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Baton of a modern Marshal of France.


The Marshal of France ( ) is a military distinction in contemporary Francemarker, not a military rank. It is granted to generals for exceptional achievements. It was one of the Great Officers of the Crown of France during the Ancien Régime and Bourbon Restoration and one of the Great Dignitaries of the Empire during the First French Empire (when the title was not "Marshal of France" but "Marshal of the Empire").

A Marshal of France displays seven stars. The marshal also receives a baton, a blue cylinder with stars, formerly fleurs-de-lis during the monarchy and Eagles during the First French Empire. It has the Latin inscription: Terror belli, decus pacis, which means "Terror in war, ornament in peace".

Six Marshals of France have been given the even more exalted rank of Marshal General of France: Biron, Lesdiguières, Turenne, Villars, Saxe and Soult.

Image:Musee-de-lArmee-IMG 1071.jpg|Terror belli...Image:Musee-de-lArmee-IMG 1070.jpg|... decus pacis

History

The title derived from the office of marescallus Franciae created by King Philip II Augustus of France for Albéric Clément (circa 1190).

The title was abolished by the National Convention in 1793. It was restored during the First French Empire by Napoleon I as Marshal of the Empire. Under the Bourbon Restoration, the title reverted to Marshal of France and Napoléon III kept that designation.

After the fall of Napoleon III and the Second French Empire, the Third republic did not use the title until the First World War, when it was recreated as a military distinction and not a rank.

Philippe Pétain, awarded the distinction of Marshal of France for his generalship in World War I, retained his title even after his trial and imprisonment and after he was stripped of other positions and titles.

The last living Marshal of France was Alphonse Juin, promoted in 1952, who died in 1967. The latest Marshal of France was Marie Pierre Koenig, who was made a Marshal posthumously in 1984.

Today, the title of Marshal of France can only be granted to a General officer who fought victoriously in war-time.

Direct Capetians

Philip II, 1180 – 1223



Louis IX, 1226 – 1270



Philip III, 1270 – 1285



Philip IV, 1285 – 1314



Louis X, 1314 – 1316



Philip V, 1316 – 1322



Charles IV, 1322–1328



Valois

Philip VI, 1328 – 1350



John II 1350 – 1364



Charles V, 1364 – 1380



Charles VI, 1380 – 1422



Charles VII, 1422 – 1461

  • Amaury de Séverac, Lord of Beaucaire and of Chaude-Aigues (died 1427), Marshal of France in 1424
  • Jean de Brosse, Baron of Boussac and of Sainte-Sévère (1375 - 1433), Marshal of France in 1426
  • Gilles de Rais, Lord of Ingrande and of Champtocé (1404 - 1440), Marshal of France in 1429
  • André de Laval-Montmorency, Lord of Lohéac and of Retz (1408 - 1486), Marshal of France in 1439
  • Philippe de Culant, Lord of Jaloignes, of La Croisette, of Saint-Armand and of Chalais (died 1454), Marshal of France in 1441
  • Jean Poton de Xaintrailles, Seneschal de Limousin (1390 - 1461), Marshal of France in 1454


Louis XI, 1461 – 1483



Charles VIII, 1483 – 1498



Valois-Orléans

Louis XII, 1498 – 1515



Valois-Angoulême

Francis I 1515–1547



Henry II 1547-1559



Francis II 1559 – 1560



Charles IX, 1560 – 1574



Henry III (English: Henry III) 1574 – 1589



Bourbons

Henry IV 1589 – 1610



Louis XIII, 1610 – 1643



Louis XIV, 1643 – 1715



Louis XV, 1715 – 1774



Louis XVI, 1774 – 1792



Baton of the Napoleonic Marshals


First Empire

Napoleon I, 1804 – 1814



The names of many of these have been given to successive stretches of an avenue encircling Parismarker, which has thus been nicknamed the Boulevard des Maréchaux (Marshals' Boulevard").

Second Restoration

Louis XVIII, 1815 – 1824



Charles X, 1824 – 1830



July Monarchy

Louis-Philippe 1830 – 1848



Second Republic

Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, 1848 – 1852



Second Empire

Napoleon III, 1852 – 1870



Third Republic

Raymond Poincaré, 1913 – 1920



Alexandre Millerand, 1920 – 1924



Fourth Republic

Vincent Auriol, 1947 – 1954



Fifth Republic

François Mitterrand, 1981 – 1995



See also



References


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