is the interdisciplinary
scientific study of the
that focuses on
processes and forecasting (in
contrast with climatology
). Studies in
the field stretch back millennia, though significant progress in
meteorology did not occur until the eighteenth century. The
nineteenth century saw breakthroughs occur after observing networks
developed across several countries. Breakthroughs in weather
forecasting were achieved in the latter half of the twentieth
century, after the development of the computer.
are observable weather events which illuminate and
are explained by the science of meteorology. Those events are bound
by the variables that exist in Earth
atmosphere: They are temperature
, water vapor
, and the gradients and interactions
of each variable, and how they change in time. The majority of
Earth's observed weather is located in the troposphere
. Different spatial scales are
studied to determine how systems on local, region, and global
levels impact weather and climatology. Meteorology, climatology
, atmospheric physics
, and atmospheric chemistry
sub-disciplines of the atmospheric
. Meteorology and hydrology
compose the interdisciplinary field of hydrometeorology
. Interactions between
Earth's atmosphere and the oceans are part of coupled
ocean-atmosphere studies. Meteorology has application in many
diverse fields such as the military, energy production, transport,
agriculture and construction.
The word "meteorology
in the sky"; and , -logia
In 350 BC, Aristotle
. Aristotle is
considered the founder of meteorology. For 2,000 years, no one
added anything significant to his findings (Farrand, 1991). One of
the most impressive achievements described in the
is the description of what is now known as the
hydrologic cycle. The Greek
compiled a book on weather
forecasting, called the Book of Signs
. The work of
Theophrastus remained a dominant influence in the study of weather
and in weather forecasting for nearly 2,000 years. In 25 AD,
, a geographer for the
, formalized the climatic
zone system. Around the 9th century, Al-Kindi
(Alkindus), an Arab naturalist
, wrote a treatise on
meteorology entitled Risala fi l-Illa al-Failali l-Madd wa
(Treatise on the Efficient Cause of the Flow and
), in which he presents an argument on tides
which "depends on the changes which take place in
bodies owing to the rise and fall of temperature." Also in the 9th
, a Kurdish
naturalist, writes the Kitab
(Book of Plants
), in which he deals with the
application of meteorology to agriculture
during the Muslim Agricultural
. He describes the meteorological character of the
sky, the planets
, the sun
, the lunar
, the anwa
of rain), and
atmospheric phenomena such as winds, thunder, lightning, snow,
floods, valleys, rivers, lakes, wells and other sources of water. ,
Research of visual atmospheric phenomena
In 1021, Ibn al-Haytham
Iraqi scientist writes on the atmospheric refraction
. He showed that the twilight is due to
atmospheric refraction and only begins when the Sun is 19 degrees
below the horizon
, and uses a complex
geometric demonstration to measure the height of the Earth's atmosphere
( ), which is very close to the modern measurement
of . He also realized that the atmosphere
also reflects light, from his observations
of the sky brightening even before
rises. In 1121, Al-Khazini
, a Muslim
of Byzantine Greek
descent, publishes the The Book of the Balance of Wisdom
the first study on the hydrostatic balance
. In the late
13th century and early 14th century, Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi
continued the work of Ibn al-Haytham, and they
were the first to give the correct explanations for the rainbow
phenomenon. In 1716, Edmund Halley suggests
are caused by
"magnetic effluvia" moving along the Earth's magnetic field
Instruments and classification scales
In 1441, King Sejongs
son, Prince Munjong, invented the first standardized rain gauge
. These were sent throughout the Joseon Dynasty of Korea as an
official tool to assess land taxes based upon a farmer's potential
In 1450, Leone
developed a swinging-plate anemometer
, and is known as the first
. In 1607, Galileo
constructs a thermoscope
. In 1611, Johannes Kepler
writes the first scientific
treatise on snow crystals: "Strena Seu de Nive Sexangula (A New
Year's Gift of Hexagonal Snow)". In 1643, Evangelista Torricelli
. In 1662, Sir Christopher Wren
invented the mechanical,
self-emptying, tipping bucket rain gauge. In 1714, Gabriel Fahrenheit
creates a reliable
scale for measuring temperature with a mercury-type thermometer. In
1742, Anders Celsius
, a Swedish
astronomer, proposed the 'centigrade' temperature scale, the
predecessor of the current Celsius
1783, the first hair hygrometer
demonstrated by Horace-Bénédict de
. In 1802-1803, Luke Howard
writes On the Modification of Clouds
in which he assigns
cloud types Latin
names. In 1806, Francis Beaufort
introduced his system for classifying wind speeds
. Near the
end of the 19th century
were published, including
the International Cloud
, which has remained in print ever since. The April
1960 launch of the first successful weather satellite
, marked the beginning of the age where
weather information became available globally.
