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Martinez ( "mar-TEE-niss" or "mar-TEE-nezz") is a city in and the county seat of Contra Costa Countymarker, Californiamarker, United Statesmarker. The population was 35,866 at the 2000 census. The downtown is notable for its large number of preserved old buildings. Martinez is located on the south side of the Carquinez Straitmarker in the San Francisco Bay Areamarker, directly facing the city of Beniciamarker.

History

In 1824 the Alhambra Valley was included in the Rancho El Pinolemarker Mexican land grant to Ygnacio Martinez. By 1849, Martínez served as a weigh station for the California Gold Rush. The town was laid out in 1849 by Col. William M. Smith and named for Martinez. It became the county seat in 1850, but could not incorporate at the time because it lacked the 200 registered voters required, and only became a city in 1876. In 1847, Dr. Robert Semple contracted to provide ferry service from Martinez to Benicia, CAmarker (across the Carquinez straight, Benicia was a growing community and state capitol for a year in 1852).Martinez was the home of John Muir from 1880 until his death in 1914. He was buried about a mile south of the building that is now the John Muir National Historic Sitemarker. Also nearby is the property is the Don Vicente Martinez Adobe, built in 1849 by the son of Rancho owner, Ygnacio Martinez, of the Rancho el Pinole.

The first post office opened in 1851.

In 1860, Martinez played a role in the Pony Express, where riders would take the ferry from Benicia (particularly if they missed the steamer in Sacramento). In 1915, Shell Oil Company built an oil refinery near Martinez, which sparked a building boom in the area. Martinez's oil refineries can still be seen today from Interstate 680, and it continues to be a significant port and petroleum processing center.
Martinez features in a folk etymology regarding the Martini cocktail.


Joltin' Joe DiMaggio was born and raised in Martinez.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.4 square miles (34.8 km²), of which, 12.2 square miles (31.7 km²) of it is land and 1.2 square miles (3.1 km²) of it (8.92%) is water.

Although the common perception of Martinez is that of a refinery town, given the view from Highway 680 across the Shell refinery and the strong smell of petroleum that greets visitors coming from the Martinez-Benicia Bridgemarker, the city is in fact largely surrounded by water and regional open space preserves. The Martinez-Benicia Bridge carries Highway 680 across the eastern end of the Carquinez Straitmarker to Solano County. The city can be defined as a more densely built downtown valley threaded by Alhambra creek and north of Highway 4. Suburban areas stretch south of Highway 4 to join the neighboring city of Pleasant Hill. Unincorporated areas include the rural Alhambra Valley and the Franklin Canyon area.

The Martinez Regional Shorelinemarker bounds the city to the north along the Carquinez Strait. Carquinez Strait Regional Shoreline includes the Franklin Hills west of downtown, stretching west to the unincorporated community of Port Costamarker and the town of Crockettmarker. Briones Regional Parkmarker borders the Alhambra Valley to the south. Waterbird Regional Preserve and the McNabney Marsh border the city and Highway 680 to the east. Martinez's location at the east end of the Carquinez Strait as it widens to Suisun Bay includes dramatic water views stretching to the Sierra range. From surrounding ridge tops views stretch to nearby Mt.marker Diablomarker, Mt.marker St. Helenamarker, Mt.marker Tamalpaismarker, etc.

Martinez is one of the only two places in the Bay Areamarker, the other being Golden Gate Bridgemarker, where the Bay Area Ridge Trail and the San Francisco Bay Trail converge. The Bay Trail is a planned recreational corridor that, when complete, will encircle San Franciscomarker and San Pablomarker bays with a continuous network of bicycling and hiking trails. It will connect the shoreline of all nine Bay Area counties, link 47 cities, and cross the major toll bridges in the region, including the Martinez-Benicia Bridgemarker. To date, approximately of the alignment—over half the Bay Trail’s ultimate length—have been completed. The Bay Area Ridge Trail ultimately will be a 500+ mile trail encircling the San Francisco Baymarker along the ridge tops, open to hikers, equestrians, mountain bicyclists, and outdoor enthusiasts of all types. So far, over of trail have been dedicated for use. East Bay Regional Park District's Iron Horse Regional Trailmarker will join the Bay Trail along the waterfront, and the Contra Costa Canal Trail threads through the city from Pleasant Hill to the south.

Climate

Martinez has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa/b).

