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Methodism is a movement of Protestant Christianity represented by a number of organizations, claiming a total of approximately seventy million adherents worldwide. The movement traces its roots to Reverend John Wesley's evangelistic revival movement in the Anglican Church. His younger brother Charles was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church. George Whitefield, another significant leader in the movement, was known for his unorthodox ministry of itinerant open-air preaching. Wesley, along with his brother and Whitefield, were branded as "Methodist" by opposing clergy within the Church of England. Initially Whitefield and the Wesleys merely sought reform, by way of a return to the Gospel, within the Church of England, but the movement spread with revival and soon a significant number of Anglican clergy became known as Methodists in the mid eighteenth century. The movement did not form a separate denomination in England until after John Wesley's death in 1795. Some 18th century branches of Methodism include, the earliest Methodists, Calvinistic Methodists, from the work of George Whitefield and Howell Harris, the Welsh Methodistsmarker, and the Methodism of John Wesley. The influence of Whitefield and Lady Huntingdon on the Church of England was a factor in the founding of the Free Church of England in 1844. Through vigorous missionary activity Methodism spread throughout the British Empire, and the work of Whitefield from an early time introduced Methodism to the United Statesmarker, and beyond.

Early Methodists were drawn from all levels of society, including the aristocracy, but the Methodist preachers took the message to labourers and criminals who tended to be left outside of organised religion at that time. Wesley himself thought it wrong to preach outside a Church building until persuaded otherwise by Whitefield.

Doctrinally, the branches of Methodism following the Wesleys are Arminian, while those following Harris and Whitefield are Calvinistic. Wesley maintained the Arminian doctrines that were dominant in the 18th-century Church of England, while Whitefield adopted Calvinism through his contacts with Calvinists in Scotland and New England. This caused serious strains on the relationship between Whitefield and Wesley, with Wesley becoming quite hostile toward Whitefield in what had been previously very close relations. Whitefield consistently begged Wesley to not let these differences sever their friendship and, in time their friendship was restored, though this was seen by many of Whitefield's followers to be a doctrinal compromise. As a final testimony of their friendship, John Wesley's sermon on Whitefield's death is full of praise and affection. Methodism has a very wide variety of forms of worship, ranging from high church to low church in liturgical usage. Both Whitefield and the Wesleys themselves greatly valued the Anglican liturgy and tradition, and the Methodist worship in The Book of Offices was based on the 1662 Book of Common Prayer.

The Wesleyan revival

The Methodist revival originated in Epworth, North Lincolnshire, England. It began with a group of men, including John Wesley and his younger brother Charles, as a movement within the Church of England in the 18th century. The movement focused on Bible study and a methodical approach to scriptures and Christian living. The term "Methodism" was a pejorative term given to a small society of students at Oxfordmarker who met together between 1729 and 1735 for the purpose of mutual improvement. They were accustomed to receiving communion every week, fasting regularly, and abstaining from most forms of amusement and luxury. They also frequently visited the sick and the poor, as well as prisoners.

The early Methodists acted against perceived apathy in the Church of England, preaching in the open air and establishing Methodist societies wherever they went. These societies were divided into groups called classes — intimate meetings where individuals were encouraged to confess their sins to one another and to build each other up. They also took part in love feasts which allowed for the sharing of testimony, a key feature of early Methodists.

Methodist preachers were notorious for their enthusiastic sermons and often accused of fanaticism. In those days, many members of the established (Anglican) church feared that new doctrines promulgated by the Methodists, such as the necessity of a New Birth for salvation, of Justification by Faith, and of the constant and sustained action of the Holy Spirit upon the believer's soul, would produce ill effects upon weak minds. Theophilus Evans, an early critic of the movement, even wrote that it was "the natural Tendency of their Behaviour, in Voice and Gesture and horrid Expressions, to make People mad." In one of his prints, William Hogarth likewise attacked Methodists as "enthusiasts" full of "Credulity, Superstition and Fanaticism." But the Methodists resisted the many attacks against their movement. (See John Wesley and George Whitefield for a much more complete discussion of early Methodism.)

John Wesley came under the influence of the Moravians, and of the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius, while Whitefield adopted Calvinistic views. Consequently, their followers separated, those of Whitefield becoming Calvinistic Methodists. Wesleyan Methodists have followed Arminian theology.

Missions to America

In the late 1760s, two Methodist lay preachers emigrated to America and formed societies. Philip Embury began the work in New Yorkmarker. Soon, Captain Webb from the British Army aided him. He formed a society in Philadelphiamarker and traveled along the coast. In 1770, two Methodist missionaries, Richard Boardman and Joseph Pilmoor, arrived from the British Connexion, followed shortly thereafter by Francis Asbury. Asbury reorganized the mid-Atlantic work in accordance with the Wesleyan model. Internal conflict characterized this period. Missionaries displaced most of the local preachers and irritated many of the leading lay members. During the American Revolution, the "the mid-Atlantic work" (as Wesley called it) diminished, and, by 1778, the work was reduced to one circuit. Asbury refused to leave. He remained in Delawaremarker during this period.

Robert Strawbridge began a Methodist work in Marylandmarker at the same time as Embury began his work in New York. They did not work together and did not know of each other's existence. Strawbridge ordained himself and organized a circuit. He trained many very influential assistants who became some of the first leaders of American Methodism. His work grew rapidly both in numbers and in geographical spread. The British missionaries discovered Strawbridge's work and annexed it into the American connection. However, the native preachers continued to work side-by-side with the missionaries, and they continued to recruit and dispatch more native preachers. Southern Methodism was not dependent on missionaries in the same way as mid-Atlantic Methodism.