Atmospheric composition research
In 1648, Blaise Pascal
that atmospheric pressure
decreases with height, and deduces that there is a vacuum above the
atmosphere. In 1738, Daniel
, initiating the
of gases and
established the basic laws for the theory of gases. In 1761,
discovers that ice
its temperature when melting. In 1772, Black's student Daniel Rutherford
, which he calls phlogisticated
, and together they developed the phlogiston theory
. In 1777, Antoine Lavoisier
and develops an explanation for combustion. In
1783, in Lavoisier's book Reflexions sur le phlogistique
he deprecates the phlogiston theory and proposes a caloric theory
. In 1804, Sir John Leslie
observes that a matte
black surface radiates heat more effectively than a polished
surface, suggesting the importance of black body radiation
. In 1808, John Dalton
defends caloric theory in A New
System of Chemistry
and describes how it combines with matter,
especially gases; he proposes that the heat capacity
of gases varies inversely with
. In 1824, Sadi Carnot
efficiency of steam engines
caloric theory; he develops the notion of a reversible process
and, in postulating
that no such thing exists in nature, lays the foundation for the
second law of
Research into cyclones and air flow
The westerlies and trade winds are part of the Earth's atmospheric
In 1494, Christopher Columbus
experiences a tropical cyclone, leads to the first written European
account of a hurricane. In 1686, Edmund
presents a systematic study of the trade winds
and identifies solar heating as the cause of atmospheric motions.
In 1735, an ideal
explanation of global circulation
through study of
the Trade winds
was written by George Hadley
. In 1743, when Benjamin Franklin
is prevented from seeing
a lunar eclipse by a hurricane
decides that cyclones move in a contrary manner to the winds at
their periphery. Understanding the kinematics of how exactly the
rotation of the Earth affects airflow was partial at first.
Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis published a paper in 1835 on the energy
yield of machines with rotating parts, such as waterwheels. In
1856, William Ferrel
existence of a circulation cell
mid-latitudes with air being deflected by the Coriolis force to
create the prevailing westerly winds. Late in the 19th century the
full extent of the large scale interaction of pressure gradient force
deflecting force that in the end causes air masses to move
was understood. By
1912, this deflecting force was named the Coriolis effect.
World War II, a group of meteorologists
in Norway led by
Vilhelm Bjerknes developed the
Norwegian cyclone model that
explains the generation, intensification and ultimate decay (the
life cycle) of mid-latitude
cyclones, introducing the idea of fronts, that is, sharply defined
boundaries between air masses.
group included Carl-Gustaf Rossby
(who was the first to explain the large scale atmospheric flow in
terms of fluid dynamics
), Tor Bergeron
(who first determined the
mechanism by which rain forms) and Jacob
Observation networks and weather forecasting
Ferdinando II de Medici
establishes the first weather observing network, that
consisted of meteorological stations in Florence, Cutigliano, Vallombrosa, Bologna, Parma, Milan, Innsbruck, Osnabruck, Paris and Warsaw.
Cloud classification by altitude of occurrence
Collected data was centrally sent to Florence at regular time
intervals. In 1832, an electromagnetic telegraph was created by
. The arrival of the
afforded, for the first time, a practical method for quickly
gathering surface weather
from a wide area. This data could be used to
produce maps of the state of the atmosphere for a region near the
Earth's surface and to study how these states evolved through time.
frequent weather forecasts based on these data required a reliable
network of observations, but it was not until 1849 that the
Institution began to establish an observation network across
States under the leadership of Joseph Henry.
networks were established in Europe
1854, the United
Kingdom government appointed Robert FitzRoy to the new office of
Meteorological Statist to the Board of Trade with the role
of gathering weather observations at sea.
became the United Kingdom Meteorological
in 1854, the first national meteorological service in
the world. The first daily weather forecasts made by FitzRoy's
Office were published in The
newspaper in 1860. The following year a system was
introduced of hoisting storm warning cones at principal ports when
a gale was expected.
Over the next 50 years many countries established national
meteorological services. The India Meteorological
(1875) was established following tropical cyclone
in the previous decades. The Finnish
Meteorological Central Office (1881) was formed from part of
Magnetic Observatory of Helsinki University. Japan's Tokyo
Meteorological Observatory, the forerunner of the Japan Meteorological Agency,
began constructing surface weather maps in 1883.
