Matterhorn (German), Cervino
(Italian) or Cervin (French), is a mountain in the
Alps. With its high summit, lying on the border
between Switzerland and Italy, it is one
of the highest peaks in the Alps and its north
face is one of the Great
north faces of the Alps.
- "Cervino" redirects here. For the Italian
town, see Cervino
. For other uses, see Matterhorn .
It is one of the deadliest
peaks in the Alps: from 1865 â€“ when it was first climbed â€“ to 1995,
500 alpinists died on it. The mountain overlooks the town of Zermatt in the
canton of Valais to
north-east and Cervinia in the
Valley to the south.
Matterhorn is an iconic emblem of the Swiss Alps and the Alps in general.
Its first and tragic ascent by Edward
and party marked the end of the Golden age of alpinism
Typical banner cloud formation on the
The Matterhorn has two distinct summits
, both situated on a
100-metre-long rocky ridge: the Swiss summit
on the east and the Italian summit
(4,476.4 m) on the
west. Their names originated from the first ascents, not for
geographic reasons, as they are both located on the border.
In August 1792, the Genevese geologist and explorer Horace BĂ©nĂ©dict de
made the first measurement of the altitude of the
Matterhorn, using a 50-footlong chain spread out on the Theodul
glacier and a sextant. He calculated a height of 4,501.7
A recent survey (1999) using Global Positioning System
technology has been made, allowing the height of the Matterhorn to
be measured to within one centimetre accuracy, and its changes to
be tracked. The result was .
The particularly steep faces of the mountain and its isolated
location make it prone to banner
formation with the air flowing around and creating
vortices, conducting condensation of the air on the lee side.
The mountain derives its name from the German
, and Horn
, which means peak
migration of the name meadow
from the lower part of the
countryside to the peak is common in the Alps. The Italian
) come from Mons Silvinus
from the Latin
, meaning forest
(with again the
migration of the name from the lower part to the peak). The
changing of the first letter s
to Horace BĂ©nĂ©dict
, who thought that the word was related to a deer
Matterhorn has a pyramidal shape with
four faces facing the four compass points: the north and east faces
overlook, respectively, the Zmutt valley and
Gornergrat ridge in Switzerland, the south face (the only one
south of the Swiss-Italian border) fronts the resort town of
Breuil-Cervinia, and the west face looks towards the mountain of
d'HĂ©rens which straddles the border.
The north and
south faces meet at the summit to form a short east-west
Matterhorn's faces are steep, and only small patches of snow and
ice cling to them; regular avalanches send
the snow down to accumulate on the glaciers
at the base of each face, the largest of which is the Zmutt Glacier to the west.
The HĂ¶rnli ridge of the
northeast (the central ridge in the view from Zermatt) is the usual
Well-known faces are the east and north, visible from Zermatt. The
east face is 1,000 metres high and, because it is "a long,
monotonous slope of rotten rocks", presents a high risk of
rockfall, making its ascent dangerous. The north face is 1,200
metres high and is one of the most dangerous north faces in the
Alps, in particular for its risk of rockfall and storms. The south
face is 1,350 metres high and offers many different routes. The
west face, the highest at 1,400 metres, has the fewest ascent
The four main ridges separating the four faces are the main
climbing routes. The least difficult technical climb, the HĂ¶rnli
), lies between the east and north faces,
facing the town of Zermatt. To its west lies the Zmutt ridge
), between the north and west faces; this is,
according to Collomb, "the classic route up the mountain, its
longest ridge, also the most disjointed." The Lion
ridge (Cresta del Leone), lying between the south and west
faces is the Italian normal route and goes across Pic Tyndall; Collomb comments, "A superb rock ridge, the
shortest on the mountain, now draped with many fixed ropes, but a
far superior climb compared with the HĂ¶rnli."
south side is separated from the east side by the Furggen ridge
), according to Collomb "the hardest of the
ridges [...] the ridge still has an awesome reputation but is not
too difficult in good conditions by the indirect finish".
between Italy and Switzerland is the main Alpine watershed, separating the
drainage basin on the Rhone on the north (Mediterranean Sea) and the Po
River on the south (Adriatic Sea). The Theodul Pass, located between the Matterhorn and Klein
Matterhorn, at 3,300 metres, is the lowest passage between the
Valtournenche and the Mattertal.