Up until this time, with the exception of Strawbridge, none of the missionaries or American preachers was ordained. Consequently, the Methodist people received the sacraments at the hands of ministers from established Anglican churches. Most of the Anglican priests were Loyalists who fled to England, New York or Canada during the war. In the absence of Anglican ordination, a group of native preachers ordained themselves. This caused a split between the Asbury faction and the southern preachers. Asbury mediated the crisis by convincing the southern preachers to wait for Wesley's response to the sacramental crisis. That response came in 1784. At that time, Wesley sent the Rev. Dr. Thomas Coke to America to form an independent American Methodist church. The native circuit riders met in late December. Coke had orders to ordain Asbury as a joint superintendent of the new church. However, Asbury turned to the assembled conference and said he would not accept it unless the preachers voted him into that office. This was done, and from that moment forward, the general superintendents received their authority from the conference. Later, Coke convinced the general conference that he and Asbury were bishops and added the title to the discipline. It caused a great deal of controversy. Wesley did not approve of the title.

By the 1792 general conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, the controversy relating to episcopal power boiled over. Ultimately, the delegates sided with Bishop Asbury. However, the Republican Methodists split off from the Methodist Episcopal Church (MEC) in 1792. Also, William Hammet (a missionary ordained by Wesley who traveled to America from Antigua with Bishop Coke), led a successful revolt against the MEC in 1791. He opposed Bishop Asbury and the episcopacy. He formed his people into the American Primitive Methodist Church (not directly connected with the British Primitive Methodist Church). Both American churches operated in the Southeast and presaged the episcopal debates of later reformers. Regardless, Asbury remained the leading bishop of early American Methodism and did not share his "appointing" authority until Bishop McKendree was elected in 1808. Coke had problems with the American preachers. His authoritarian style alienated many. Soon, he became a missionary bishop of sorts and never had much influence in America.

Beliefs

Traditionally, most Methodists have identified with the Arminian conception of free will, through God's prevenient grace, as opposed to the theological fatalism of absolute predestination. Historically, this distinguishes Methodism from Calvinist traditions found in Reformed churches. However, in strongly Reformed areas such as Walesmarker, Calvinistic Methodists remain, also called the Presbyterian Church of Wales. The Calvinist Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion was also strongly associated with the Methodist revival. In recent theological debates, clergy members have cut across denominational lines so that theologically left-leaning Methodist and Reformed churches have more in common with each other than with more conservative members of their own denominations.

John Wesley is studied by Methodist ministerial students and trainee local preachers for his interpretation of Church practice and doctrine. One popular expression of Methodist doctrine is in the hymns of Charles Wesley. Since enthusiastic congregational singing was a part of the early Evangelical movement, Wesleyan theology took root and spread through this channel.

Methodism affirms the traditional Christian belief in the triune Godhead: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, as well as the orthodox understanding of the consubstantial humanity and divinity of Jesus. Most Methodists also affirm the Apostles' Creed and the Nicene Creed. In devotional terms, these confessions are said to embrace the biblical witness to God's activity in creation, encompass God's gracious self-involvement in the dramas of history, and anticipate the consummation of God's reign. American Methodists also believe in remembering the saints, especially on holidays such as All Saints Day, the emphasis and focus here being on all the saints who have passed from the Church Militant to the Church Triumphant. It is a day which is usually celebrated on the First Sunday of November, and it is a celebration in thanksgiving and praise to God for those who have served as models and examples of Christian faith and life.

Sacramental theology within Methodism tends to follow the historical interpretations and liturgies of Anglicanism. This stems from the origin of much Methodist theology and practice within the teachings of John and Charles Wesley, both of whom were priests of the Church of England. As affirmed by the Articles of Religion, Methodists recognize two Sacraments as being ordained of Christ: Baptism and Holy Communion. Methodism also affirms that there are many other Means of Grace which often function in a sacramental manner, but most Methodists do not recognize them as being Dominical sacraments.

Methodists, stemming from John Wesley's own practices of theological reflection, make use of tradition, drawing primarily from the teachings of the Church fathers, as a source of authority. Though not infallible like holy Scripture, tradition may serve as a lens through which Scripture is interpreted (see also Prima scriptura and the Wesleyan Quadrilateral). Theological discourse for Methodists almost always makes use of Scripture read inside the great theological tradition of Christendom.

It is a historical position of the church that any disciplined theological work calls for the careful use of reason. By reason, it is said, one reads and is able to interpret Scripture coherently and consistently. By reason one determines whether one's Christian witness is clear. By reason one asks questions of faith and seeks to understand God's action and will.

Methodism insists that personal salvation always implies Christian mission and service to the world. Scriptural holiness entails more than personal piety; love of God is always linked with love of neighbors and a passion for justice and renewal in the life of the world.

A distinctive liturgical feature of Methodism is the use of Covenant services. Although practice varies between different national churches, most Methodist churches annually follow the call of John Wesley for a renewal of their covenant with God. It is not unusual in Methodism for each congregation to normally hold an annual Covenant Service on the first convenient Sunday of the year, and Wesley's Covenant Prayer is still used, with minor modification, in the order of service. In it, Wesley avers man's total reliance upon God, as the following excerpt demonstrates:

...Christ has many services to be done. Some are easy, others are difficult. Some bring honour, others bring reproach. Some are suitable to our natural inclinations and temporal interests, others are contrary to both... Yet the power to do all these things is given to us in Christ, who strengthens us.
...I am no longer my own but yours. Put me to what you will, rank me with whom you will; put me to doing, put me to suffering; let me be employed for you or laid aside for you, exalted for you or brought low for you; let me be full, let me be empty, let me have all things, let me have nothing; I freely and wholeheartedly yield all things to your pleasure and disposal...