United States Weather
Bureau (1890) was established under the United
States Department of Agriculture.
The Australian Bureau of Meteorology
(1906) was established by a Meteorology Act to unify existing state
Numerical weather prediction
A meteorologist at the console of the
IBM 7090 in the Joint Numerical Weather Prediction Unit. c.
In 1904, Norwegian scientist Vilhelm
first argued in his paper Weather Forecasting as a
Problem in Mechanics and Physics
that it should be possible to
forecast weather from calculations based upon natural laws
It was not until later in the 20th century that advances in the
understanding of atmospheric physics led to the foundation of
modern numerical weather
. In 1922, Lewis Fry
published "Weather Prediction By Numerical Process,"
after finding notes and derivations he worked on as an ambulance
driver in World War I. He described therein how small terms in the
prognostic fluid dynamics equations governing atmospheric flow
could be neglected, and a finite differencing scheme in time and
space could be devised, to allow numerical prediction solutions to
be found. Richardson envisioned a large auditorium of thousands of
people performing the calculations and passing them to others.
However, the sheer number of calculations required was too large to
be completed without the use of computers, and the size of the grid
and time steps led to unrealistic results in deepening systems. It
was later found, through numerical analysis, that this was due to
Starting in the 1950s, numerical
with computers became feasible. The first weather forecasts
derived this way used
single-vertical-level) models, and could successfully predict the
large-scale movement of midlatitude Rossby
, that is, the pattern of atmospheric lows
In the 1960s, the chaotic
nature of the
atmosphere was first observed and understood by Edward Lorenz
, founding the field of chaos theory
. These advances have led to the
current use of ensemble
in most major forecasting centers, to take into
account uncertainty arising from the chaotic nature of the
atmosphere. In recent years, climate
have been developed that feature a resolution comparable
to older weather prediction models. These climate models are used
to investigate long-term climate
such as what effects might be caused by human emission of greenhouse gases
who study meteorology. Meteorologists
work in government agencies
private consulting and research
industrial enterprises, utilities, radio and television stations
, and in education
. In the United States, meteorologists
held about 8,800 jobs in 2006.
Meteorologists are best-known for forecasting the weather
. In 2006, more than 90 percent of the around
3,200 meteorologists employed by the National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration
worked as forecasters in the
National Weather Service
Many radio and television weather forecasters are professional
meteorologists, while others are merely reporters
with no formal meteorological training.
and National Weather Association
issue "Seals of Approval" to weather broadcasters who meet certain
Each science has its own unique sets of laboratory equipment. In
the atmosphere, there are many things or qualities of the
atmosphere that can be measured. Rain, which can be observed, or
seen anywhere and anytime was one of the first ones to be measured
historically. Also, two other accurately measured
are wind and humidity. Neither of these can be
but can be felt. The devices to measure these three
sprang up in the mid-15th century and were respectively the
, the anemometer, and the
Sets of surface measurements are important data to meteorologists.
They give a snapshot of a variety of weather conditions at one
single location and are usually at a weather station
, a ship
or a weather buoy
. The measurements
taken at a weather station can include any number of atmospheric
observables. Usually, temperature, pressure
, wind measurements, and
are the variables that are
measured by a thermometer, barometer, anemometer, and hygrometer,
respectively. Upper air data are of crucial importance for weather
forecasting. The most widely used technique is launches of radiosondes
. Supplementing the radiosondes a
network of aircraft
is organized by the World Meteorological
, as used in
meteorology, is the concept of collecting data from remote weather
events and subsequently producing weather information. The common
types of remote sensing are Radar
, and satellites
). Each collects data
about the atmosphere from a remote location and, usually, stores
the data where the instrument is located. RADAR and LIDAR are not
passive because both use EM radiation
to illuminate a specific portion of the atmosphere. Weather
satellites along with more general-purpose Earth-observing
satellites circling the earth at various altitudes have become an
indispensable tool for studying a wide range of phenomena from
forest fires to El Niño
In the study of the atmosphere, meteorology can be divided into
distinct areas of emphasis depending on the temporal scope and
spatial scope of interest. At one extreme of this scale is
climatology. In the timescales of hours to days, meteorology
separates into micro-, meso-, and synoptic scale meteorology.
