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McDonald's Corporation ( ) is the world's largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants, serving nearly 47 million customers daily. At one time it was the largest global restaurant chain, but it has since been surpassed by multi-brand operator Yum! Brands (KFC, Taco Bell and others) and sandwich chain Subway.

In addition to its signature restaurant chain, McDonald’s Corporation held a minority interest in Pret A Manger until 2008, and owned the Chipotle Mexican Grill until 2006 and the restaurant chain Boston Market until 2007. The company has also expanded the McDonald's menu in recent decades to include alternative meal options, such as salads and snack wraps, in order to capitalize on growing consumer interest in health and wellness.

Each McDonald's restaurant is operated by a franchisee, an affiliate, or the corporation itself. The corporations' revenues come from the rent, royalties and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated restaurants. McDonald's revenues grew 27% over the three years ending in 2007 to $22.8 billion, and 9% growth in operating income to $3.9 billion.

McDonald's primarily sells hamburgers, cheeseburgers, chicken products, french fries, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes, and desserts. In response to obesity trends in western nations and in the face of criticism over the healthiness of its products, the company has modified its menu to include such healthier alternatives as salads, wraps and fruit.

History

"Speedee"


The business began in 1940, with a restaurant opened by brothers Dick and Mac McDonald in San Bernardinomarker, Californiamarker. Their introduction of the "Speedee Service System" in 1948 established the principles of the modern fast-food restaurant. The original mascot of McDonald's was a man with a chef's hat on top of a hamburger shaped head whose name was "Speedee." Speedee was eventually replaced with Ronald McDonald in 1963.

The first McDonald's restaurants opened in the United Statesmarker, Canadamarker, Costa Ricamarker, Japanmarker, the Netherlandsmarker, Germanymarker, Australia, Francemarker, El Salvadormarker and Swedenmarker in order of openings.

The present corporation dates its founding to the opening of a franchised restaurant by Ray Kroc, in Des Plainesmarker, Illinoismarker on April 15, 1955, the ninth McDonald's restaurant overall. Kroc later purchased the McDonald brothers' equity in the company and led its worldwide expansion and the company became listed on the public stock markets in 1965. Kroc was also noted for aggressive business practices, compelling the McDonald brothers to leave the fast food industry. The McDonald brothers and Kroc feuded over control of the business, as documented in both Kroc's autobiography and in the McDonald brothers' autobiography. The site of the McDonald brothers' original restaurant is now a monument.

With the expansion of McDonald's into many international markets, the company has become a symbol of globalization and the spread of the American way of life. Its prominence has also made it a frequent topic of public debates about obesity, corporate ethics and consumer responsibility.

Corporate overview

Facts and figures

McDonald's restaurants are found in 119 countries and territories around the world and serve nearly 47 million customers each day. McDonald's operates over 31,000 restaurants worldwide, employing more than 1.5 million people. The company also operates other restaurant brands, such as Piles Café.

Focusing on its core brand, McDonald's began divesting itself of other chains it had acquired during the 1990s. The company owned a majority stake in Chipotle Mexican Grill until October 2006, when McDonald's fully divested from Chipotle through a stock exchange. Until December 2003, it also owned Donatos Pizza. On August 27, 2007, McDonald's sold Boston Market to Sun Capital Partners.

Types of restaurants

Most standalone McDonald's restaurants offer both counter service and drive-through service, with indoor and sometimes outdoor seating. Drive-Thru, Auto-Mac, Pay and Drive, or McDrive as it is known in many countries, often has separate stations for placing, paying for, and picking up orders, though the latter two steps are frequently combined; it was first introduced in Arizona in 1975, following the lead of other fast-food chains. In some countries "McDrive" locations near highways offer no counter service or seating. In contrast, locations in high-density city neighborhoods often omit drive-through service. There are also a few locations, located mostly in downtown districts, that offer Walk-Thru service in place of Drive-Thru.

Specially themed restaurants also exist, such as the "Solid Gold McDonald's," a 1950s rock-and-roll themed restaurant.In Victoriamarker, British Columbiamarker, there is also a McDonald's with a 24 carat (100%) gold chandelier and similar light fixtures.