Whereas most Methodist worship is modeled after the Anglican Communion's Book of Common Prayer, a unique feature was the once practiced observance of the season of Kingdomtide, which encompasses the last thirteen weeks before Advent, thus dividing the long season after Pentecost into two discrete segments. During Kingdomtide, Methodist liturgy emphasizes charitable work and alleviating the suffering of the poor. This practice was last seen in The book of Worship for Church and Home by The United Methodist Church, 1965, and The Book of Hymns, 1966. While some congregations and their pastors might still follow this old calendar, the Revised Common Lectionary, with its naming and numbering of Days in the Calendar of the Church Year, is used widely. However, congregations who strongly identify with their African American roots and tradition would not usually follow the Revised Common Lectionary.

Adding more complexity to the mix, there are United Methodist congregations in the United States of America who orient their worship to the "free" church tradition, so particular liturgies are not observed. The United Methodist Book of Worship and The Hymns of the United Methodist Church are voluntarily followed in varying degrees. Such churches employ the liturgy and rituals therein as optional resources, but their use is not mandatory.

Methodism in Great Britain

Logo of the Methodist Church of Great Britain






British Methodism does not have bishops, though a report, "What Sort of Bishops?", to the Conference of 2005, was accepted for study and report. This report considered if this should now be changed and if so what forms of episcopacy might be acceptable. British Methodism has however always been characterised by a strong central organization, the Connexion, which holds an annual Conference (note that the Church retains the 18th century spelling "connexion" for many purposes). The Connexion is divided into Districts in the charge of a Chair (who may be male or female), except the new London District, created in September 2006, which has three chairs with a "Lead" chair. Methodist districts often correspond approximately, in geographical terms, to counties - as do the dioceses of the Church of England. The districts are divided into circuits governed by the Circuit Meeting and led and administrated principally by a "superintendent minister". Ministers are appointed to Circuits rather than to individual churches (though some large inner-city churches, known as Central Halls, are designated as circuits in themselves - Westminster Central Hallmarker, opposite Westminster Abbeymarker in central Londonmarker is the best known). Most circuits have fewer ministers than churches, and the majority of services are led by lay local preachers, or by supernumerary ministers (ministers who have retired, called supernumerary because they are not counted for official purposes in the numbers of ministers for the circuit in which they are listed). The superintendent and other ministers are assisted in the leadership and administration of the Circuit by lay Circuit Stewards, who collectively with the ministers form what is normally known as the Circuit Leadership Team.



Schisms within the original Methodist church, and independent revivals, led to the formation of a number of separate denominations calling themselves Methodist. The largest of these were the Primitive Methodist church, deriving from a revival at Mow Copmarker in Staffordshire, the Bible Christians and the United Methodist Church (not connected with the American denomination of the same name, but a union of three smaller denominations). The original church became known as the Wesleyan Methodist Church to distinguish it from these bodies. The three major streams of British Methodism united in 1932 to form the current Methodist Church of Great Britain. The Wesleyan Reform Union and the Independent Methodist Connexion still remain separate. The Primitive Methodist Church had branches in the USA which still continue.

In the 1960s, the Methodist Church made ecumenical overtures to the Church of England, aimed at denominational union. Formally, these failed when they were rejected by the Church of England's General Synod in 1972; conversations and co-operation continued, however, leading in 2003 to the signing of a covenant between the two churches. From the 1970s onward, the Methodist Church also started several Local Ecumenical Projects (LEPs, later renamed Local Ecumenical Partnerships) with local neighbouring denominations, which involved sharing churches, schools and in some cases ministers. In many towns and villages there are United Churches which are sometimes with Anglican or Baptist churches, but most commonly are Methodist and URC, simply because in terms of belief, practice and churchmanship the Methodist Church is much closer to the United Reformed Church than it is to other denominations such as the Church of England.

In the 1990s and early 2000s, the Methodist Church was involved in the Scottish Church Initiative for Union, seeking greater unity with the established and Presbyterian Church of Scotlandmarker, the Scottish Episcopal Church and the United Reformed Church in Scotland.

Traditionally, Methodism was particularly prominent in Walesmarker and Cornwallmarker, both regions noted for their non-conformism and distrust of the Church of England. It was also very strong in the old mill towns of Yorkshire and Lancashire, where the Methodists stressed that the working classes were equal to the upper classes in the eyes of God.

The Methodist Council also helps to run a number of schools, including two leading Public Schools in East Angliamarker: Culford Schoolmarker and The Leysmarker. It helps to promote an all round education with a strong Christian ethos.

(See also 1904-1905 Welsh Revival and Welsh Methodist revival.)

An example of a traditional English Methodist Church in chapel style is Great Glen Methodist Churchmarker, built in 1827.

Many Methodist bodies around the world see the British Methodist Church as their parent church. Some strong groups include the Methodist Church Ghana and the Methodist Church Nigeria.

Methodism in the United States

The First Great Awakening was a religious movement among colonials in the 1730s and 1740s. The English Calvinist Methodist preacher George Whitefield played a major role, traveling across the colonies and preaching in a dramatic and emotional style, accepting everyone as his audience.

The new style of sermons and the way people practiced their faith breathed new life into religion in America. People became passionately and emotionally involved in their religion, rather than passively listening to intellectual discourse in a detached manner. People began to study the Bible at home, which effectively decentralized the means of informing the public on religious matters and was akin to the individualistic trends present in Europe during the Protestant Reformation.