The pass was used as a crossover and trade
route for the Romans and the Romanised Celts between 100 BC and 400
Matterhorn is the culminating point of the Valtournenche on the
south, it is only one of the many 4000 metres summits of the
Mattertal valley on the north, among which the Weisshorn (4505 m), Dom (4545 m),
Lyskamm (4527 m) and the second highest in the Alps:
Rosa (4634 m).
The whole range of mountains
forming a crown of summits around Zermatt. The deeply glaciated
region between the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa is listed in the
Inventory of Landscapes and Natural Monuments
Apart from the base of the mountain, the Matterhorn is composed of
belonging to the Dent Blanche klippe
, an isolated part of
the Austroalpine nappes
over the Penninic nappes
Austroalpine nappes are part of the Apulian plate
, a small continent which broke
up from Africa before the Alpine orogeny
For this reason the Matterhorn has been popularized as an African
mountain. The Austroalpine nappes are mostly common in the Eastern
The Swiss explorer and geologist Horace-BĂ©nĂ©dict de
, inspired by the view of the Matterhorn, anticipated
the modern theories of geology:
- "What power must have been required to shatter and to sweep
away the missing parts of this pyramid; for we do not see it
surrounded by heaps of fragments; one only sees other peaks -
themselves rooted to the ground - whose sides, equally rent,
indicate an immense mass of dĂ©bris, of which we do not see any
trace in the neighbourhood. Doubtless this is that dĂ©bris which, in
the form of pebbles, boulders, and sand, fills our valleys and our
The formation of the Matterhorn (and the whole Alpine range)
started with the break-up of the Pangaea
continent 200 million years ago into Laurasia
(containing Europe) and Gondwana
(containing Africa). While the rocks
constituting the nearby Monte Rosa remained in Laurasia, the rocks constituting the
Matterhorn found themselves in Gondwana, separated by the newly
formed Tethys Ocean.
100 million years ago the extension of the Tethys Ocean stopped and
the Apulian plate broke from Gondwana and moved toward the European
continent. This resulted in the closure of the western Tethys by
under the Apulian plate (with
the Piemont-Liguria Ocean
first and Valais Ocean
subduction of the oceanic crust left traces still visible today at
the base of the Matterhorn (accretionary prism
). The orogeny itself
began after the end of the oceanic subduction when the European
continental crust collided with the Apulian continent, resulting in
the formation of nappes
acquired its characteristic pyramidal shape in much more recent
times as it was caused by natural erosion over the past million
years. At the beginning of alpine orogeny, the Matterhorn was only
a rounded mountain like a hill. Because its height is above the
snowline, its flanks are covered by ice, resulting from the
accumulation and compaction of snow. During the warmer period of
summer, part of the ice melts and seeps into the bedrock. When it
freezes again, it fractures pieces of rock because of its
dilatation (Freeze Thaw), forming a cirque
Four cirques led to the shape of the mountain.
Most of the base of the mountain lies in the TsatĂ© nappe, a remnant
of the Piedmont-Liguria oceanic crust (Ophiolites
) and its sedimentary rocks. Up to
3,400 metres the mountain is composed of successive layers of
ophiolites and sedimentary rocks. From 3,400 metres to the top, the
rocks are gneisses from the Dent
(Austroalpine nappes). They are divided into the
Arolla series (below 4,200 m) and the Valpelline zone (the summit).
Other mountains in the region (Weisshorn, Zinalrothorn, Dent
Blanche, Mont Collon) also belong to the Dent Blanche nappe.
