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Shekhawati region: Birthplace of Marwari Clans
Marwaris are the people from Rajasthanmarker in Indiamarker. Although Marwar refers to the region around Jodhpurmarker, most marwari merchants are actually from Shekhawati. Though Marwari as a genre originated from a place name, the Marwari people have spread to many regions of India, and even to neighboring countries, as they expanded their business and trade networks. In many locales, Marwari immigrants over time (and, usually involving many generations) have blended in with the regional cultures.

The Marwar region includes the central and western parts of Rajasthanmarker. The word Marwar is considered to be derived from Sanskrit word Maruwat, the meaning of maru being 'desert'. Shekhawati region is adjacent to Haryanamarker.

The development of the fresco paintings on Havelis is linked with the history of the Marwaris.

The community

Marwar is the largest region of Rajasthan, located in the central and western areas of the state. The residents of Marwar region have been called Marwaris, irrespective of their caste. The term 'Marwari' has a geographical connotation, so there can be a Marwari baniya, a Marwari Rajput, a Marwari Brahmin, and so on.

Many people from various Marwari castes migrated to distant states for business, and later became successful. Since the Vaishya/Baniya caste is present everywhere in India, for people in other states, the distinguishing factor of a "Marwari baniya" person was their Marwari origin. Hence, the term "Marwari" caught on as a way to refer to a businessman from Marwar. This usage is imprecise. Other castes from Rajasthan did not migrate to such an extent, so awareness about them in other states is low. Marwaris comprise the people who originally belonged to Rajasthanmarker, particularly, areas in and around Jodhpurmarker, Bikaner, Palimarker and Nagaurmarker; and certain other adjoining areas.

Religion and Caste

Marwaris are predominantly Hindu, and there are also a large number of Jains. However, regardless of their affiliation, whether Hindu or Jain, Marwaris mingle with each other socially. In some cases they share matrimonial relations and traditional rituals together. The taboos which existed almost a century ago have largely disappeared while still maintaining the proud Marwari tradition.

Vaishya, or trading and commerce, is the most famous caste among Marwaris. Marwari and Baniyas are famous for their trading & business skill. These include

however local inhabitants of "Marwar Region" are known as Marwaris.

Rajputs of Marwar were famous for their valour, strength and fighting skill. There are also Marwari Brahmins like dadheechs, Shrimalis, Pushkarnas and Gauds. Jat have largest population in Marwar also the Sainik Kshatriyas Rajput Clans of Mandoremarker, Marwar ( The Mandorva Rajputs ) is the second largest population group in Jodhpurmarker, Marwar.The major Mandorva Rajputs Surnames are - Kachwaha, Bhati, Parihar (Pratihara), Gehlot, Tak, Deora, Chauhan, Parmar (Panwar), Solanki, Tanwar, Sankhla, Rathore etc.

Language

Dark green indicates Marwari speaking home area in Rajasthan, light green indicates additional dialect areas where speakers identify their language as Marwari.
Marwari is also a language belonging to the Sanskritic subgroup, of the Indo-Aryan branch, of the Indo-European language family. Marwari, or Marrubhasha, as it is referred to by Marwaris, is the traditional, historical, language of the Marwari ethnicity.

The "Marwari" spoken by the marwari merchants of the previous generation was actually the dialect of Shekhawati/Dhundhar region. Large numbers, especially in Rajasthan, still converse fluently in Marwari. Various dialects of the language are found, which vary with the speakers' areas of origin, communities etc.Slowly but for better the realisation is setting down upon manu that if youngsters are not taught their beautiful mothertongue, this soon may be an extinct language.

Diaspora

Marwari Baniyas spread to many regions of India, and even to neighboring countries, as they expanded their business and trade networks. In many locales, Marwari immigrants over time (and, usually involving many generations) adopted, or blended into, the regional culture. For example, in Punjab, Marwaris adopted Punjabi, and in Gujarat, Gujarati. Significant concentrations of Marwari vaish live in Kolkatamarker in the Burrabazar area and are leading lights in business there. A large number of Marwaris are also in Mumbaimarker, Punemarker and Hyderabadmarker. Marwaris have founded businesses in neighboring Nepalmarker, especially in Birganj, Biratnagar and Kathmandumarker.