To accommodate the current trend for high quality coffee and the popularity of coffee shops in general, McDonald's introduced McCafé, a café-style accompaniment to McDonald's restaurants in the style of Starbucks. McCafé is a concept created by McDonald's Australia, starting with Melbourne in 1993. Today, most McDonald's in Australia have McCafés located within the existing McDonald's restaurant. In Tasmaniamarker there are McCafés in every store, with the rest of the states quickly following suit. After upgrading to the new McCafe look and feel, some Australian stores have noticed up to a 60% increase in sales. As of the end of 2003 there were over 600 McCafés worldwide.

Some locations are connected to gas stations/convenience stores, while others called McExpress have limited seating and/or menu or may be located in a shopping mall. Other McDonald's are located in Wal-Martmarker stores. McStop is a location targeted at truckers and travelers which may have services found at truck stops.

Playgrounds

Some McDonald's in suburban areas and certain cities feature large indoor or outdoor playgrounds. The first PlayPlace with the familiar crawl-tube design with ball pits and slides was introduced in 1987 in the USA, with many more being constructed soon after. Some PlayPlace playgrounds have been renovated into "R Gym" areas.

"R Gyms" are in-restaurant play area that features interactive game zones designed for children aged 4 to 11. They are equipped with stationary bicycles attached to video games, dance pads, basketball hoops, monkey bars, an obstacle course, and other games which emphasize physical activity.

The "R Gym" features the Toddler Zone, an active play environment with age appropriate games that develop physical coordination and social skills; the Active Zone, designed for children aged four-to-eight that promotes physical fitness through fun play; the Sports Zone which features a series of sport oriented activities to promote aerobic exercise for children aged 9-to-11; the Parent Zone which features seating and provides a monitoring area for their children; and the Dining Area which allows families to eat.

Redesign

In 2006, McDonald's introduced its "Forever Young" brand by redesigning all of their restaurants, the first major redesign since the 1970s.

The design includes the traditional McDonald's yellow and red colors, but the red is muted to terra cotta, the yellow was turned golden for a more "sunny" look, and olive and sage green were also added. To warm up their look, the restaurants have less plastic and more brick and wood, with modern hanging lights to produce a softer glow. Contemporary art or framed photographs hang on the walls.

The exterior has golden awnings and a "swish brow" instead of the traditional double-slanted mansard roof.

The restaurants feature areas:
  • The "linger" zone offers armchairs, sofas, and Wi-Fi connections.
  • The "grab and go" zone features tall counters with bar stools for customers who eat alone; Plasma TVs offer them news and weather reports.
  • The "flexible" zone is targeted toward families and have booths featuring fabric cushions with colorful patterns and flexible seating.
  • Different music targeted to each zone.


Branches in the United Kingdommarker have an even more contemporary look and feel to the stores, replacing the red with a deep British racing green and overall making the stores look more casual, similar to a Starbucks branch. Branches in Germany have also been redesigned to have a more contemporary style and green exterior. Additionally, in Germany, the traditional "golden arches" over red sign is being changed to "golden arches" over green.

Business model

McDonald's Corporation earns revenue as an investor in properties, a franchiser of restaurants, and an operator of restaurants. Approximately 15% of McDonald's restaurants are owned and operated by McDonald's Corporation directly. The remainder are operated by others through a variety of franchise agreements and joint ventures.The McDonald's Corporation's business model is slightly different from that of most other fast-food chains. In addition to ordinary franchise fees and marketing fees, which are calculated as a percentage of sales, McDonald's may also collect rent, which may also be calculated on the basis of sales. As a condition of many franchise agreements, which vary by contract, age, country, and location, the Corporation may own or lease the properties on which McDonald's franchises are located. In most, if not all cases, the franchisee does not own the location of its restaurants.

The UK business model is different, in that fewer than 30% of restaurants are franchised, with the majority under the ownership of the company. McDonald's trains its franchisees and others at Hamburger Universitymarker in Oak Brookmarker, Illinoismarker.

In other countries, McDonald's restaurants are operated by joint ventures of McDonald's Corporation and other, local entities or governments.

As a matter of policy, McDonald's does not make direct sales of food or materials to franchisees, instead organizing the supply of food and materials to restaurants through approved third party logistics operators.

According to Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser (2001), nearly one in eight workers in the U.S.marker have at some time been employed by McDonald's. (According to a news piece on Fox News this figure is one in ten). The book also states that McDonald's is the largest private operator of playgrounds in the U.S., as well as the single largest purchaser of beef, pork, potatoes, and apples. The selection of meats McDonald's uses varies with the culture of the host country.