Since the eighteenth century the Alps have attracted more and more
people and fascinated generations of explorers and climbers. The
Matterhorn remained relatively little known until 1865, but the
successful ascent followed by the tragic accident of the expedition
led by Edward Whymper caused a rush on the mountains surrounding
construction of the railway linking the village of Zermatt from the
town of Visp started in
View from the train to the
The first train reached Zermatt on July 18, 1891 and
the entire line was electrified in 1930. Since 1930 the
village is directly connected to St. Moritz by the Glacier Express panoramic train. However there is no
connection with the village of Cervinia on the Italian side. Travellers have to
hire mountain guides to cross the 3,300 metres high glaciated
Pass, separating the two resorts.
The town of
Zermatt remains completely car-free and can be reached by train
Rail and cable-car facilities have been built to make some of the
summits in the area more accessible. The Gornergrat railway, reaching a record altitude of 3,100
metres, was inaugurated in 1898. Areas served by cable
car are the Unterrothorn and the Klein Matterhorn (Little Matterhorn) (3,883 m, highest
transportation system in Europe). The HĂ¶rnli
Hut (3,260 m), which is the start of the normal route
via the HĂ¶rnli ridge, is easily accessible from Schwarzsee (2,600 m) and is also frequented by hikers.
Both resorts of Zermatt and Cervinia function as ski resort all
year round and are connected by skilifts over the Theodul Pass. A
cable car running from Testa Grigia to Klein Matterhorn is
currently planned for 2014. It will finally provide a link between
the Swiss and Italian side of the Matterhorn.
Museum relates the general history of the region from
alpinism to tourism.
In the museum, which is in the form of
a reconstituted mountain village, the visitors can relive the first
and tragic ascent of the Matterhorn and see the objects having
belonged to the protagonists.
The Matterhorn was one of the last of the main Alpine
mountains to be ascended, not because of its
technical difficulty, but because of the fear it inspired in early
. The first serious
attempts began around 1857, mostly from the Italian side; but
despite appearances, the southern routes are harder, and parties
repeatedly found themselves having to turn back. However, on
, in what
is considered the last ascent of the golden age of alpinism
, the party of
, Charles Hudson
, Lord Francis Douglas
, Douglas Robert Hadow
, Michel Croz
and the two Peter Taugwalders
(father and son) was able to reach the summit by an ascent of the
HĂ¶rnli ridge in Switzerland. Upon descent, Hadow, Croz, Hudson and
Douglas fell to their deaths on the Matterhorn Glacier, and all but
Douglas (whose body was never found) are buried in the Zermatt
Before the first ascent
In the summer of 1860, Edward Whymper
came across the Matterhorn for the first time. He was an English
artist and engraver who had been hired by a London publisher to
make sketches of the mountains in the region of Zermatt.
Although the unclimbed Matterhorn had a mixed reputation among
British mountaineers, it fascinated Whymper. Whymper's first
attempt was in 1861, from the village of Breuil
on the south side. He was at the beginning of
the climb, with a Swiss guide, when he met Jean-Antoine Carrel
and his uncle.
Carrel was an Italian guide from Breuil who had already made
several attempts on the mountain. The two parties camped together
at the base of the peak. Carrel and his uncle woke up early and
decided to continue the ascent without Whymper and his guide.
Discovering that they had been left, Whymper and his guide tried to
race Carrel up the mountain, but neither party met with
In 1862 Whymper made further attempts, still from the south side,
on the Lion ridge (or Italian ridge), where the route seemed easier
than the HĂ¶rnli ridge (the normal route today). On his own he
reached above 4,000 metres, but was injured on his way down to
Breuil. He soon returned to the mountain with a local guide and
went higher, but the Matterhorn still remained unclimbed.
The Rifugio Carrel (3,830 m) on the
Whymper returned to Breuil in 1863, persuading Carrel to join
forces with him and try the mountain once more via the Italian
ridge. On this attempt a storm, however, soon developed and they
were stuck halfway to the summit. They remained there for 26 hours
in their tent before giving up. Whymper did not try any more
attempts for two years.