Respectively, the geospatial
size of each
of these three scales relates directly with the appropriate
Other subclassifications are available based on the need by or by
the unique, local or broad effects that are studied within that
Microscale meteorology is the study of atmospheric phenomena of
about 1 km or less. Individual thunderstorms, clouds, and
local turbulence caused by buildings and other obstacles, such as
individual hills fall within this category.
Mesoscale meteorology is the study of atmospheric phenomena that
has horizontal scales ranging from microscale limits to synoptic
scale limits and a vertical scale that starts at the Earth's
surface and includes the atmospheric boundary layer, troposphere,
, and the lower section of the
. Mesoscale timescales last
from less than a day to the lifetime of the event, which in some
cases can be weeks. The events typically of interest are thunderstorms
, precipitation bands
and extratropical cyclones
topographically generated weather systems such as mountain waves
and sea and land breezes
Synoptic scale meteorology is generally large area dynamics
referred to in horizontal coordinates and with respect to time. The
phenomena typically described by synoptic meteorology
like extratropical cyclones, baroclinic troughs and ridges,
, and to some extent
. All of these are typically
given on weather maps
for a specific
time. The minimum horizontal scale of synoptic phenomena are
limited to the spacing between surface
.Bluestein, H., Synoptic-Dynamic
Meteorology in Midlatitudes: Principles of Kinematics and Dynamics,
, Oxford University Press, 1992; ISBN
Annual mean sea surface
Global scale meteorology is study of weather patterns related to
the transport of heat from the tropics
. Also, very large scale
oscillations are of importance. Those oscillations have time
periods typically longer than a full annual seasonal cycle, such as
etc. Global scale pushes the thresholds of the perception of
meteorology into climatology. The traditional definition of climate
is pushed in to larger timescales with the further understanding of
how the global oscillations cause both climate and weather
disturbances in the synoptic and mesoscale timescales.
Numerical Weather Prediction is a main focus in understanding
air-sea interaction, tropical meteorology, atmospheric
predictability, and tropospheric/stratospheric processes..
Currently (2007) Naval Research Laboratory in Monterey produces the
atmospheric model called NOGAPS
, a global scale
atmospheric model, this model is run operationally at Fleet
Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center. There are several
other global atmospheric models.
Some meteorological principles
Boundary layer meteorology
meteorology is the
study of processes in the air
above Earth's surface, known as the atmospheric boundary layer
The effects of the surface – heating, cooling, and friction
– cause turbulent
within the air layer. Significant fluxes
, or momentum
scales of less than a day are advected by turbulent
motions.Garratt, J.R., The atmospheric boundary
layer, Cambridge University Press, 1992; ISBN
0-521-38052-9. Boundary layer meteorology includes the study of all
types of surface-atmosphere boundary, including ocean, lake, urban
land and non-urban land.
Dynamic meteorology generally focuses on the fluid dynamics
of the atmosphere. The idea of
is used to define the smallest
element of the atmosphere, while ignoring the discrete molecular
and chemical nature of the atmosphere. An air parcel is defined as
a point in the fluid continuum of the atmosphere. The fundamental
laws of fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, and motion are used to
study the atmosphere. The physical quantities that characterize the
state of the atmosphere are temperature, density, pressure, etc.
These variables have unique values in the continuum.
Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to
predict the state of the atmosphere
for a future time and a given
location. Human beings have attempted to predict the weather
informally for millennia, and formally since at least the
nineteenth century. Weather forecasts are made by collecting
about the current state of
the atmosphere and using scientific understanding of atmospheric
processes to project how the atmosphere will evolve.
Once an all human endeavor based mainly upon changes in barometric pressure
, current weather
conditions, and sky condition, forecast models
are now used to
determine future conditions. Human input is still required to pick
the best possible forecast model to base the forecast upon, which
involves pattern recognition skills, teleconnections
, knowledge of model
performance, and knowledge of model biases. The chaotic
nature of the atmosphere, the massive
computational power required to solve the equations that describe
the atmosphere, error involved in measuring the initial conditions,
and an incomplete understanding of atmospheric processes mean that
forecasts become less accurate as the difference in current time
and the time for which the forecast is being made (the
of the forecast) increases. The use of ensembles and
model consensus help narrow the error and pick the most likely
There are a variety of end users to weather forecasts. Weather
warnings are important forecasts because they are used to protect
life and property. Forecasts based on temperature and precipitation
are important to
agriculture, and therefore to commodity traders within stock
markets. Temperature forecasts are used by utility companies to
estimate demand over coming days. On an everyday basis, people use
weather forecasts to determine what to wear on a given day. Since
outdoor activities are severely curtailed by heavy rain, snow
and the wind chill
forecasts can be used to plan activities around these events, and
to plan ahead and survive them.
