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Melayu Kingdom: Map

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Map of ancient Melayu Kingdom.


Melayu Kingdom (also known as Malayu, Dharmasraya Kingdom or the Jambi Kingdom) was a classical Southeast Asian kingdom that existed between the 7th and the 13th century of the common era. It was established around present-day Jambimarker on Sumatramarker, Indonesiamarker, approximately 200 km north of Palembangmarker. It was founded by society in Batanghari river and the gold trader from Minangkabau hinterland. Around 688 CE, emperor Jayanasa integrated Jambi into the Srivijayan empire.

Origin

According to Yijing , the early Melayu (written as Ma-La-Yu in Chinese text 末羅瑜國) was an independent kingdom. In the late 7th century, the monk Yijing recorded that the second time he returned back to Ma-La-Yu, it was captured by Srivijaya. Further, Melayu had accessed to gold producing areas in the hinterland of Sumatra. This slowly increased the prestige of Melayu which traded various local goods, including gold, with foreign traders. The word Melayu was inscribed (year 1286) on the Padang Rocore statue at the river mouth of Muara Jambi. According to the Encyclopedia of Malaysia, ancient Indian texts in Ramayana and Vayu Purana (3rd century BCE), the Sanskrit word 'Malayadvipa' (literally 'Malay Island') was mentioned, referring to Sumatramarker. The Khmer recorded the nation of Melayu, however, its progeny of Srivijaya was also called Melayu.

Chinese sources

In the later Mongol Yuanmarker dynasty and Ming dynasty, the word Ma-La-Yu was mentioned often (in the history of China) to refer to a nation from southern sea with different spelling due to the change of dynasty.

  • (Chinese: 木剌由) - Bok-la-yu, Mok-la-yu
  • (Chinese: 麻里予兒) - Ma-li-yu-er
  • (Chinese: 巫来由) - Oo-lai-yu (traced from the written source of monk Xuan Zang)
  • (Chinese: 無来由) - Wu-lai-yu


Partly extract from the original Chronicle of Mongol Yuan (in Chinese): Chronicle of Mongol Yuan
 (in English: Animosity occurred between Siammarker and Ma-la-yu with both killing each other...)


Marco Polo

From the book Travels of Marco Polo, the word "Malauir" was mentioned to refer to an area somewhere in the southern part of the Malay peninsula. [342263]

Sejarah Melayu

The word Melayu is also mentioned in the Sejarah Melayu.
 [342264]


Center of Srivijaya

1079 and 1088, Chinese record shows that Srivijaya sent ambassadors from Jambi and Palembang. In 1079 in particular, an ambassador from Jambi and Palembang each visited China. Jambi sent two more ambassadors to China in 1082 and 1088. This suggests that the center of Srivijaya frequently shifted between the two major cities during that period. The Chola expedition and as well as changing trade route weakened Palembang, allowing Jambi to take the leadership of Srivijaya from the 11th century on.

Demise

Almost a century after taking over Palembang's role as the center of an empire, Jambi and Srivijaya experienced decline in influence. This was caused by a change of policy by the Song dynasty to no longer accept ambassadors from Srivijaya and Jambi's inability to cope with changing scenario. Instead of the Jambi controlling the trade through tributary system, traders were allowed to trade directly instead.

Melayu's last prince Parameswara

Mahesa/Kebo/Lembu Anabrang was a General of Singhasari, he conquered Srivijaya and Melayu in 1288. In the year 1347, Gajah Mada the military leader of Majapahit installed Adityawarman as the king of Melayu to prevent the revival of Srivijaya. Adityawarman later conquered Tanah Datar to take control of the gold trade and founded a kingdom in Pagar Ruyung. In the year 1377, the Majapahit defeated Palembang and ended effort to revive Srivijaya. The last prince of Srivijayan origin, Parameswara, fled to Temasik to seek refuge before moving farther north, where he founded what would become the Malacca Sultanate.

References

  1. Buddhist Monks Pilgrimage of Tang Dynasty
  2. Sabri Zain. The origins of the word 'Melayu'. A History of the Malay Peninsula.
  3. John Miksic. Wider contacts in protohistoric times. The Encyclopedia of Malaysia
  4. Page 165. Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Paul Michel Munoz.
  5. Page 165. Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Paul Michel Munoz.
  6. Page 165. Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Paul Michel Munoz.
  7. Page 167. Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Paul Michel Munoz.
  8. Page 168. Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Paul Michel Munoz.
  9. Page 169. Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Paul Michel Munoz.


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