In the decisive year 1865, Whymper returned with new plans,
deciding to attack the Matterhorn via its south face instead of the
Italian ridge. On June 21, Whymper began his ascent with Swiss
guides, but halfway up they experienced severe rockfall; although
nobody was injured, they decided to give up the ascent. This was
Whymper's seventh attempt.
During the following weeks, Whymper spent his time climbing other
mountains in the area with his guides, before going back to Breuil
on July 7. Meanwhile the Italian Alpine Club was founded and its
leader, Felice Giordano, hired Carrel to make the first ascent of
Matterhorn, before any foreigner could succeed. He feared the
arrival of Whymper, now a rival to Carrel, and wrote to the latter:
- "I have tried to keep everything secret, but that fellow whose
life seems to depend on the Matterhorn is here, suspiciously prying
into everything. I have taken all the best men away from him; and
yet he is so enamored of the mountain that he may go with
others...He is here in the hotel and I try to avoid speaking to
Just as he did two years before, Whymper asked Carrel to be his
guide, but Carrel declined; he was also unsuccessful in hiring
other local guides from Breuil. When Whymper discovered Giordano and
Carrel's plan, he left Breuil and crossed the Theodul Pass to Zermatt to hire local guides.
encountered Lord Francis
, another English mountaineer, who also wanted to climb
the Matterhorn. They arrived later in Zermatt in the Monte Rosa Hotel
, where they met two other
British climbers â€” the Reverend
and his young and inexperienced companion,
Douglas Robert Hadow
â€” who had
hired the French guide Michel Croz
try to make the first ascent. These two groups decided to join
forces and try the ascent of the HĂ¶rnli ridge. They hired another
two local guides, Peter Taugwalder, father and son.
The first ascent
Whymper and party left Zermatt early in the morning of July 13,
heading to the foot of the HĂ¶rnli ridge, which they reached 6 hours
later (approximately where the HĂ¶rnli Hut is situated today).
Meanwhile Carrel and six other Italian guides also began their
ascent of the Italian ridge.
Despite its appearance, Whymper wrote that the HĂ¶rnli ridge was
much easier to climb than the Italian ridge:
- "We were now fairly upon the mountain, and were astonished to
find that places which from the Riffel, or even from the Furggen
Glacier, looked entirely impracticable, were so easy that we could
After having camped for the night, Whymper and party started on the
ridge. According to Whymper:
- "The whole of this great slope was now revealed, rising for
3,000 feet like a huge natural staircase. Some parts were more, and
others were less, easy; but we were not once brought to a halt by
any serious impediment, for when an obstruction was met in front it
could always be turned to the right or left. For the greater part
of the way there was, indeed, no occasion for the rope, and
sometimes Hudson led, sometimes myself. At 6.20 we had attained a
height of 12,800 feet and halted for half an hour; we then
continued the ascent without a break until 9.55, when we stopped
for fifty minutes, at a height of 14,000 feet."
When the party came close to the summit, they had to leave the
ridge for the north face because "[the ridge] was usually more
rotten and steep, and always more difficult than the face". At this
point of the ascent Whymper wrote that the less experienced Hadow
"required continual assistance". Having overcome these difficulties
the group finally arrived in the summit area, with Croz and Whymper
reaching the top first.
- "The slope eased off, and Croz and I, dashing away, ran a
neck-and-neck race, which ended in a dead heat. At 1.40 p.m. the
world was at our feet, and the Matterhorn was conquered. Hurrah!
Not a footstep could be seen."
Precisely at this moment, Carrel and party were approximatively 400
metres below, still dealing with the most difficult parts of the
Italian ridge. When seeing his rival on the summit, Carrel and
party gave up on their attempt and went back to Breuil.
The Matterhorn tragedy, by Gustave
After having built a cairn, Whymper and party stayed an hour on the
summit. Then they began their descent of the HĂ¶rnli ridge. Croz
descended first, then Hadow, Hudson and Douglas, Taugwalder father,
Whymper with Taugwalder son coming last. They climbed down with
great care, only one man moving at a time.