The first American Methodist bishops were Thomas Coke and Francis Asbury, whose boyhood home, Bishop Asbury Cottagemarker, in West Bromwichmarker, Englandmarker, is now a museum. Upon the formation of the Methodist Episcopal Church in America at the Baltimoremarker Christmas Conference in 1784, Coke (already ordained in the Church of England) ordained Asbury a deacon, elder, and bishop each on three successive days. Circuit riders, many of whom were laymen, traveled by horseback to preach the gospel and establish churches until there was scarcely any crossroad community in America without a Methodist expression of Christianity. One of the most famous circuit riders was Robert Strawbridge who lived in the vicinity of Carroll County, Marylandmarker soon after arriving in the Colonies around 1760.

The Second Great Awakening was a nationwide wave of revivals. In New Englandmarker, the renewed interest in religion inspired a wave of social activism among Yankees; Methodism grew rapidly and established several colleges, notably Boston Universitymarker. In the "burned over district" of western New York, the spirit of revival burned brightly. Methodism saw the emergence of a Holiness movement. In the west, especially at Cane Ridge, Kentuckymarker and in Tennesseemarker, the revival strengthened the Methodists and the Baptists.

Disputes over slavery placed the church in difficulty in the first half of the 1800s, with the northern church leaders fearful of a split with the South, and reluctant to take a stand. The Wesleyan Methodists (later became The Wesleyan Church) and the Free Methodist Churches were formed by staunch abolitionists, and the Free Methodists were especially active in the Underground Railroad, which helped to free the slaves. Finally, in a much larger split, in 1845 at Louisville, the churches of the slaveholding states left the Methodist Episcopal Church and formed The Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The northern and southern branches were reunited in 1939, when slavery was no longer an issue. In this merger also joined the Methodist Protestant Church. Some southerners, conservative in theology, and strongly segregationist, opposed the merger, and formed the Southern Methodist Church in 1940.

The Third Great Awakening from 1858 to 1908 saw enormous growth in Methodist membership, and a proliferation of institutions such as colleges (e.g., Morningside Collegemarker). Methodists were often involved in the Missionary Awakening and the Social Gospel Movement. The awakening in so many cities in 1858 started the movement, but in the North it was interrupted by the Civil War. In the South, on the other hand, the Civil War stimulated revivals, especially in Lee's army.

In 1914-1917 many Methodist ministers made strong pleas for world peace. To meet their demands , President Woodrow Wilson (a Presbyterian), promised "a war to end all wars." In the 1930s many Methodists favored isolationist policies. Thus in 1936, Methodist Bishop James Baker, of the San Francisco Conference, released a poll of ministers showing 56% opposed warfare. However, the Methodist Federation did call for a boycott of Japan, which had invaded China and was disrupting missionary activity there. In Chicago, sixty-two local African Methodist Episcopal churches voted their support for the Roosevelt administration's policy, while opposing any plan to send American troops overseas to fight. When war came in 1941, the vast majority of Methodists strongly supported the national war effort, but there were also a few (673) conscientious objectors.

The United Methodist Church was formed in 1968 as a result of a merger between the Evangelical United Brethren (EUB) and the Methodist Church. The former church had resulted from mergers of several groups of German Methodist heritage. There was no longer any need or desire to worship in the German language. The merged church had approximately 9 million members as of the late 1990s. While United Methodist Church in America membership has been declining, associated groups in developing countries are growing rapidly .

American Methodist churches are generally organized on a connectional model, related but not identical to that used in Britain. Pastors are assigned to congregations by bishops, distinguishing it from presbyterian government. Methodist denominations typically give lay members representation at regional and national meetings (conferences) at which the business of the church is conducted, making it different from episcopal government. This connectional organizational model differs further from the congregational model, for example of Baptist, and Congregationalist Churches, among others.

In addition to the United Methodist Church, there are over 40 other denominations that descend from John Wesley's Methodist movement. Some, such as the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the Free Methodists, the Wesleyan Church (formerly Wesleyan Methodist), the Congregational Methodist Church, Cumberland Methodist Church and First Congregational Methodist Church are explicitly Methodist. The Primitive Methodist Church is a continuing branch of the former British Primitive Methodist Church. Others do not call themselves Methodist, but are related to varying degrees. The Evangelical Church was formed by a group of EUB congregations who dissented from the merger which formed the United Methodist Church. The Salvation Army was founded by William Booth, a former Methodist, and derives some of its theology from Methodism. Similar "social justice" denominations include the Church of the Nazarene and the Christian and Missionary Alliance. Some of the Charismatic or Pentecostal churches such as the Pentecostal Holiness Church and the Assemblies of God also have roots in or draw from Wesleyan thought.

The Holiness Revival was primarily among people of Methodist persuasion, who felt that the church had once again become apathetic, losing the Wesleyan zeal. Some important events of this revival were the writings of Phoebe Palmer during the mid-1800s, the establishment of the first of many holiness camp meetings at Vineland, New Jerseymarker in 1867, and the founding of Asbury College, (1890), and other similar institutions in the US around the turn of the 20th century.

From its beginning in England, Methodism laid emphasis on social service and education. Numerous originally Methodist institutions of higher education were founded in the United States in the early half of the 19th century, and today altogether there are about twenty universities and colleges named as "Methodist" or "Wesleyan" still in existence.

Additionally, the Methodist Church has created a number of Wesley Foundation establishments on college campuses. These ministries are created to reach out to students, and often provide student housing to a few students in exchange for service to the ministry.

There are a wide range of theological and political beliefs in The United Methodist Church. For example, former Republican President George W. Bush is a member, and former Vice President Dick Cheney attends the United Methodist Church (though he is not a member). Democrats Hillary Clinton and John Edwards are both members of the United Methodist Church.

United Methodist Elders and Local Pastors may marry and have families. They are placed in congregations by their bishop. Elders and Local Pastors can either ask for a new appointment or their church can request that they be re-appointed elsewhere. If the Elder is a full-time pastor, the church is required to provide either a house or a housing allowance for the pastor.

