of Marseille :

Marseille is also divided in 25 canton, each of them returning a member of the General Council of the Bouches-du-Rhônemarker département.

Demographics

Marseille Population
250 BC 1801 1851 1881 1911 1931 1946 1954 1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006


Immigration

The 7th arrondissement of Marseille
Because of its pre-eminence as a Mediterranean port, Marseille has always been one of the main gateway into France. This has attracted many immigrants and made Marseille a cosmopolitan melting pot. By the end of the eighteenth century about half the population originated from elsewhere.

Economic conditions and political unrest in Europe and the rest of the world brought several other waves of immigrants during the twentieth century: Greeks and Italians started arriving at the end of the nineteenth century and in the first half of the 20th century, up to 40% of the city's population was of Italian origin; Russians in 1917; Armenians in 1915 and 1923; Spanish after 1936; Berbers North Africans in the inter-war period; Sub-saharan Africans after 1945; the pieds-noirs from the former French Algeria in 1962; and then from Comorosmarker. In 2006, it was reported that 70,000 city residents were considered to be of Maghrebian origin, mostly from Algeria. The second largest group in Marseille in terms of single nationalities were from the Comoros, amounting to some 45,000 people.

Currently, over one third of the population of Marseille can trace their roots back to Italy. Marseille also has the largest Corsicanmarker and second-largest Armenian population of France. Other significant communities include North Africans Berbers, Turks, Comoriansmarker, Chinese, and Vietnamese.

The main religions practised in Marseille are Catholicism (600,000), Islam (between 150,000 and 200,000), Armenian Apostolic Church (80,000), Judaism (80,000, making Marseille the third largest urban Jewish community in Europe), Protestantism (20,000), Eastern Orthodoxy (10,000) and Buddhism (3,000).

Culture

Paul Cézanne: The bay of Marseille from l'Estaque.
Marseille has been designated as European Capital of Culture in 2013.

Marseille is a city that is proud of its differences from the rest of France. Today it is a regional centre for culture and entertainment with an important opera house, historical and maritime museums, five art galleries and numerous cinemas, clubs, bars and restaurants.

Marseille has a large number of theatres, including la Criée, le Gymnase and the Théâtre Toursky. There is also an extensive arts centre in La Friche, a former match factory behind the St-Charles station. The Alcazar, until the 1960s a well known music-hall and variety theatre, has recently been completely remodelled behind its original facade and now houses the central municipal library.

Marseille has also been important in literature and the arts. It has been the birth place and home of many French writers and poets, including Victor Gélu, Valère Bernard, Pierre Bertas, Edmond Rostand and André Roussin. The small port of l'Estaquemarker on the far end of the Bay of Marseille became a favourite haunt for artists, including Auguste Renoir, Paul Cézanne (who frequently visited from his home in Aixmarker), Georges Braque and Raoul Dufy.

The most commonly used tarot deck comes from Marseille; it is called the Tarot de Marseille, and was used to play the local variant of tarocchi before it became used in cartomancy. Another local tradition is the making of santons, small hand-crafted figurines for the traditional Provençal Christmas creche. Since 1803, starting on the last Sunday of November, there has been a Santon Fair in Marseille; it is currently held in the Cours d'Estienne d'Orves, a large square off the Vieux-Port.

The Opera House.


Opera

Marseille's main cultural attraction was, since its creation at the end of the 18th century and until the late 1970s, the Opéramarker. Located near the Old Port and the Canebière, at the very heart of the city, its architectural style was comparable to the classical trend found in other opera houses built at the same time in Lyonmarker and Bordeauxmarker. In 1919, a fire almost completely destroyed the house, leaving only the stone colonnade and peristyle from the original facade. The classical facade was restored and the opera house reconstructed in a predominantly Art Deco style, as the result of a major competition. Currently the Opéra de Marseille stages 6 or 7 operas each year.

Since 1972 the Ballet national de Marseille has performed at the opera house; its director from its foundation to 1998 was Roland Petit.

Hip hop music

Marseille is also well known in France for its hip hop music. Bands like IAM originated from Marseille and initiated the rap music phenomena in France. Other known groups include Fonky Family, 3ème Oeil, and Psy4 de la rime.

Gastronomy



Films set in Marseille

Marseille has been the setting for many films, produced mostly in France or Hollywoodmarker.

Marseille tarot card


Marseille in television

Star Trek: Voyager mentions Marseille in several episodes. It is said to be a favourite city of Lt. Tom Paris who was "spending his time, drinking and playing pool in Sandrine's, a (fictional) waterfront bar."i love you gril

Main sights

Central Marseille

La Vieille Charité.
The Abbey of St Victor.


Marseille is listed as a major centre of art and history. The city has many museums and galleries and there are many ancient buildings and churches of historical interest. Most of the attractions of Marseille (including shopping areas) are located in the 1st, 2nd, 6th and 7th arrondissements.