Aviation meteorology deals with the impact of weather on air traffic management
. It is important
for air crews to understand the implications of weather on their
flight plan as well as their aircraft, as noted by the Aeronautical Information
The effects of ice on aircraft are
cumulative-thrust is reduced, drag increases, lift lessens, and
The results are an increase in stall speed and a
deterioration of aircraft performance.
In extreme cases, 2 to 3 inches of ice can form on
the leading edge of the airfoil in less than 5
It takes but 1/2 inch of ice to reduce the lifting
power of some aircraft by 50 percent and increases the frictional
drag by an equal percentage.
Meteorologists, soil scientists
agricultural hydrologists, and agronomists
are persons concerned with studying the effects of weather and
climate on plant distribution, crop
, water-use efficiency, phenology
of plant and animal development, and the energy balance of managed
and natural ecosystems. Conversely, they are interested in the role
of vegetation on climate and weather.
is the branch of
meteorology that deals with the hydrologic cycle
, the water budget, and the
rainfall statistics of storms
hydrometeorologist prepares and issues forecasts of accumulating
(quantitative) precipitation, heavy rain, heavy snow, and
highlights areas with the potential for flash flooding. Typically
the range of knowledge that is required overlaps with climatology,
mesoscale and synoptic meteorology, and other geosciences.
Nuclear meteorology investigates the distribution of radioactive aerosols
in the atmosphere.
Maritime meteorology deals with air and wave forecasts for ships
operating at sea. Organizations such as the Ocean Prediction Center, Honolulu
National Weather Service
forecast office, United
Kingdom Met Office, and JMA prepare high seas forecasts for the world's
- "Meteorology." The Encyclopedia Britannica.15th Ed. 2005.
- Byers, Horace. General Meteorology. New York: McGraw-Hill,
- Development of Meteorology
- Meteorology by Lisa Alter
- Weather: Forecasting from the Beginning
- Al-Kindi, FSTC
- Dr. Mahmoud Al Deek. "Ibn Al-Haitham: Master of Optics,
Mathematics, Physics and Medicine, Al Shindagah,
Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science
(cf. Dr. A. Zahoor and Dr. Z.
Haq (1997), Quotations from Famous Historians of Science)
- Bradley Steffens (2006), Ibn al-Haytham: First
Scientist, Chapter Five, Morgan Reynolds Publishing, ISBN
- Robert E. Hall (1973). "Al-Biruni", Dictionary of
Scientific Biography, Vol. VII, p. 336.
- Highlights in the study of snowflakes and snow
- Grigull, U., Fahrenheit, a Pioneer of Exact Thermometry. Heat
Transfer, 1966, The Proceedings of the 8th International Heat
Transfer Conference, San Francisco, 1966, Vol. 1.
- Beckman, Olof, History of the Celsius temperature scale.,
translated, Anders Celsius (Elementa,84:4,2001);
- Thornes, John. E. (1999). John Constable's Skies. The
University of Birmingham Press, pp.
189. ISBN 1-902459-02-4.
- Bill Giles O.B.E. (2009). Beaufort Scale. BBC. Retrieved on 2009-05-12.
- Florin to Pascal, September 1647,Œuves completes de
- Biographical note at “Lectures and Papers of
Professor Daniel Rutherford (1749–1819), and Diary of Mrs Harriet
- "Sur la combustion en général" ("On Combustion in general,"
1777) and "Considérations Générales sur la Nature des Acides"
("General Considerations on the Nature of Acids," 1778).
- Lavoisier, ("Reflections on Phlogiston," 1783).
- Lavoisier, Antoine, Elements of Chemistry, Dover
Publications Inc., New York, NY,1965, 511 pages.
- The 1880 edition of
A Guide to the Scientific Knowledge of Things Familiar, a 19th
century educational science book, explained heat transfer in terms
of the flow of caloric.
- Morison, Samuel Eliot,Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of
Cristopher Columbus, Boston, 1942, page 617.
- Cook, Alan H., Edmond Halley: Charting the Heavens and the
Seas (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998)
- George Hadley, “Concerning the cause of the general trade
winds,” Philosophical Transactions, vol. 39 (1735).