Shareholder Dividends

McDonald's has increased shareholder dividends for 25 consecutive years making it one of the S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats with the highest annual dividends of publicly traded companies in the fast food industry

Controversies

As a prominent example of the rapid globalization of American fast food industry, McDonald's is often the target of criticism for its menu, its expansion, and its business practices.

The McLibel Trial, also known as McDonald's Restaurants v Morris & Steel, is an example of this criticism. In 1990, activists from a small group known as London Greenpeace (no connection to the international pressure group Greenpeace) distributed leaflets entitled What's wrong with McDonald's?, criticizing its environmental, health, and labor record. The corporation wrote to the group demanding they desist and apologize, and, when two of the activists refused to back down, sued them for libel in one of the longest cases in British civil law. A documentary film of the McLibel Trial has been shown in several countries.

The term "McJob" was added to Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary in 2003, over the objections of McDonald's. In an open letter to Merriam-Webster, Jim Cantalupo, former CEO of McDonald's, denounced the definition as a "slap in the face" to all restaurant employees, and stated that "a more appropriate definition of a 'McJob' might be 'teaches responsibility.'" Merriam-Webster responded that "we stand by the accuracy and appropriateness of our definition." McJob is defined by Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary as "a low-paying job that requires little skill and provides little opportunity for advancement".

In 1999, French anti-globalisation activist José Bové vandalized a half-built McDonald's to protest against the introduction of fast food in the region.

In 2001, Eric Schlosser's book Fast Food Nation included criticism of the business practices of McDonald's. Among the critiques were allegations that McDonald's (along with other companies within the fast food industry) uses its political influence to increase its profits at the expense of people's health and the social conditions of its workers. The book also brought into question McDonald's advertisement techniques in which it targets children. While the book did mention other fast-food chains, it focused primarily on McDonald's.

In 2002, vegetarian groups, largely Hindu, successfully sued McDonald's for misrepresenting their French fries as vegetarian.

Morgan Spurlock's 2004 documentary film Super Size Me said that McDonald's food was contributing to the epidemic of obesity in society, and that the company was failing to provide nutritional information about its food for its customers. Six weeks after the film premiered, McDonald's announced that it was eliminating the super size option, and was creating the adult happy meal.

The soya that is fed to McDonald’s chickens is supplied by agricultural giant Cargill and comes directly from Brazil. Greenpeace alleges that not only is soya destroying the Amazon rain forest in Brazilmarker, but soya farmers are guilty of further crimes including slavery and the invasion of indigenous peoples’ lands. The allegation is that McDonald's, as a client of Cargill's, is complicit in these activities.

Arguments in defense of McDonald's

In response to public pressure, McDonald's has sought to include more healthy choices in its menu and has introduced a new slogan to its recruitment posters: "Not bad for a McJob". (The word McJob, first attested in the mid-1980s and later popularized by Canadian novelist Douglas Coupland in his book Generation X, has become a buzz word for low-paid, unskilled work with few prospects or benefits and little security.) McDonald's disputes the idea that its restaurant jobs have no prospects, noting that its CEO, Jim Skinner, started working at the company as a regular restaurant employee, and that 20 of its top 50 managers began work as regular crew members. In 2007, the company launched an advertising campaign with the slogan "Would you like a career with that?" on Irishmarker television, outlining that their jobs have many prospects.

In a bid to tap into growing consumer interest in the provenance of food, the fast-food chain recently switched its supplier of both coffee beans and milk. UK chief executive Steve Easterbrook said: "British consumers are increasingly interested in the quality, sourcing and ethics of the food and drink they buy". McDonald's coffee is now brewed from beans taken from stocks that have been certified by the Rainforest Alliance, a conservation group. Similarly, milk supplies used for its hot drinks and milkshakes have been switched to organic sources which could account for 5% of the UK's organic milk output.

McDonald's announced on May 22, 2008 that, in the U.S. and Canada, it will be introducing cooking oil for its french fries that contains no trans fats. The company will use canola-based oil with corn and soy oils by year's end for its baked items, pies and cookies.