Social Principles and Participation in Movements

From the movement’s beginnings, with its roots in Wesleyan theology, Methodism has distinguished itself as a religious movement strongly tied to social issues. As father of the movement, John Wesley injected much of his own social philosophy into the movement as a whole. Wesley’s personal social philosophy was characterized by “an instructive reluctance to criticize existing institutions [which] was overborne by indignation at certain abuses which cried out for rectification.” The Methodist church’s responses to injustices in society are embodiments of the Wesleyan traditions of mercy and justice.

At the end of the 19th- and beginning of the 20th-centuries, the Methodist church responded strongly to what they regarded as social ills (i.e. gambling, use of intoxicating beverages, etc.) with attention to the Methodist doctrines of sanctification and perfection through Christ. In the United States, today’s United Methodist Church continues to embody Methodist traditions in their response to social needs through the General Board of Church and Society and the General Board of Global Ministries.

Attitudes Toward Slavery

Like most other national organizations, the Methodist Church experienced tensions and rifts over the slavery dispute. Both sides of the argument used the doctrines of the movement and scriptural evidence to support their case.

The initial statement of the Methodist position on slavery was delivered in the Conference minutes from 1780’s annual conference. After a comprehensive statement of the varied reasons slavery goes against “the laws of God, man, and nature,” the Conference answered in the affirmative to the question, “do we pass our disapprobation on all our friends who keep slaves and advise their freedom?” This position was put into action in 1783. Preachers from the Baltimore Conference were required, under threat of suspension, to free their slaves. By 1784, similar requirements were made of Methodists as a whole, laypeople and clergy alike. The negative reaction to this requirement was so strong that it had to be abandoned, but the rule was kept in the Book of Discipline.

As slavery disputes intensified in the 1800s, there emerged two doctrines within the Methodist Church. Churches in the South found scriptural basis supporting slavery, while northern churches started antislavery movements. The apologia of the Southern churches was largely based in Old Testament scriptures, which often represent slavery as a part of the natural order of things. New Testament writings were sometimes used to support the case for slavery as well. Some of the writings of Paul, especially in Ephesians, instruct slaves to remain obedient to their masters. Southern ideology also argued that slavery was beneficial for slaves, as well as their owners, saying that they were offered protections from many ills because of their slavery.The antislavery movement in northern churches strengthened and solidified in response to the pro-slavery apologia of Southern churches. After the Civil War, the Methodist church helped establish the Freedmen’s Aid Society as part of a greater movement to improve education in the South for former slaves. This organization, along with the church’s Department of Education for Negroes of the Board of Education, helped provide education to former slaves and their children. Within three months of its organization, the Freedmen’s Aid Society had begun work in the South. By the end of the first year, the society had more than fifty teachers.

Education of Young People

The Methodist church has always been strongly oriented towards the religious lives of the young. In 1848, the General Conference stated, “when the Church has collected…a great population born within [her] bosom, she cannot fulfill her high mission unless she takes measure to prevent this population from being withdrawn from under her care in the period of its youth.” The first two American bishops of the Methodist Church, Thomas Coke and Francis Asbury, opened a preparatory school in Abingdon, Marylandmarker in 1787. The school was a strict environment, with seven hours a day devoted to study. The venture ended when a fire destroyed the building in which the school was housed.

In the 1870s, there was a broad movement toward incorporating Sunday schools into the doctrines of churches as a way to take ownership of the Christian education of children. This was the first great interdenominational movement the United States had ever seen. Methodists invested heavily in the cause of Christian education because of their emphasis on the child’s right to and ability to “respond to divine influences from the beginning.” Luccock, Halford F., Paul Hutchinson, and Robert W. Goodloe. The Story of Methodism. Nashville, TN: Parthenon Press, 1926. Print.

The Temperance Movement

The Temperance Movement was the social concern which most broadly captured the interest and enthusiasm of the Methodist Church. The movement was strongly tied to John Wesley’s theology and social principles. Wesley’s abhorrence of alcohol use was taken up by American Methodists, many of whom were active and prominent leaders within the movement.

The Temperance Movement appealed strongly to the Methodist doctrines of sanctification and perfection. The Methodist presentation of sanctification includes the understanding that justification before God comes through faith. Therefore, those who believe are made new in Christ. The believer’s response to this sanctification then is to uphold God’s word in the world. A large part of this, especially in the late-1800s, was “to be their brother’s keepers, or […] their brother’s brothers.” Agnew, Theodore L. The History of American Methodism: in three volumes. Volumes 1-3. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1964. Print. Because of this sense of duty toward the other members of the church, many Methodists were personally temperate out of a hope that their restraint would give strength to their brothers. The Methodist stance against drinking was strongly stated in the Book of Discipline. Initially, the issue taken was limited to distilled liquors, but quickly, teetotalism became the norm and Methodists were commonly known to abstain from all alcoholic beverages.

In 1880, the General Conference included in the Discipline a broad statement which included, “Temperance is a Christian virtue, Scripturally enjoined.” Agnew, Theodore L. The History of American Methodism: in three volumes. Volumes 1-3. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1964. Print. Due to the temperate stance of the Church, the practice of Eucharist was altered — to this day, Methodist churches most commonly use grape juice symbolically during Communion rather than wine. The Methodist church distinguished itself from many other denominations in their beliefs about state control of alcohol. Where many other denominations, including Roman Catholics, Protestant Episcopalians, Lutherans, and Unitarians, believed that the ill-effects of liquor should be controlled by self-discipline and individual restraint, Methodists believed that it was the duty of the government to enforce restrictions on the use of alcohol. Agnew, Theodore L. The History of American Methodism: in three volumes. Volumes 1-3. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1964. Print. In 1904, the Board of Temperance was created by the General Conference to help push the Temperance agenda.