These include:

  • The Old Port or Vieux-Port, the main harbour and marina of the city. It is guarded by two massive forts (Fort St Nicolas and Fort Saint Jean) and is one of the main places to eat in the city. Dozens of cafés line the waterfront. The Quai des Belges at the end of the harbour is the site of the daily fish market. Much of the northern quayside area was rebuilt by the architect Fernand Pouillon after its destruction by the Nazi in 1943.
  • The Phare de Sainte Mariemarker, a lighthouse on the inlet to the Old Port.
  • La Vieille Charité in the Panier, an architecturally significant building designed by the Puget brothers. The central baroque chapel is situated in a courtyard lined with arcaded galleries. Originally built as an alms house, it is now home to an archeological museum and a gallery of African and Asian art, as well as bookshops and a café.
  • The Centre Bourse and the adjacent rue St Ferreol district (including rue du Rome and rue Paradis), the main shopping area in central Marseille.
  • The Musée d'Histoire, the Marseille historical museum, located in the Centre Bourse. It contains records of the Greek and Roman history of Marseille as well as the best preserved hull of a 6th century boat in the world. Ancientmarker remains from the Hellenic port are displayed in the adjacent archeological gardens, the Jardin des Vestiges.
  • The Palais de la Bourse, a 19th century building housing the chamber of commerce, the first such institution in France. It also contains a small museum, charting the maritime and commercial history of Marseille, as well as a separate collection of models of ships.
  • The Musée de la Mode, a museum of modern fashion which displays over 2000 designs from the last 30 years.
  • The Musée Cantini, a museum of modern art near the Palais de Justice. It houses artworks associated with Marseille as well as several works by Picasso.
  • The Pierre Puget park.
  • The Hôtel-Dieu, a former hospital in the Panier, currently being transformed into an InterContinental hotel.
  • The Abbeymarker of Saint-Victor, one of the oldest places of Christian worship in Europe. Its early fifth century crypt and catacombs occupy the site of a Hellenic burial ground, later used for Christian martyrs and venerated ever since. Continuing a medieval tradition, every year at Candlemas a Black Madonna from the crypt is carried in procession along rue Sainte for a blessing from the archbishop, followed by a mass and the distribution of "navettes" and green votive candles.
  • The Hotel de Ville (City Hall), a baroque building from the seventeenth century.
  • The Musée du Vieux Marseille, housed in the 16th century Maison Diamantée, describing everyday life in Marseille from the eighteenth century onwards.
  • The Cathedral of Sainte-Marie-Majeure or La Major, founded in the fourth century, enlarged in the eleventh century and completely rebuilt in the second half of the 19th century by the architects Léon Vaudoyer and Jacques Henri Esperandieu. The present day cathedral is a gigantic edifice in Romano-Byzantine style. A romanesque transept, choir and altar survive from the older medieval cathedral, spared from complete destruction only as a result of public protests at the time.
  • The 12th century parish church of Saint-Laurent and adjoining 17th century chapel of Sainte-Catherine, on the quayside near the Cathedral, recently reopened after restoration.


Outside of central Marseille

  • The nineteenth century Basilica of Notre-Dame-de-la-Gardemarker, built by the architect Esperandieu, is an enormous Romano-Byzantine basilica in the hills to the south of the Old Port. The terrace offers spectacular panoramic views of Marseille and its surroundings.
  • The Stade Vélodromemarker, the home stadium of the city's main football team, Olympique de Marseille.
  • The Gare Saint-Charlesmarker, the main railway station. Below it is the royal Porte d'Aixmarker (1784-1837), a giant triumphal arch, at the crossroads to Aixmarker.
  • The Unité d'Habitationmarker, an influential experimental building designed by the Swiss architect Le Corbusier in the late forties
  • The Musée des Beaux-Arts and the Natural History Museum are housed in the two wings of the nineteenth century Palais Longchamp, also designed by Esperandieu, located in the Parc Longchamp. Built on a grand scale, this italianate colonnaded building rises up behind a vast monumental fountain with cascading waterfalls. The jeux d'eau marks and masks the entry point of the Canal de Provence into Marseille.
  • The Grobet-Labadié museum, opposite to the Palais Longchamp, houses an exceptional collection of European objets d'art and old musical instruments.
  • The Parc Borély, a park off the Bay of Marseille with the Jardin botanique E.M.marker Heckelmarker, a botanical garden.
  • The Musée de Faience, a ceramics museum in the Chateau Pastré near the parc Borely.
  • The parc Chanot, an exhibition centre.
  • The Pharo Gardens, a park with views of the Mediterranean and the Old Port.
  • The Corniche, a picturesque waterfront road between the Old Port and the Bay of Marseille.
  • The Museum of Contemporary Art, devoted to American and European art from the 1960s to the present day.
  • The beaches at the Prado, Pointe Rouge, les Goudes, Callelongue, and le Prophète.
  • The Musée du Terroir Marseillais in Chateau-Gombert, devoted to provencal crafts and traditions.
  • The callanquesmarker and Marseilleveyre, a wild mountainous coastal area of outstanding natural beauty, accessible from Callelongue, Luminy, Sormiou, Morgiou and Cassis.
  • The islands of the Frioul archipelagomarker in the Bay of Marseille, accessible by ferry from the Old Port. The prison of Château d'Ifmarker was the setting for the Count of Monte Cristo, the novel by Alexandre Dumas. The neighbouring islands of Ratonneau and Pomègues are joined by a man-made breakwater. The site of a former garrison and quarantine hospital, these islands are also of interest for their marine wildlife.