Whymper wrote: "As far as I know, at the moment of the accident no
one was actually moving. I cannot speak with certainty, neither can
the Taugwalders, because the two leading men were partially hidden
from our sight by an intervening mass of rock. Poor Croz had laid
aside his axe, and in order to give Mr. Hadow greater security was
absolutely taking hold of his legs and putting his feet, one by
one, into their proper positions. From the movements of their
shoulders it is my belief that Croz, having done as I have said,
was in the act of turning round to go down a step or two himself;
at this moment Mr. Hadow slipped, fell on him, and knocked him
The weight of the falling men pulled Hudson and Douglas from their
holds and dragged them down the north face. Taugwalder, father and
son, and Whymper were left alive when the rope linking Douglas to
Taugwalder father broke. They were stunned by the accident and for
a time could not move until Taugwalder son descended to enable them
to advance. When they were together Whymper asked to see the broken
rope and saw that it had been employed by mistake as it was the
weakest and oldest of the three ropes they had brought. They
frequently looked, but in vain, for traces of their fallen
companions. They continued their descent, including an hour in the
dark, until 9.30pm when a resting place was found. At daybreak the
descent was resumed and the group finally reached Zermatt, where a
search of the victims was quickly organized. The bodies of Croz,
Hadow and Hudson were found on the Matterhorn Glacier, but the body
of Douglas was never found. Although Taugwalder's father was
accused of cutting the rope to save himself and his son, the
official inquest found no proof for this.
Other first ascents
On the HĂ¶rnli ridge
Three days after Whymper's ascent, the mountain was ascended from
the Italian side via an indirect route by Jean-Antoine Carrel and
Jean-Baptiste Bich on July 17, 1865. The first direct ascent of the
Italian ridge as it is climbed today was by J. J. and J. P.
Maquignaz on September 13, 1867. Julius Elliott made the second
ascent via the HĂ¶rnli ridge in 1868, and later that year the party
of John Tyndall
, J. J. and J. P.
Maquignaz was the first to traverse the summit by way of the HĂ¶rnli
and Italian ridges. On August 22, 1871, while wearing a white print
dress, Lucy Walker
first woman to reach the summit of the Matterhorn, followed a few
weeks later by her rival Meta
. The first winter ascent of the HĂ¶rnli ridge was by
with guides J. A.
Carrel, J. B. Carrel and L. Carrel on March 17, 1882, and its first
solo ascent was made by W. Paulcke in 1898. The first winter solo
ascent of the HĂ¶rnli ridge was by G. Gervasutti in 1936.
The Zmutt ridge was first climbed by Albert F. Mummery
, AlexÂander Burgener
, J. Petrus and
A. Gentinetta on September 3, 1879. Its first solo ascent was made
by Hans Pfann in 1906, and the first winter ascent was made by H.
Masson and E. Petrig on March 25, 1948. The last of the
Matterhorn's four ridges to be ascended, the Furggen ridge was
first climbed by M. Piacenza with guides J. J. Carrel and J.
Gaspard on September 9, 1911.
On August 20, 1992 Italian alpinist Hans Kammerlander and Swiss
alpine guide Diego Wellig climbed the Matterhorn four times in just
23 hours and 26 minutes. The route they followed was: Zmutt
ridgeâ€“summitâ€“HĂ¶rnli ridge (descent)â€“Furggen ridgeâ€“summitâ€“Lion ridge
(descent)â€“Lion ridgeâ€“summitâ€“HĂ¶rnli ridge (descent)â€“HĂ¶rnli
Their itinerary has not been
and guides made the
first ascent of the west face one hour after Mummery and party's
first ascent of the Zmutt ridge on September 3, 1879.