The women of the Methodist Church were strongly mobilized by the temperance movement. In 1879, a Methodist woman, Frances E. Willard, was voted to the presidency of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, an organization which was characterized by heavy Methodist participation. To this day, the Women’s Division of the General Board of Global Missions holds property across on Capitol Hillmarker in Washington, DCmarker, which was built using funds provided by laypeople. Women of the church were responsible for 70% of the $650,000 it cost to construct the building in 1922. The building was intended to serve as the Methodist Church’s social reform presence of the Hill. The Board of Temperance, Prohibition and Public Morals was especially prominent within the building. ”The United Methodist Building." General Board of Church and Society. Web. 24 Nov 2009. /www.umc-gbcs.org/site/c.frLJK2PKLqF/b.3791391/k.348A/The_United_Methodist_Building.htm>

Methodism in other countries



An estimated 75 million people worldwide belong to the Methodist community, however the number has gone into steady decline, especially in North America, where an increasing number of people are becoming more inclined to join theologically conservative denominations.Almost all Methodist churches are members of a consultative body called the World Methodist Council, which is headquartered at Lake Junaluska, North Carolinamarker, in the United States.

Africa

Ghana

The Methodist Church Ghana came into existence as a result of the missionary activities of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, inaugurated with the arrival of Joseph Rhodes Dunwell to the Gold Coast (Ghana) in 1835. Like the mother church, the Methodist Church in Ghana was established by people of Anglican background. Roman Catholic and Anglican missionaries came to the Gold Coast from the 15th century. A school was established in Cape Coast by the Anglicans during the time of Philip Quaque, a Ghanaian priest. Those who came out of this school had scriptural knowledge and scriptural materials supplied by the Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge. A member a resulting Bible study groups, William De-Graft, requested Bibles through captain Potter of the ship Congo. Not only were Bibles sent, but also a Methodist missionary. In the first eight years of the Church’s life, 11 out of 21 missionaries who worked in the Gold Coast died. Thomas Birch Freeman, who arrived at the Gold Coast in 1838 was a pioneer of missionary expansion. Between 1838 and 1857 he carried Methodism from the coastal areas to Kumasi in the Asante hinterland of the Gold Coast. He also established Methodist Societies in Badagry and AbeoKuta in Nigeria with the assistance of William De-Graft.

By 1854, the church was organized into circuits constituting a district with T.B. Freeman as chairman. Freeman was replaced in 1856 by William West. The district was divided and extended to include areas in the then Gold Coast and Nigeria by the synod in 1878, a move confirmed at the British Conference. The district were Gold Coast (Ghana) District, with T.R. Picot as chairman and Yoruba and Popo District, with John Milum as chairman.

Methodist evangelization of northern Ghana began in 1910. After a long period of conflict with the colonial government, missionary work was established in 1955. Paul Adu was the first indigenous missionary to northern Ghana.

In July 1961, the Methodist Church in Ghana became autonomous, and was called the Methodist Church Ghana, based on a deed of foundation, part of the church's Constitution and Standing Orders.

The Methodist Church Ghana has a total membership of close to 600,000. The church has 15 dioceses, 3,814 societies, 1,066 pastors, 15,920 local preachers, 24,100 lay leaders, many schools, an orphanage, hospitals and clinics.

Sierra Leone

Methodism became rooted in Sierra Leonemarker during the late nineteenth century. Many of the Nova Scotianmarker migrants who settled there were Methodists.

Southern Africa

The Methodist Church of Southern Africa is a member church of the World Methodist Council.

Methodism in Southern Africa began as a result of lay Christian work by an Irish soldier of the English Regiment, John Irwin, who was stationed at the Cape and began to hold prayer meetings as early as 1795. The first Methodist lay preacher at the Cape, George Middlemiss, was a soldier of the 72nd regiment of the British Army stationed at the Cape in 1805. This foundation paved the way for missionary work by Methodist missionary societies from Great Britain, many of whom sent missionaries with the 1820 English settlers to the Western and Eastern Cape. Among the most notable of the early missionaries were Barnabas Shaw and William Shaw. The largest group was the Wesleyan Methodist Church, but there were a number of others that joined together to form the Methodist Church of South Africa, later known as The Methodist Church of Southern Africa.

The Methodist Church of Southern Africa is the largest mainline Christian denomination in South Africa - 7.3% of the South African population recorded their religious affiliation as 'Methodist' in the last national census.

Mozambique

The Igreja Metodista Unida is one of the largest Christian denominations of Mozambiquemarker.

Asia

China



Methodism was brought to Chinamarker in the fall of 1847 by the Methodist Episcopal Church. The first missionaries sent out were Judson Dwight Collins and Moses Clark White, who sailed from Bostonmarker April 15, 1847, and reached Foochowmarker September 6. They were followed by Henry Hickok and Robert Samuel Maclay, who arrived April 15, 1848. In 1857 it baptized the first convert in connection with its labors. In August, 1856, a brick church, called the "Church of the True God" (真神堂), the first substantial church building erected at Foochow by Protestant Missions, was dedicated to the worship of God. In the winter of the same year another brick church, located on the hill in the suburbs on the south bank of the Min, was finished and dedicated, called the "Church of Heavenly Peacemarker" (天安堂). In 1862, the number of members was 87. The Foochow Conference was organized by Isaac W. Wiley on December 6, 1867, by which time the number of members and probationers had reached 2,011.

In 1867, the mission sent out the first missionaries to Central China, who began work at Kiukiangmarker. In 1869 missionaries were also sent to the capital city Peking, where they laid the foundations of the work of the North China Mission. In November, 1880, the West China Mission was established in Sichuan Provincemarker. In 1896 the work in the Hinghua prefecture (modern-day Putianmarker) and surrounding regions was also organized as a Mission Conference.

