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Mato Grosso do Sul ( ) is one of the states of Brazilmarker.

Neighbouring Brazilian states are (from north clockwise) Mato Grosso, Goiásmarker, Minas Geraismarker, São Paulomarker and Paranámarker. It also borders the countries of Paraguaymarker and Boliviamarker to the west. The economy of the state is largely based on agriculture and cattle-raising. Bisected in the south by the Tropic of Capricornmarker, Mato Grosso do Sul generally has a warm and humid climate, and is crossed by numerous affluents of the Parana Rivermarker.

The state is also famous for its natural beauty and is a major destination for internal and external tourism. The Pantanalmarker lowlands cover 12 municipalities and presents an enormous variety of flora and fauna, with forests, natural sand banks, savannahs, open pasture, fields and bushes. The city Bonitomarker, in the mountain of Bodoquena, has prehistoric caverns, natural rivers, waterfalls, swimming pools and the Blue Lake cavern.

The name "Mato Grosso do Sul" literally means "Southern Thick Forest" in Portuguese, a name inherited from its northern neighbour state of Mato Grosso, of which it was part until the 1970s. It is not uncommon for people to mistakenly refer to Mato Grosso do Sul as simply "Mato Grosso". Other names that were proposed, at the time of the split and afterwards, include "Pantanalmarker" (a reference to its best known geographical feature) and "Maracaju" (a reference to the Maracaju mountain range that crosses the state from north to south).

Geography

Climate

Mato Grosso do Sul has humid Subtropical and tropical climate. The annual rainfall is 1.500 mm. January is the warmest month, with mean maxima of 34°C (93.2°F) and minima of 24°C (75.2°F) and more rain; July experiences the coldest temperatures, with mean maxima of 25°C (77°F) and minima of 15°C (59°F) and sun.

Vegetation

The "cerradomarker" landscape is characterized by extensive savanna formations crossed by gallery forests and stream valleys. Cerrado includes various types of vegetation. Humid fields and "buriti" palm paths are found where the water table is near the surface. Alpine pastures occur at higher altitudes and mesophytic forests on more fertile soils. The "cerrado" trees have characteristic twisted trunks covered by a thick bark, and leaves which are usually broad and rigid. Many herbaceous plants have extensive roots to store water and nutrients. The plant's thick bark and roots serve as adaptations for the periodic fires which sweep the cerrado landscape. The adaptations protect the plants from destruction and make them capable of sprouting again after the fire.The state is located in western Brazil, in a region mostly occupied by the inland marshes of the Pantanalmarker. The highest elevation is the 1,065 m high Morro Grande.

History

In 1977 the state was created by dividing the state of Mato Grosso. Its status as a state went into full effect two years later on January 1, 1979.

Demographics

According to the IBGE of 2007, there were 2,304,000 people residing in the state. The population density was 6.4 hab./km².

Urbanization: 84.7% (2006); Population growth: 1.7% (1991-2000); Houses: 689,000 (2006).

The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following numbers: 1,179,000 White people (51.1%), 963,000 Pardo (Brown) people (41.8%), 122,000 Black people (5.3%), 39,000 Asian or Amerindian people (1.7%).

Economy

The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 46.1%, followed by the industrial sector at 22.7%. Agriculture represents 31.2%, of GDP (2004). Mato Grosso do Sul exports: soybean 34.9%, pork and chicken 20.9%, beef 13.7%, ores 8%, leather 7.4%, timber 5.1% (2002).

Share of the Brazilian economy: 1% (2005).

Interesting facts

Vehicles: 835,259 (June/2009);Mobile phones: 2.407 million (July/2009); Telephones: 471 thousand (April/2007); Cities: 78 (2007).

Education

Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.

Educational institutions



Culture

Campo Grande Film Festival

It's a film festival held annually in the months of January and February and has been arranged since 2004. It focuses on the independent cinema presenting Brazilian films and foreign films as well. It also presents regional films and short films.

Bonito’s Winter Festival

"Festival de Inverno de Bonito" (Bonito Winter Festival) is held every year for a week during July or August, with music performances and ecological videos, theatre, folklore and fine arts exhibitions.

Pantanal Micareta

Aquidauana’s biggest event is the Pantanal Micareta, which attracts thousands of tourists to Dr. Sabino Avenue, annually.

Tourism and recreation

Bonito

The great concentration of lime in the soil around the area where Bonitomarker is located is responsible for the transparency of the waters and for the existence of a wide variety of geological formations. The best way to appreciate the local natural features is by going on an adventure tour. The most popular activities include diving in caverns, observing the underwater fauna and walking along trails in the forest. Places like Gruta Lago Azul (Blue Lake Cave) and the Fazenda Estancia Mimosa, Aquario Natural (Natural Aquarium), and the rivers Sucuri, Prata, and Formoso, are the most popular.

South Pantanal

The Pantanalmarker is an ecological paradise right in the heart of Brazil. It is the largest flooded lowland on the planet and the third largest environmental reserve in the world. Its ecological importance is immense, since it is home to one of the richest ecosystems ever found to date, with periodically flooded seasonal forests. It displays the largest concentration of neo-tropical fauna, including several endangered species – mammals, reptiles and fish – and it also serves as habitat for an enormous variety of native birds, as well as those migrating from other areas in the Americas. The Pantanalmarker is one of the best places in Brazilmarker for flora and fauna observation and for fishing – permitted only between March and October – due to its abundance of animals. It has a total area of 230 thousand square kilometres, covering 12 townships in the States of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. To the North, there are the Paracis, Azul and Roncador mountains. To the East, the Maracaju Mountain Range. To the South, the Dodoquena Mountain Range. And, to the West, the Paraguayan and Bolivian swamps. The Pantanal is so diverse that researchers subdivided it in sub-regions. Each “Pantanal” – North and South – has its own natural features, activities and ideal period for visitation.

Infrastructure

International Airports

Campo Grande International Airport.
  • Campo Grande - The operation of Campo Grande International Airport is shared with the Campo Grande Air Base. The airport has two runways. Construction of the main runway, made of concrete, began in 1950 and was finished in 1953. The passenger terminal was concluded in 1964, and in 1967 concrete aprons were built for both military and civilian aircraft. As commercial aviation demand grew, it became necessary to widen the civil aircraft apron, which was completed 12 years after its construction. The airport has been administered by Infraero since 1975.


  • Corumbámarker - Corumbá International Airport, located just 3 km (1.86 mi) from the city center, was opened on September 21, 1960, the city's anniversary. Built on a land plot of 290 hectares and at an elevation of 140 meters above sea, it has an asphalt runway measuring 1660 x 30 meters, with one of its thresholds reinforced with concrete for an additional 60 meters. Corumbá International Airport has been administered by Infraero since February 1975.




Other airports

  • Dourados Regional Airport
  • Bonito Airport


Highways

BR-267 in Mato Grosso do Sul.
  • BR-060;
  • BR-158;
  • BR-163;
  • BR-267;
  • BR-262;
  • BR-359;
  • BR-454;
  • BR-419;
  • BR-487.


Sports

Campo Grande is one of the 18 remaining candidates to host games of the 2014 FIFA World Cup which will take place in Brazilmarker.

Flag

Mato Grosso do Sul's flag was designed by Mauro Michael Munhoz. A white stripe divides an upper left green corner from a bottom right blue space with a yellow star. White symbolizes hope, green is an allusion to the state's rich flora, blue represents its vast sky, while the yellow star adds balance, force and serenity.

References

  1. In Brazilian Portuguese. The European Portuguese pronunciation is .
  2. Source: PNAD.
  3. Source: IBGE.


See also




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