- Dorst, Neal, FAQ:_Hurricanes,_Typhoons,_and_Tropical_Cyclones:_Hurricane_Timeline,
Ferrel. An Essay on the Winds and the Currents of the
Ocean. Retrieved on 2009-01-01.
- Shaye Johnson. The Norwegian Cyclone Model. Retrieved on
- Raymond S. Bradley, Philip D. Jones, Climate Since A.D.
1500, Routledge, 1992, ISBN 0415075939, p.144
- Rebecca Martin (2009). Catapult - Indepth - Communication: telegraph.
Corporation. Retrieved on 2009-05-12.
- Library of Congress. The Invention of the Telegraph. Retrieved on
- Smithsonian Institution Archives
- India Meteorological
Department Establishment of IMD. Retrieved on
- Finnish Meteorological Institute. History of Finnish Meteorological Institute. Retrieved
- Japan Meteorological Agency.
History. Retrieved on 2006-10-22.
- American Institute of Physics. Atmospheric
General Circulation Modeling. Retrieved on 2008-01-13.
- Edward N. Lorenz, "Deterministic non-periodic flow,"
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 20, pages
- Glossary of Meteorology (2009). Meteorologist. American Meteorological
Society. Retrieved on 2009-05-10.
- Bureau of labor statistics: "Occupational Outlook
Handbook, 2008-09 Edition"
- Many attempts had been made prior to the 15th century to
construct adequate equipment to measure the many atmospheric
variables. Many were faulty in some way or were simply not
reliable. Even Aristotle notes this in some of his work; as
the difficulty to measure the air.
- Office of the Federal Coordinator of Meteorology. Federal
Meteorological Handbook No. 1 - Surface Weather Observations and
Reports: September 2005. Retrieved on 2009-01-02.
- Peebles, Peyton, , Radar Principles, John Wiley
& Sons, Inc., New York, ISBN 0-471-25205-0.
- Online Glossary of Meteorology,
Society  ,2nd Ed., 2000, Allen Press.
- Global Modelling, US Naval Research Laboratory,
- Holton, J.R. . An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology,
4th Ed., Burlington, Md: Elsevier Inc.. ISBN 0-12-354015-1.
- Mistic House. Astrology Lessons, History, Predition, Skeptics, and
Astrology Compatibility. Retrieved on 2008-01-12.
- Eric D. Craft. An Economic History of Weather Forecasting.
Retrieved on 2007-04-15.
- NASA. Weather Forecasting Through the Ages. Retrieved
- Weather Doctor. Applying The Barometer To Weather Watching. Retrieved
- Mark Moore. Field Forecasting - A Short Summary. Retrieved
- Klaus Weickmann, Jeff Whitaker, Andres Roubicek and Catherine
Smith. The Use of Ensemble Forecasts to Produce Improved
Medium Range (3-15 days) Weather Forecasts. Retrieved on
- Todd Kimberlain. Tropical cyclone motion and intensity talk (June
2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
- Richard J. Pasch, Mike Fiorino, and Chris Landsea. TPC/NHC’S REVIEW OF THE NCEP PRODUCTION SUITE FOR
2006. Retrieved on 2008-05-05.
- National Weather Service. National
Weather Service Mission Statement. Retrieved on
- Blair Fannin. Dry weather conditions continue for Texas. Retrieved
- Dr. Terry Mader. Drought Corn Silage. Retrieved on 2008-05-26.
- Kathryn C. Taylor. Peach Orchard Establishment and Young Tree Care.
Retrieved on 2008-05-26.
- Associated Press. After Freeze, Counting Losses to Orange Crop.
Retrieved on 2008-05-26.
- The New York Times. FUTURES/OPTIONS; Cold Weather Brings Surge In
Prices of Heating Fuels. Retrieved on 2008-05-25.
- BBC. Heatwave causes electricity surge. Retrieved on
- Toronto Catholic Schools. The Seven Key Messages of the Energy Drill
Program. Retrieved on 2008-05-25.
- An international version called the Aeronautical Information
Publication contains parallel information, as well as specific
information on the international airports for use by the
- "7-1-22. PIREPs Relating to Airframe Icing", [February
16, 2006], Aeronautical Information
Manual, FAA AIM Online
- Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Elsevier,
- Encyclopedia Britannica, 2007.
- About the HPC, NOAA/ National Weather Service,
National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological
Prediction Center, Camp Springs, Maryland, 2007.
- Byers, Horace. General Meteorology. New York: McGraw-Hill,
Please see weather
forecasting for weather forecast sites.