In 1947, the Methodist Church in the Republic of Chinamarker celebrated its centennial. In 1949, however, the Methodist Church moved to Taiwanmarker with the Kuomintang government. On June 21, 1953, the Taipei Methodist Church was erected, then local churches and chapels with a baptized membership numbering over 2,500. Various types of educational, medical and social services are provided (including Tunghai Universitymarker). In 1972 the Methodist Church in the Republic of China became autonomous and the first bishop was installed in 1986.

India



Methodism came to Indiamarker twice, in 1817 and in 1856, according to P. Dayanandan who has done extensive research on the subject. Dr. Thomas Coke and six other missionaries set sail for India on New Year's Day in 1814. Dr. Coke, then 66, died en route. Rev. James Lynch was the one who finally arrived in Madrasmarker (present day Chennaimarker) in 1817 at a place called Black Town (Broadway), later known as George Town. Lynch conducted the first Methodist missionary service on March 2, 1817, in a stable. The first Methodist church was dedicated in 1819 at Royapettahmarker. A chapel at Broadway (Black Town) was later built and dedicated on April 25, 1822. This church was rebuilt in 1844 since the earlier structure was collapsing. At this time there were about 100 Methodist members in all of Madras, and they were either Europeans or Eurasians (European and Indian descent). Among those names associated with the founding period of Methodism in India are Elijah Hoole & Thomas Cryer, who came as missionaries to Madras. In 1857, the Methodist Episcopal Church started its work in India, and with prominent Evangelists like William Taylor the Emmanuel Methodist Church, Vepery, was born in 1874. The Methodist Church in India is governed by the MCI - the Methodist Church of India.. in 1947 the Methodist Church in India merged with Presbyterians, Anglicans and other Protestant churches to form the Church of South India.

Malaysia and Singapore

Missionaries from Britain, North America, and Australia founded Methodist churches in many Commonwealth countries. These are now independent and many of them are stronger than the former "mother" churches. In addition to the churches, these missionaries often also founded schools to serve the local community. A good example of such schools are the Methodist Boys' School in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysiamarker and The Anglo-Chinese Schools, Methodist Girls' Schools and Fairfield Methodist Schools in Singapore.

The Philippines

The beginnings of Methodism in the Philippinesmarker islands grow from the American invasion of the Philippines following the Spanish-American War. On June 21, 1898, the American executives of the Mission Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church expressed their desire to join other Protestant denominations in starting mission work in the islands and to enter into any comity agreement that would facilitate the establishment of such mission. The first Protestant worship service was conducted on August 28, 1898 by an American military chaplain named Rev. George C. Stull. Rev. Stull was an ordained Methodist minister from the Montana Annual Conference of The Methodist Episcopal Church (Later became The United Methodist Church in 1968).

Methodist and Wesleyan traditions in the Philippines are shared by three of the largest mainline Protestant churches in the country - The United Methodist Church, Iglesia Evangelica Metodista En Las Islas Filipinas (IEMELIF) (Evangelical Methodist Church in the Philippine Islands), and The United Church of Christ in the Philippines. There are also evangelical Protestant churches in the country with Methodist and Wesleyan tradition like The Wesleyan Church of the Philippines, Inc. Free Methodist Church of the Philippines, and the Church of the Nazarene in the Philippines.. There are also the IEMELIF Reform Movement (IRM), The Wesleyan (Pilgrim Holiness) Church of the Philippines, the Philippine Bible Methodist Church, Inc., the Pentecostal Free Methodist Church, Inc., the Fundamental Christian Methodist Church, The Reformed Methodist Church, Inc., The Methodist Church of the Living Bread, Inc., and the Wesley Evangelical Methodist Church & Mission, Inc.

South Korea

Possibly the strongest Methodist church in the world now is that of South Koreamarker. There are many Korean-language Methodist churches in North America catering to Korean-speaking immigrants, not all of which are named as Methodist. There are several denominations that are of Wesleyan/Methodist heritage, but are not explicitly Methodist.

Europe

There are small Methodist Churches in many European countries, the strongest being in Germanymarker. These mostly derive from links with the American rather than the British church.

Ireland

The Methodist Church in Ireland covers the entire island of Irelandmarker including Northern Irelandmarker (United Kingdommarker) and the Republic of Irelandmarker. Eric Gallagher was the head of the Church in the 1970s. He was one of the group of Protestant churchmen who met with IRA/Sinn Féin representatives in Feakle, County Claremarker to try (unsuccessfully) to broker a peace. The church suffered a split in Ireland in 1973 when a group of churches formed the Fellowship of Independent Methodist Churches[3173]. Another strong Methodist movement in Ireland is the Church of the Nazarene which takes its roots from American Methodism as opposed to British whilst still rejecting episcopacy

France

In France, several sections of the Methodist Church joined the Reformed Church of France in 1938. The Methodist Church exists today in France under various names. The best-known is the "UEEM" (l'Union de l'Eglise Evangélique Méthodiste de France), the Union of Evangelical Methodist Churches of France. It is the fruit of a fusion in 2005 between the Methodist Church of France and the Union of Methodist Churches (in France). The UEEM is a part of the world organization: The United Methodist Church.

The Reverend Emmanuel Briglia has founded, in 1998, an independent high-church Methodist mission in South-East of France named Mission Méthodiste Episcopale du Var. This small community tries to keep the original link between Methodism and Anglicanism according to the famous words of Reverend John Wesley : "I simply described the plain old religion of the Church of England, which was now almost everywhere spoken against under the new name of Methodism".