The north face
The north face, before it has been conquered in 1931, was one of
the last great big wall
problems in the Alps
. To succeed on the north face, good
climbing and ice-climbing technique and route-finding ability was
required. Unexpectedly it was first climbed by the brothers Franz
and Toni Schmid on July 31â€“August 1, 1931. They reached the summit
at the end of the second day, after a night of bivouack. Because
they had kept their plans secret, their ascent was a complete
surprise. In addition, the two brothers had travelled by bicycle
from Munich and after their successful ascent they cycled back home
again. The first winter ascent of the north face was made by Hilti
von Allmen and Paul Etter on February 3â€“4, 1962. Its first solo
ascent was made in five hours by Dieter Marchart on July 22, 1959.
climbed the "North
Face Direct" solo on February 18â€“22, 1965.
The first ascent of the south face was made by E. Benedetti with
guides L. Carrel and M. Bich on October 15, 1931, and the first
complete ascent of the east face was made by E. Benedetti and G.
Mazzotti with guides L. and L. Carrel, M. Bich and A. Gaspard on
September 18â€“19, 1932.
Today, all ridges and faces of the Matterhorn have been ascended in
all seasons, and mountain guides
a large number of people up the northeast HĂ¶rnli route each summer.
By modern standards, the climb is fairly difficult (AD Difficulty rating)
, but not hard for
skilled mountaineers. There are fixed
on parts of the route to help. Still, several climbers
die each year due to a number of factors including the scale of the
climb and its inherent dangers, inexperience, falling rocks, and
pattern of ascent is to take the Schwarzsee cable car up from Zermatt, hike up to the HĂ¶rnli
, a large stone building at the base
of the main ridge, and spend the night. The next day, climbers rise
at 3:30 am so as to reach the summit and descend before the regular
afternoon clouds and storms come in. The Solvay Hut located on the ridge at can be used only in a case
Other routes on the mountain include the Italian (Lion) ridge (AD
Difficulty rating), the Zmutt ridge (D Difficulty rating) and the
north face route, one of the six great north faces of the Alps
(TD+ Difficulty rating).
The table below gives an overview of the different routes and
- *Murder On The Matterhorn by "Glyn Carr" (nom-de-plume
of noted climbing writer Showell Styles) is a 1951 detective novel.
- *James Ramsey Ullman offers a fictional retelling of the
original ascent of the Matterhorn (renamed the Citadel in the
novel) in Banner in the
Sky, a 1955 Newberry Honor Book.
- *In the 1957 Warner Brothers
animated short Piker's Peak, Bugs
Bunny and Yosemite Sam try to beat
each other to the summit of the Schmatterhorn, towering high above
a fictional Swiss village, with the winner to receive 50,000
"cronkites". Warner's 1961 cartoon A Scent of the Matterhorn has
Pepe Le Pew chasing a female cat (whom
he mistakes for a skunk) through the
miniature imitation of the Matterhorn featuring a bobsled ride is one of the attractions at Disneyland in Anaheim, California. Matterhorn Bobsleds opened in 1959 as the world's first tubular steel
coaster and partially encloses a 1/100 scale replica (147 feet in
height) of the mountain.
- *The 'Mini Matterhorn' is the unofficial name of a 75-cm piece
of Martian rock immediately east-southeast of the Mars Pathfinder
- *The individual pieces of the chocolate bar Toblerone are claimed by its maker Kraft to be
formed in the likeness of the Matterhorn.
- *The Operation Matterhorn
was a military operations plan of the United States Army Air Forces
in World War II.
- *Matterhorn Peak, California is climbed by three characters from
Jack Kerouac's "The Dharma Bums" (1958).
- *A song called "Matterhorn" performed by the Country Gentlemen
features on the "Rough Guide to Bluegrass" album.
Many other prominent mountains around the world are nicknamed the
'Matterhorn' of their respective countries or mountain ranges.
The Matterhorn on a 2004 Swiss
- *Ama Dablam ('the Matterhorn of the Himalaya')
- *Cimon della Pala ('the Matterhorn of the Dolomites')
- *Clach Glas ('the Matterhorn of Skye').