Demographics

The Contra Costa County courthouse in downtown Martinez
As of the census of 2000, there were 35,866 people, 14,300 households, and 9,209 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,927.6 people per square mile (1,130.4/km²). There were 14,597 housing units at an average density of 1,191.5/sq mi (460.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 81.03% White, 3.35% Black or African American, 0.74% Native American, 6.63% Asian, 0.23% Pacific Islander, 3.29% from other races, and 4.72% from two or more races. 10.20% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 11.7% were of German, 10.8% Irish, 10.2% Italian, 9.4% English and 5.4% Americanmarker ancestry according to Census 2000.

There were 14,300 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.4% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.6% were non-families. 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.96.

In the city the population was spread out with 22.7% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 32.6% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, and 10.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 98.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $63,010, and the median income for a family was $77,411 (these figures had risen to $73,668 and $92,486 respectively as of a 2007 estimate). Males had a median income of $52,135 versus $40,714 for females. The per capita income for the city was $29,701. About 3.2% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.9% of those under age 18 and 4.8% of those age 65 or over.

The languages spoken were 88% English, 6% Spanish, 2% Tagalog, 1% German, 1% Chinese, 0.5% Italian, 0.5% Persian, 0.3% Korean, 0.3% Portuguese, 0.25% Russian, 0.25% Arabic, 0.2% Dutch, 0.2% Polish, 0.2% French, 0.2% Punjabi, 0.2%Vietnamese, 0.14% Japanese, 0.14% Tamil, 0.07% Cantonese. Of the 4,176 people who did not use English as their primary language 3,663 (87.72%) spoke it well or very well while 513 (12.28%) spoke it "not well" or "not at all"

Transportation

Rail



Bus



Major highways



Schools

Covering most of Martinez, the Martinez Unified School District encompasses four elementary schools, one middle school, one high school, and two alternative/independent study schools. Students in K-5 attend John Swett, John Muir, Las Juntas, or Morello Park Elementary School. Martinez Junior High School serves students in grades 6 through 8. St. Catherine of Siena is a private Catholic school that serves grades K-8. Alhambra High Schoolmarker serves as the districts' comprehensive high school. As of 2006, the districts' K-12 enrollment was 4,194. Part of Martinez is served by the Mount Diablo Unified School District, whose Hidden Valley Elementary School is located in Martinez. St. Catherine of Siena School marker, a private Roman Catholic elementary, also serves the Martinez community.

Beaver controversy

Beaver Yearling on Alhambra Creek in downtown Martinez, CA Photo By Cheryl Reynolds Courtesy of Worth A Dam 2008
Mink Returns to Alhambra Creek Beaver Pond Photo By Cheryl Reynolds Courtesy of Worth A Dam 2008
In early 2007, a group of beavers settled in a section of Alhambra Creek that flows through the city. The beavers and their dam became a local attraction. Because the six foot high, 30 foot wide dam created a potential flood hazard, local officials proposed to remove the beavers. Increased run-off from developed areas along the creek has increased flooding in Martinez, a low lying city built on a flood plain, in recent decades. Although Martinez had completed the construction of a $9.7 million dollar flood control project in 1999, the downtown was flooded in 2005, ironically two years before the beavers arrived. A City Council subcommittee was formed to consider whether the beavers could be protected and flood risk managed, and was given 90 days to issue a report to the full council for a vote. During this period, expert Skip Lisle was hired to install a flow device that could reduce the level of impounded water behind the beaver dam and mitigate flooding risk above the beaver dam. The beavers have received national attention, amateur video coverage, a webpage devoted to them, and a new nonprofit organization ("Worth A Dam") formed. The beaver have transformed Alhambra Creek from a trickle into multiple dams and beaver ponds, which in turn, lead to the return of steelhead trout and river otter in 2008, and mink in 2009.

The Martinez beavers probably originated from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Deltamarker. Historically, before the "California Fur Rush" of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the Delta probably held the largest concentration of beaver in North America. It was California's early fur trade, more than any other single factor, that opened up the West, and the San Francisco Bay Areamarker in particular, to world trade. In 1840, explorer Captain Thomas Farnham wrote that "There is probably no spot of equal extent in the whole continent of America which contains so many of these muchsought animals."

See also



Notable residents



References

  1. Martinez Historical Society
  2. Martinez, CA, City History
  3. Martinez History and the Pony Express
  4. City of Martinez: The History of the Martini
  5. Martinez, California US Census Bureau
  6. MLA Data Center, Martínez, California entry, U.S. Census Dept. (Census 2000), retrieved 2008-01-17


External links




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