Transport

Motorways around Marseille.
The city is served by an international airport, Marseille Provence Airportmarker, located in Marignanemarker. The airport has two terminals. Terminal one, the main terminal of the airport contains halls 1,2,3 and 4 and serves as a base for French and international arrivals and departures. The newer terminal, referred to as MP2, is used for low-cost flights arriving and departing from Europe and North Africa. A shuttle coach system operates between the airport and the railway station, Gare de Marseille Saint-Charlesmarker.

An extensive network of motorways connects Marseille to the north and west (A7), Aix-en-Provence in the north (A51), Toulon (A50) and the French Rivieramarker (A8) to the east.

Gare de Marseille Saint-Charlesmarker is Marseille's main railway station. It operates direct regional services to Aix-en-Provencemarker, Brianconmarker, Toulonmarker, Avignonmarker, Nicemarker, Montpelliermarker, Toulousemarker, Bordeauxmarker, Nantesmarker, etc. Gare Saint-Charles is also one of the main terminal stations for the TGV in the south of France making Marseille reachable in three hours from Paris (a distance of over 750 km) and just over one and a half hours from Lyon. There are also direct TGV lines to Lillemarker, Brusselsmarker, Nantesmarker, Genèvemarker and Strasbourgmarker.
Metro and tramway network
The new tramway.


There is a long distance bus station, still under construction, adjacent to Gare Saint-Charles with destinations mostly to other Bouches-du-Rhônemarker towns. Temporarily buses to Aix-en-Provencemarker depart from the nearby Porte d'Aixmarker. Other buses to Cassis, La Ciotatmarker and Aubagnemarker depart from Place Castellane.

Marseille has a large ferry terminal, the Gare Maritime, with services toCorsicamarker, Sardinia, Algeriamarker and Tunisiamarker. A free ferry service on a quite different scale operates between the two opposite quays of the Old Port.

Marseille itself is connected by the Marseille Métro train system operated by the Régie des transports de Marseille (RTM). It consists of two lines: Line 1 (blue) between Castellane and La Rose opened in 1977 and Line 2 (red) between Sainte-Marguerite-Dromel and Bougainville opened between 1984 and 1987. An extension of the Line 1 from Castellane to La Timone was completed in 1992. The Métro system operates on a turnstile system, with tickets purchased at the nearby adjacent automated booths. Both lines of the Métro intersect at Gare Saint-Charles and Castellane.

An extensive bus network serves the city and suburbs of Marseille. The first phase of a new tramway, going eastwards from the port towards St Barnabé, was opened in July 2007.

As in many other French cities, a short-term bicycle hire scheme nicknamed "Le vélo", free for trips of less than half an hour, has recently been put in place by the city council.

Sport

The Stade Velodrome.


The city boasts a wide variety of sports facilities and teams. The most popular team is the city's football club, Olympique de Marseille, which was the UEFA Champions League winner in 1993 and finalist of the UEFA Cup in 1999 and 2004. The club had a history of success under then-owner Bernard Tapie. The club's home, the Stade Vélodromemarker, which can sit 60,000 people,also functions for other local sports, as well as the national rugby team. Stade Velodrome hosted a number of games during the 2007 Rugby World Cup. The local rugby team is Marseille Vitrolles Rugby.

Sailing is a major sport in Marseille. The winds can blow from different directions and allow interesting regattas in the warm waters of the Mediterranean. Most of the time it can be windy while the sea remains smooth enough to allow sailing. It was considered as a possible site for 2007 Americas Cup. Marseille is also a place for other water sports such as windsurfing and powerboating. Marseille has three golf courses. The city has dozens of gyms and several public swimming pools. Running is also popular in many of Marseille's parks such as Le Pharo and Le Jardin Pierre Puget. An annual footrace is held between the city and neighbouring Cassis: the Marseille-Cassis Classique Internationale.

Births and deaths in Marseille

Honoré Daumier: Sunday at the Museum
Edmond Rostand
Marseille was the birthplace of:

The following personalities died in Marseille:



International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Marseille is currently officially twinned with thirteen cities:


Partner cities

In addition Marseille has signed various types of formal agreements of cooperation with 31 cities all over the world:


See also



Footnotes

References

  • , single book comprising 4 separate volumes: La préhistoire de la migration (1482-1830); L'expansion marseillaise et «l'invasion italienne» (1830-1918); Le cosomopolitisme de l'entre-deux-guerres (1919-1945); Le choc de la décolonisation (1945-1990).


External links




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