- *Cnicht ('the
Matterhorn of Wales')
Mountain ('the Matterhorn of Taiwan')
- *InnerdalstĂĄrnet ('the Matterhorn of Norway')
- *Kajaqiao ('the
Matterhorn of China')
('the Matterhorn of Bulgaria')
- *Machapuchare ('the Matterhorn of Nepal')
- *Mount Aspiring/Tititea in New Zealand ('the Matterhorn of the South')
- *Mount Assiniboine ('the Matterhorn of North
- *Mount Yari ('the Matterhorn of Japan')
- *Olomana ('the Matterhorn of Oahu')
('the Little Matterhorn of Utah's Wasatch Mountains')
- *Roseberry Topping ('the Matterhorn of the Moors')
- *Shivling ('the Matterhorn of India')
- *Sloan Peak ('the Matterhorn of the Cascades')
- *Spitzkoppe ('the Matterhorn of Namibia')
- *Tinzenhorn ('the
Matterhorn of Davos')
- *Ushba ('the
Matterhorn of the Caucasus')
- Charles Gos, Le Cervin (Attinger, 1948)
- Yvan Hostettler, Matterhorn: Alpine Top Model (Olizane
Edition, Geneva, 2006). The use of the Matterhorn in advertisement,
publicity, movies, painting and arts
- R. L. G. Irving, Ten Great
Mountains (London, J. M. Dent & Sons, 1940)
- Beat P. Truffler, The History of the Matterhorn: First
Ascents, Projects and Adventures, 4th ed., (Aroleit-Verlag,
Zurich, 1998). ISBN 3-905097-14-1. Translation of Die
Geschichte des Matterhorns from the German by Mirjam
- Edward Whymper, Scrambles
Amongst the Alps (1871)
- Considering summits with at least 300 metres prominence, it is
the 6th highest.
- Journal de GenĂ¨ve, 10-28-1995, p. 23
- Key dates in the history of Zermatt, Zermatt tourism.
Retrieved on 2009-10-16
- No change in the height of Matterhorn,
- Swiss Mountains - Names www.swissworld.org
Retrieved 26 November 2007.
- Robin G. Collomb, Pennine Alps Central, London: Alpine
Club, 1975, pp. 241â€“59
- Key dates in the history of Zermatt Retrieved on
- Edward Whymper, Scrambles amongst the Alps, 6th
edition, London: John Murray, 1936, p. 80
- The Matterhorn - Really from Africa?
- Internides, Institute of Geology and Palaeontology,
University of Lausanne ]
- Histoire du BVZ Zermatt-Bahn mgbahn.ch.
Retrieved on 2009-10-16
- Zermatt Bergbahnen AG, Projects Retrieved on
- Edward Whymper, Scrambles amongst the Alps, 6th
edition, London: John Murray, 1936, pp. 309â€“13
- The Times 08-08-1865, p 9
- Janet Adam Smith, Lucy Walker (1836â€“1916),
Oxford University Press
- La Stampa 08-21-1992, p. 12
- Helmut Dumler and Willi P. Burkhardt, The High Mountains of
the Alps, London: Diadem, 1994, p. 151.
- William Penhall, 'The Matterhorn from the Zmutt Glacier',
Alpine Journal, Vol. IX, reprinted in Peaks, Passes
and Glaciers, ed. Walt Unsworth, London: Allen Lane, 1981, pp.
- Reinhold Messner, The big walls: from the North Face of the
Eiger to the South Face of Dhaulagiri, p 41
- " Super Resolution View of Mini-Matterhorn."
Laboratory, 16 March 1998.
- Toblerone - Shape & Name www.toblerone.com.
Retrieved 1 October
- A list of 109 world 'Matterhorns' CERVIN top model des
Alpes Retrieved 15 October 2007 .
- CERVIN top model
- The climbing history up to 1939 of the Matterhorn,
Snowdon, Ben Nevis, Ushba, Mount Logan, Everest, Nanga Parbat, Kanchenjunga, Mount Cook and