Environmental record

Discarded fast food packaging contributes to the urban litter problem in cities worldwide
In April 2008, McDonald's announced that 11 of its Sheffieldmarker restaurants have been using a biomass trial that had cut its waste and carbon footprint by half in the area. In this trial, waste from the restaurants were collected by Veolia Environmental Services and used to produce energy at a power plant. McDonald's plans to expand this project, although the lack of biomass power plants in the U.S. will prevent this plan from becoming a national standard anytime soon. In addition, in Europe, McDonald's has been recycling vegetable grease by converting it to fuel for their diesel trucks.

Furthermore, McDonald's has been using a corn-based bioplastic to produce containers for some of their products. Although industries who use this product claim a carbon savings of 30% to 80%, a Guardian study shows otherwise. The results show that this type of plastic does not break down in landfills as efficiently as other conventional plastics. The extra energy it takes to recycle this plastic results in a higher output of greenhouse gases. Also, the plastics can contaminate waste streams, causing other recycled plastics to become unsaleable.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recognized McDonald's continuous effort to reduce solid waste by designing more efficient packaging and by promoting the use of recycled-content materials. McDonald's reports that they are committed towards environmental leadership by effectively managing electric energy, by conserving natural resources through recycling and reusing materials, and by addressing water management issues within the restaurant.

In an effort to reduce energy usage by 25% in its restaurants, McDonald's opened a prototype restaurant in Chicago in 2009 with the intention of using the model in its other restaurants throughout the world. Building on past efforts, specifically a restaurant it opened in Sweden in 2000 that was the first to intentionally incorporate green ideas, McDonald's designed the Chicago site to save energy by incorporating old and new ideas such as managing storm water, using skylights for more natural lighting and installing some partitions and tabletops made from recycled goods.

When McDonald’s received criticism for its environmental policies in the 1970s, it began to make substantial progress towards source reductions efforts. For instance, an “average meal” in the 1970s—a Big Mac, fries, and a drink—required 46 grams of packaging; today, it requires only 25 grams, allowing a 46% reduction. In addition, McDonald’s eliminated the need for intermediate containers for cola by having a delivery system that pumps syrup directly from the delivery truck into storage containers, saving two million pounds of packaging annually. Overall, weight reductions in packaging and products, as well as the increased usage of bulk packaging ultimately decreased packaging by 24 million pounds annually.

Legal cases

McDonald's has been involved in a number of lawsuits and other legal cases, most of which involved trademark disputes. The company has threatened many food businesses with legal action unless they drop the Mc or Mac from their trading name. In one noteworthy case, McDonald's sued a Scottish café owner called McDonald, even though the business in question dated back over a century (Sheriff Court Glasgow and Strathkelvin, November 21, 1952).

It has also filed numerous defamation suits. For example, in the McLibel case, McDonald's sued two activists for distributing pamphlets attacking its environmental, labor and health records. After the longest trial in UK legal history, McDonald's won a technical victory for showing that some allegations were untrue. But it was a massive public relations disaster, since the judge also found that more than half of what was on the pamphlet was truthful, or were simply the opinions of the activists and therefore non-prosecutable.

McDonald's has defended itself in several cases involving workers' rights. In 2001 the company was fined £12,400 by British magistrates for illegally employing and over-working child labor in one of its London restaurants. This is thought to be one of the largest fines imposed on a company for breaking laws relating to child working conditions (R v 2002 EWCA Crim 1094). In April 2007 in Perthmarker, Western Australiamarker, McDonald's pleaded guilty to five charges relating to the employment of children under 15 in one of its outlets and was fined AU$8,000.

Possibly the most infamous legal case involving McDonald's was the 1994 decision in The McDonald's Coffee Case.

In a McDonald's American Idol figurine promotion, the figurine that represents "New Wave Nigel" wears something that closely resembles Devo’s Energy Dome, which was featured on the band's album cover, Freedom of Choice. In addition to the figurine's image, it also plays a tune that appears to be an altered version of Devo's song "Doctor Detroit." Devo copyrighted and trademarked the Energy Dome and is taking legal action against McDonald's.

Products



McDonald's predominantly sells hamburgers, various types of chicken sandwiches and products, French fries, soft drinks, breakfast items, and desserts. In most markets, McDonald's offers salads and vegetarian items, wraps and other localized fare. Portugal is the only country with McDonald's restaurants serving soup. This local deviation from the standard menu is a characteristic for which the chain is particularly known, and one which is employed either to abide by regional food taboos (such as the religious prohibition of beef consumption in Indiamarker) or to make available foods with which the regional market is more familiar (such as the sale of McRice in Indonesiamarker).

