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Maurienne is one of the province of Savoy, corresponding to the arrondissement of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne in Francemarker. It is also the original name of the capital of the province, now Saint-Jean-de-Mauriennemarker.

Location

The Maurienne valley is one of the great transverse valleys of the Alps. The river which has shaped the valley since the last glaciation is the Arcmarker. The valley begins at the village of Écot (in the commune of Bonneval-sur-Arcmarker), at the foot of the Col de l'Iseranmarker, and ends at the confluence of the Arc and the Isèremarker in the commune of Aitonmarker. The mountains on the southern side are the Dauphiné Alps and the Cottian Alpsmarker. On the northern side are the part of the Graian Alpsmarker known as the Vanoise. The capital, Saint-Jean-de-Mauriennemarker, lies at the confluence of the Arc and the Arvan River.

Roads and railways

Part of the main road and rail route between Lyonmarker and Turinmarker runs through the valley. The A43 autoroute and a railway line enter at the western end from the Isèremarker valley, and leave at Modanemarker using the Fréjus Roadmarker and Railmarker Tunnels respectively which both emerge at Bardonecchiamarker in Italymarker.

The other roads out of the valley use the following mountain cols: Other cols such as the Col d'Etache, Col du Carro and the Col de Vallée Etroite are only passable on foot.

Districts

The province contains the following cantons:
  • canton d'Aiguebelle
  • canton de La Chambre
  • canton de Lanslebourg-Mont-Cenis
  • canton de Modane
  • canton de Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne
  • canton de Saint-Michel-de-Maurienne


Economy

The abundance of hydro-electric power (there are twenty-four hydroelectric stations in the valley) created heavy industry such as electrochemical plants and aluminum refining, but now the emphasis in the area is on tourism, especially winter sports. Numerous ski resorts line the valley, from the small villages like Albiez-Montrondmarker to the purpose-built resorts, dating from the 1970s like Le Corbiermarker and Les Karellis.

History

The region has numerous traces of human habitation since the Paleolithic. In 1032 Humbert I of Savoy received the Maurienne, his native land, from Conrad II the Salian whom he had helped in his Italian campaigns against Aribert, Archbishop of Milan. The House of Savoy maintained their independence as counts and then dukes until Savoy was linked with the Kingdom of Sardinia, which included Piedmont in north-western Italy. In the Maurienne are a series of five forts, La Barrière de l'Esseillon, that were created by the Sardinians in the early 19th century to protect Piedmont from a French invasion. The Maurienne was not incorporated into France until 1860, as part of the political agreement with Napoleon III that brought about the unification of Italy.Despite this, the Maurienne and the Tarantaisemarker valleys are classified as French towns and lands of Art and History.

The Basse-Maurienne

In the lower part of the valley, the three significant towns are:
  • Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne
  • Saint-Michel-de-Maurienne
  • Aiguebelle


The Haute-Maurienne

The upper valley of the Arc is known as the Haute-Maurienne. It lies along the Italian border around 45 km near Mont Cenismarker. The principal town is Modanemarker, an old frontier town, at the mouth of the Fréjus Road Tunnelmarker and dominated by the resort of Val Fréjus. The other villages, rising up from the valley, are:

About 5,000 inhabitants live there permanently, but the population reaches about 15,000 in the winter.

Much of the Haute-Maurienne is included in the Vanoise National Parkmarker, which became the first national park in France in 1973. This borders the Gran Paradiso National Parkmarker of Italy. The two parks are important areas for ibexes, chamois, and golden eagles; the lammergeier was recently reintroduced into the area. It appears that wolves have reached the region within the past five years.

Skiing and Snowboarding

The Maurienne valley is home to around 20 ski resorts.

Alpine / Downhill

In rough order heading up the valley:

Cross Country



There is also access to The Three Valleysmarker via the Orellemarker gondola.

External links




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