Marwari baniyas, with their business acumen, have migrated across many different parts of the country, and to other countries of the world. In the eastern part of India, they are found in Kolkata, Asansolmarker, Raniganjmarker, Siligurimarker, Assammarker, Meghalayamarker, Manipurmarker, etc., where Marwaris are among the prominent businessmen.

The socioeconomic and sociocultural functions and interactions of the Marwari community bear a striking resemblance to those of the Jewish trading communities of the Mediterranean and Europe.

Marwaris extended the reach and influence of their Indian financial and commercial networks from the 17th century through the early 19th century to Persiamarker and Central Asia.

Demographics

The Marwaris now constitute several social groups dispersed throughout India and Pakistan and across the globe, including many remote areas. The total population worldwide is difficult to measure and subject to secular, linguistic, cultural and other parameters of defining who is a Marwari. Although useful estimates about their numbers are not available, some regional estimates have been made. For example, an estimate indicates that their number “never reached above 200,000 at any stage of their presence in Bengal.”

History

The earliest recorded account begins from the time of Mughal empire. Since the time of the Mughal period (16th century-19th centuries), particularly from the time of Akbar (1542-1605), Marwari entrepreneurs have been moving out of their homeland of Marwar and Rajasthan, and adjoining regions, to different parts of Undivided India. The first waves migration took place during the Mughal period, and a number of Marwari baniyas moved to the eastern parts of India, currently comprising the Indian states of West Bengalmarker, Biharmarker, Orissamarker, and Jharkhandmarker; as well as the nation of Bangladeshmarker.

During the period of the Nawabs of Bengal, Marwari vaishyas exhibited their acumen, and controlled the mint and banking. Jagat Seth who controlled the finances of Murshidabad Darbar was an Oswal, one of several sub-groups of Marwaris. The business houses of Gopal Das and Banarasi Das, also Oswal Marwaris, undertook large scale commercial and banking activities.Sarkar Laxmichand Hingarh was a Marwari pioneer who governed the Gorwar region's development, law and order, and Finance. Gorwar region's topmost firm, Rikhabdas Sardarmal was founded and managed by Oswal Marwaris from Rani, Rajasthanmarker.

Several Marwari baniyas, after permanenet settlement was introduced by the British Raj, acquired large estates, in eastern part of India, particularly in Bengalmarker. They included Dulalachand Singh (alias Dulsing), a Porwal Marwari, who had acquired several Zamindaris around Dhakamarker, currently the capital of Bangladesh, as also in Bakarganj, Patuakhali, and Comillamarker, all places currently part of Bangladesh. These Zamindaris were managed and co-owned with khwajas of Dhaka. Dulalchand Singh family also emerged as a business tycoon controlling jute trade.

After India’s First War of Independence (1857-58), when social and political disturbances subsided, another wave of large scale migration of Marwaris took place, and during the remaining period of 19th century, a number of Marwari business houses, small and big, had emerged. The Marwari community controlled all the major business activities of a large geographical areas of the eastern parts of the Indian subcontinent. With a sizeable presence in present day Myanmarmarker and Bangladesh, they controlled major trading and commercial activities in the regions currently comprising the Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Jharkhand. They also had almost complete control of indigenous banking, finance and hundi. They took the hundi business to areas where the system was unknown, which included Chittagongmarker, Khulnamarker, Naogaonmarker, Mymensinghmarker, and Arakan. They competed successfully in these areas with Chettiars who were located in the region for long.

