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Note : Do not confuse with Maulana Muhammad Ali Lahori, Muhammad Ali (the Muslim boxer) or any other people named Muhammad Ali: see Muhammad Ali


Maulana Mohammad Ali Jouhar ( ) was an India Muslim Jurist journalist and poet, and was among the leading figures of the Khilafat Movement.

Early life

Muhammad Ali, who later became well-known as Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar (مَولانا مُحمّد علی جَوہر), was born in Rampurmarker state in 1878 to a family of Rohilla sub tribe of Yousafzai Pashtun ancestry. He was the brother of Maulana Shaukat Ali and Maulana Zulfiqar Ali. Despite the early death of his father, the family strived and Ali attended the [Deoband Madaressah]Aligarh Muslim University and Lincoln Collegemarker, Oxford Universitymarker in 1898, studying modern history.

Upon his return to Indiamarker, he served as education director for the Rampur state, and later joined the Barodamarker civil service. He became a brilliant writer and orator, and wrote for major English and Indian newspapers, in both English and Urdu. He himself launched the Urdu weekly Hamdard and English Comrade in 1911. He moved to Delhimarker in 1913.

Mohammad Ali worked hard to expand the AMU, then known as the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College, and was one of the co-founders of the Jamia Millia Islamia in 1920, which was later moved to Delhi.

Khilafat and Political Activities

Mohammed Ali had attended the founding meeting of the All India Muslim League in Dhakamarker in 1906, and served as its president in 1918. He remained active in the League till 1928.

Ali represented the Muslim delegation that travelled to Englandmarker in 1919 in order to convince the British government to influence the Turkish nationalist Mustafa Kemal not to depose the Sultan of Turkeymarker, who was the Caliph of Islam. British rejection of their demands resulted in the formation of the Khilafat committee which directed Muslims all over India to protest and boycott the government.

Now accorded the respectful title of Maulana, Ali formed in 1921, a broad coalition with Muslim nationalists like Maulana Shaukat Ali, Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan, Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari and Indian nationalist leader Mahatma Gandhi, who enlisted the support of the Indian National Congress and many thousands of Hindus, who joined the Muslims in a demonstration of unity. Ali also wholeheartedly supported Gandhi's call for a national civil resistance movement, and inspired many hundreds of protests and strikes all over India. He was arrested by British authorities and imprisoned for two years for what was termed as a seditious speech at the meeting of the Khilafat Conference.He was elected as President of Indian National Congress in 1923.

Muslim separatism

Maulana Mohammad Ali was however, disillusioned by the failure of the Khilafat movement and Gandhi's suspension of civil disobedience in 1922, owing to the Chauri Chaura incident.

He re-started his weekly Hamdard, and left the Congress Party. He opposed the Nehru Report, which was a document proposing constitutional reforms and a dominion status of an independent nation within the British Empire, written by a committee of Hindu and Muslim members of the Congress Party headed by President Motilal Nehru. It was a major protest against the Simon Commission which had arrived in India to propose reforms but containing no Indian nor making any effort to listen to Indian voices.

Mohammad Ali opposed the Nehru Report's rejection of separate electorates for Muslims, and supported the Fourteen Points of Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the League. He became a critic of Gandhi, breaking with fellow Muslim leaders like Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan and Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari, who continued to support Gandhi and the Indian National Congress. Mohammad Ali said: "Even the most degraded Muhammadan was better than Mahatma Gandhi."

Ali attended the Round Table Conference to show that only the Muslim League spoke for India's Muslims. He died soon after the conference in Londonmarker, on January 4, 1931 and was buried in Jerusalemmarker according to his own wish.

Legacy

Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar (مولانا محمد علی جوہر) is remembered as a fiery leader of many of India's Muslims. He is celebrated as a hero by the Muslims of Pakistanmarker, who claim he inspired the Pakistan movement. But in India, he is remembered for his leadership during Khilafat Movement and the Non-Cooperation Movement (1919-1922) and his leadership in Muslim education.

The famous Muhammad Ali Road in south Bombaymarker, Indiamarker's largest city, is named after him. The Gulistan-e-Jauhar ( ) neighborhood of Karachimarker, Sindhmarker, Pakistanmarker's largest city. Mohammad Ali Co-operative Housing Society (M.A.C.H.S.) in Karachi are named in honor of Maulana Mohammad Ali Johar. Johar Town, Lahoremarker, Punjabmarker is also named after him.

News website TwoCircles.net is inspired by a quote of Maulana Mohammad Ali Jouhar. TwoCircles.net

Ali died at a time when the Pakistan movement had not been formed, and it is a matter of continuing debate if he would have ever supported the idea.

Maualana Muhammad Ali mosque in Singaporemarker is named after him.

See also



External links

Biographical pages




Quran translation



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