Headquarters

McDonald's Plaza, the headquarters of McDonald's
The McDonald's headquarters complex, McDonald's Plaza, is located in Oak Brook, Illinoismarker. It sits on the site of the former headquarters and stabling area of Paul Butler, the founder of Oak Brook. McDonald's moved into the Oak Brook facility from an office within the Chicago Loopmarker in 1971.

Advertising

McDonald's has for decades maintained an extensive advertising campaign. In addition to the usual media (television, radio, and newspaper), the company makes significant use of billboards and signage, sponsors sporting events ranging from Little League to the Olympic Games, and makes coolers of orange drink with their logo available for local events of all kinds. Nonetheless, television has always played a central role in the company's advertising strategy.

To date, McDonald's has used 23 different slogans in United Statesmarker advertising, as well as a few other slogans for select countries and regions. At times, it has run into trouble with its campaigns.

Children's advertising

Gallery

Image:Mcdonalds times sq.png|A McDonald's store front in Times Square.Image:McDonalds Times Square.JPG|Non-traditional storefront of the McDonald's in Times Square.Image:Mcdonalds stratford.jpg|A store in Stratford-upon-Avonmarker, conforming to the historic ethos of Shakespeare's birthplaceImage:20070509 Rock 26 Roll McDonalds from 7th fl of Sports Authority.jpg|the Rock N Roll McDonald'smarker in where the company celebrated its 50th anniversary.Image:McDonalds Museum.jpg|The site of the first McDonald's to be franchised by Ray Kroc is now a museum in Des Plainesmarker, Illinoismarker. The building is a replica of the original, which was the ninth McDonald's restaurant.image:Mcdonalds Restaurant Riyadh.JPG|McDonald's in RiyadhmarkerImage:McForeverYoung.jpg|A McDonald's in Shenango Township, Pennsylvaniamarker just outside of New Castlemarker was rebuilt in 2007 with the new "Forever Young" look.Image:McDonalds on Interstate 44.jpg|McDonald's over Interstate 44 in Vinita, OklahomamarkerImage:Seminole_Park Blvd_McDonalds.jpg|McDonald's in Seminole, Floridamarker on Park BlvdFile:Mcdonlds.jpg|McDonald's in Gizamarker, Egyptmarker in Arab League Street.Image:McDonalds_in_Moncton.jpg|McDonald's Canada with a Playplace in Monctonmarker, New Brunswickmarker, Canadamarker

Image:McDonalds_Toronto.jpg|McDonald's Canada in Torontomarker, Ontariomarker, Canadamarker on Dundas Street & Bathurst Street.Image:Mc donalds-toronto.jpg|McDonald's Canada at a Wal-Mart Canada in Torontomarker, Ontariomarker, Canadamarker.Image:McDonalds_Kitchener.jpg|McDonald's Canada in Kitchenermarker, Ontariomarker, Canadamarker

Image:McDonald's Canada restaurant in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario.jpg|McDonald's Canada with a Playplace in Sault Ste.marker Mariemarker, Ontariomarker, Canadamarker.Image:McDonalds_Station_Mall.JPG‎|McDonald's Canada at a Station Mallmarker in Sault Ste.marker Mariemarker, Ontariomarker, Canadamarker.Image:McCafe.jpg|The interior of a McCafé concept located in Dublin, Irelandmarker.Image:British Refurbished Stand Alone McDonalds.jpg|A refurbished stand-alone McDonald's in Portsmouthmarker, Englandmarker. Unlike international McDonald's, Britishmarker McDonald's are simply being refurbished rather than rebuilt.Image:Mcdoanldsnewcastlenorthumberlandstreet.jpg|McDonald's in Newcastle upon Tynemarker, another example of current McDonald's restaurants being refurbished in Britain.Image:McDonald's Slovakia.JPG|McDonald's in Bratislavamarker, Slovakiamarker.Image:McDonalds in Corfu at night.PNG|McDonald's in Corfumarker, Greecemarker.Image:Mcd riga.jpg|McDonald's in Rigamarker, Latviamarker.Image:McDonald's Meknes.jpg|A McDonald's in Meknesmarker, Moroccomarker.Image:McDonald's by F-9 Park in Islamabad.jpg|Islamabadmarker, Pakistanmarker.Image:Mcdelivery.JPG|A McDonald's delivery vehicle in Seoulmarker, South Koreamarker.Image:McDonald's Philippines.jpg|McDonald's in Angeles Citymarker, Philippinesmarker.Image:McDonald's, Karlshamn.jpg|McDonald's in Karlshamnmarker, Swedenmarker.Image:McDonalds Bergen Norway 2009 1.JPG|McDonald's in Bergenmarker, Norwaymarker.Image:McDonald's from Helsinki Finland, Ruoholahti.jpg|McDonald's in Helsinkimarker, Finlandmarker.