Notable Marwaris

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BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

INDIAN FOREIGN SERVICE

INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE AND LEGAL SYSTEM

RAJASTHANI, INDIAN AND SOUTH ASIAN LINGUISTICS

POLITICS AND THE INDIAN FREEDOM STRUGGLE

RELIGIOUS AND SPIRITUAL ORGANISATIONS

SOCIAL SCIENCES

SPORTS

THEATRE AND CINEMA

Marwari Houses

Some of the famous and prominent Marwaris trading, commercial, and industrial houses are as under:Aggarwal,Attal,Agarwalla,Agarwal,Agrawal,Ajmeramarker,Ambavats,Anchaliya,Badjatya,BafnaBapnaBaglamarker,Bagri,Bagaria,Bagrecha,Baheti,Baid,Bajaj,Bajla,Bajoria,Balodia,Bamb,Bamboli,Bangad,Banka,Bangur,Bansal,Bhala,Bhansali,Bhartia,Banthia,Bardiamarker,Bawalia,Bazari,Bhadoria,Bhardwaj,Bhageria,Bhartiya,Bhagat,Bhalotia,Bhandari,Bhangadia,Bharatia,Bedmutha,Bhattad,Bholusaria,Bhut,Bhutra,Bhutoria,Bhuwalka,Bindalmarker,Birla,Biyani,Bobra,Bothara,Borana,Buchasia,Chamadia,Chamaria,Chandora,Chandak,Choraria,Chachan,Dad,Dave,Daga,Dangayach,Dhoot,Dalmia,Deopura,Deorah,Dhanuka,Dhokharia,Didwania,Dingliwal,Dokania,Drolia,Dudavewala,Dugar,Dujari,Dumrewala,Dhoot,Dugar,Gadia,Gangh,Gandhi,Ganeriwal,Gadodia,Garg,Garodia,Goal,Goenka,Gopalka,Goyal,Goyanaka,Gundesha,Gupta,Gutgutia,Gyanaka,Harbhajanka,Harlalka,Harnathka,Heda,Hingarh,Jaipuria,Jajodia,Jaju,Jadia,JasrasariaJalan,Jangid,Jangra,Jhajharia,Jhanwar,Jhunjhunwala,Jhunjhunuwala,Joshi,Kabra,Kajaria,Kakrania,Kalani,Kalothia,Kankariamarker,Kankani,Kanku Chopra,Kanoria,Kansal,Kayan,Karwa,Kasat,Kataria,Kauntia,Kawad,Kawediya,Kediamarker,Kejriwal,Kelanka,Khaitanmarker,Khandelwal,Khemani,Khemka,Khetan,Killa,Kothari,Kathotia,Kumbhat,Ladda,Lahoti,Lahoty,Lakhotia,Lodha,Laddha,Laddhad,Lohia,Loyalka,Madhogaria,Maloo,Malani,Malpani,Malu,Maharshi,Mandelia,Mandhana,Mandhania,Manudhanaya,Mantri,Maskara,Mistry,Mittal,Majaria,Mehta,Modi,Moondra,Moda,Mohanka,Mohata,Mohatta,Mohta,Mokati,Mour,Murarka,Nahata,Nathani,Nevatia,Oswal,Nohria,Nauhria,PandiaParasrampuria,Parmaar,Parekh,Pareek,Porwal,Patodia,Phalodia,Patwa,PatniPoddar,Prahladka,Puranmalka,Punamiya,Rafique-Khatri,Rathi,Ratadia,Hathundi Rathod,Ruia,Rungta,Rupramka,Saboo,Saharia,Sancheti,Sankhla,SanghaviSaraf,Saraogi,Saravagi,Sarda,Sawansukha,Sehua,Seksaria,Sekhsaria,Sethi,Sethiamarker,Semlani,Shah,Sharma,Shamsukha,Shrishrimal,Shyamsukha,Singhal,Singhania,Singhi,Singhvi,Sisodiya,Soni,Sodhani,Shrotriya,Solanki,Somani,Sonkhia,Sonthalia,Sudrania,Suhasaria,Sultania,Sundesa,Surana,Sureka,Tantia,Taparia,TatedTalesara,Tayal,TekriwalThirani,Todimarker,Toshniwal,Totla,Trivedi,Tulsyan,Turkya,Tuwani,Vaid,Varma,Vyas,Vardhan,Kalani,

See also



Literature




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