Global Operations

Countries with McDonald's stores
's has become emblematic of globalization, sometimes referred to as the "McDonaldization" of society. The Economist magazine uses the "Big Mac Index": the comparison of a Big Mac's cost in various world currencies can be used to informally judge these currencies' purchasing power parity. Scandinavian countries lead the Big Mac Index with four of the five most expensive Big Mac's. Norwaymarker has the most expensive Big Mac in the world as of July 2008, whilst the cheapest country is Malaysiamarker.

Thomas Friedman once said that no country with a McDonald's had gone to war with another. However, the "Golden Arches Theory of Conflict Prevention" is not strictly true. Exceptions are the 1989 United States invasion of Panama, NATO's bombing of Serbia in 1999, the 2006 Lebanon War, and the 2008 South Ossetia War.

Some observers have suggested that the company should be given credit for increasing the standard of service in markets that it enters. A group of anthropologists in a study entitled Golden Arches East looked at the impact McDonald's had on East Asia, and Hong Kongmarker in particular. When it opened in Hong Kong in 1975, McDonald's was the first restaurant to consistently offer clean restrooms, driving customers to demand the same of other restaurants and institutions. McDonald's have recently taken to partnering up with Sinopec, China's second largest oil company, in the People's Republic of China, as it begins to take advantage of China's growing use of personal vehicles by opening numerous drive-thru restaurants. McDonald's reached a deal with the French fine arts museum, the Louvremarker, to open a McDonald's restaurant and McCafé on its premises,by their underground entrance, in November 2009.

Global locations









See also



Competitors

  • Burger King - Second largest burger chain
  • Subway - Largest single brand restaurant chain
  • Yum! - Largest multi-brand restaurant chain


References

  1. McDonaold's history from Route-66.com
  2. http://www.mcdonalds.ca/en/aboutus/faq.aspx, retrieved May 08, 2008
  3. Brand, Rachel. (2006-12-23) "Chipotle founder had big dreams" Rocky Mountain News. retrieved on 2009-10-07.
  4. McDonald's raises cash dividend by 10% Reuters.com, retrieved 9/28/2009
  5. Definition of S&P 500 Aristocrat at Investopedia
  6. List of 2009 Dividend Aristocrats via Seeking Alpha, retrieved 10/1/2009
  7. Comparison of Publicly Traded Fast Food Company Dividends via Wikinvest
  8. " Merriam-Webster: 'McJob' is here to stay". The Associated Press. November 11, 2003.
  9. "McDonald's hails success of waste-to-energy trial" businessgreen.com. April 14, 2008. Accessed April 22, 2008.
  10. "Local woman creates environmental-friendly Web site" herald-dispatch.com. April 19, 2008. Accessed April 22, 2008.
  11. "'Sustainable' bio-plastic can damage the environment" guardian.co.uk. April 26, 2008. Accessed May 6, 2008.
  12. Steele, Jeffrey. " OAK BROOK HISTORY IN CARING HANDS SOCIETY PRESIDENT IS PART OF VILLAGE'S CHANGING HERITAGE." Chicago Tribune. July 29, 1998. Page 88. Retrieved on September 17, 2009.
  13. Cross, Robert. " Inside Hamburger Central." Chicago Tribune. January 9, 1972. G18. Retrieved on September 17, 2009.
  14. "The Lexus and the Olive Tree". thomaslfriedman.com. Accessed June 4, 2007.
  15. Stanford University Press, 1998, edited by James L. Watson


External links



Multimedia

  • CBC Archives CBC Television reports on the opening of Moscow McDonald's (1990).



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