Italy

The Italian Methodist Church ("OPCEMI - Opera per le Chiese Evangeliche Metodiste in Italia) is small,with c.5,000 members. It is in a formal covenant partnership with the Waldensian Church. The Italian Methodist Church was previously an overseas district of the British Methodist Church.

Bertrand Tipple, pastor of the American Methodist Church in Rome, founded a college there.

North America

Bermuda

Bermudamarker's Methodist Synod, is a separate presbytery of the United Church of Canada's Maritime Conference.

Canada

Methodist Episcopal circuit riders from New York Statemarker began to arrive in the Kingstonmarker region on the northeast shore of Lake Ontariomarker in the early 1790s. At the time the region was part of British North America and became part of Upper Canada after the Constitutional Act of 1791. Upper and Lower Canada were both part of the New York Episcopal Methodist Conference until 1810 when they were transferred to the newly formed Genesee Conference. The spread of Methodism in the Canadas was seriously disrupted by the War of 1812 but quickly gained lost ground after the Treaty of Ghent was signed in 1815. In 1817 the British Wesleyans arrived in the Canadas from the Maritimes but by 1820 had agreed, with the Episcopal Methodists, to confine their work to Lower Canada (present-day Quebecmarker) while the later would confine themselves to Upper Canada (present-day Ontariomarker). In 1828 Upper Canadian Methodists were permitted by the General Conference in the United States to form an independent Canadian Conference and, in 1833, the Canadian Conference merged with the British Wesleyans to form the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Canada. The Methodist Church of Canada was an 1884 union of pioneering groups.

In 1925, they merged with the Presbyterians, then by far the largest Protestant communion in Canada, most Congregationalists, Union Churches in Western Canada, and the American Presbyterian Church in Montrealmarker, to form the United Church of Canada. In 1968, the Evangelical United Brethren Church's Canadian congregations joined after their American counterparts joined the United Methodist Church.

See also

Oceania

Australia

Various branches of Methodism in Australia merged in the 20 years from 1881, with a union of all groups except the Lay Methodists forming the Methodist Church of Australasia in 1902.

In 1945 the Rev. Dr. Kingsley Ridgway offered himself as a Melbourne based "field representative" for a possible Australian branch of the Wesleyan Methodist Church of America, after meeting an American serviceman who was a member of that denomination. The Wesleyan Methodist Church of Australia was founded on his work.

The Methodist Church of Australasia merged with the majority of the Presbyterian Church of Australia and the Congregational Union of Australia in 1977, becoming the Uniting Church. The Wesleyan Methodist Church of Australia continues to operate independently. There are also other independent Methodist congregations, some of which were established by, or have been impacted by, Tongan immigrants.

Fiji

As a result of the early efforts of missionaries, most of the natives of the Fijimarker Islands were converted to Methodism in the 1840s and 1850s. Most ethnic Fijians are Methodists today (the others are largely Roman Catholic), and the Methodist Church of Fiji and Rotuma is in important social force.

New Zealand

The Methodist Church of New Zealand is the fourth largest denomination in the country.

Samoan Islands

The Methodist Church is the third largest denomination throughout the Samoan Islands, in both Samoamarker and American Samoamarker

See also



Notes

  1. This social analysis is a summary of a wide variety of books on Methodist history, articles in The Methodist Magazine etc. Most of the Methodist aristocracy were associated with the Countess of Huntingdon who invited Methodist preachers to gatherings she hosted. Methodists were the leaders at that time in reaching out to the poorest of the working classes in any major way. A number of soldiers were also Methodists.
  2. Arminianism is named after Jacobus Arminius, a Dutch Reformed pastor who was trained to preach Calvinism, but concluded that some aspects of Calvinism had to be modified in the light of Scripture. Both of these branches of Reformation doctrine hold as essential the "Solas" - Scripture alone, Grace alone, Faith alone, Glory to God alone. John Wesley was perhaps the clearest English proponent of arminianism. In spite of the differences, these twin strands have much common ground, such as that salvation is entirely a work of God alone with no work by which it can be earned (monergism), and that one cannot either turn to God nor believe unless God has first drawn a person and implanted the desire in their heart (the Wesleyan doctrine of prevenient grace). The primary difference is that Arminians interpret the Bible as teaching that the saving work of Jesus Christ is for all people (general atonement) but effective only to those who believe in accordance with the Reformation principles of Grace alone and Faith alone. While also holding to these principles, the Solas, Calvinists emphasize the deterministic interpretation of Election, that salvation is only for a few decreed by God (limited atonement) while all others are decreed to be condemned.


References

  1. http://www.adherents.com/adh_branches.html#Christianity
  2. Arnold Dallimore. George Whitefield: The Life and Times of the Great Evangelist of the Eighteenth-Century Revival. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Banner of Truth Trust, 1980.
  3. Dallimore. George Whitefield.
  4. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/subdivisions/methodist_1.shtml/ BBC History
  5. Richard Bennett, "Howell Harris and the Dawn of Revival", (1909, Eng. tr. 1962), ISBN 1 85049 035 X
  6. Gwyn Davies, "A Light in the Land", (2002), Ch 5, ISBN 1 85049 181 X
  7. John Wesley, Journal 31 March 1739
  8. Wesley, "Sermons on Several Occasions", No. 53
  9. "The Book of Offices"
  10. Preface to The Methodist Hymn Book, December 1933
  11. John Wesley's "Preface to A collection of Hymns for use of the People called Methodists, October 20th, 1779
  12. Wesley Covenant Prayer
  13. What sorts of bishops?:Models of episcopacy and British Methodism
  14. http://thewru.com/
  15. http://www.imcgb.org.uk/
  16. Anglican-Methodist Covenant
  17. http://www.methodist.org.uk/index.cfm?fuseaction=opentogod.content&cmid=359
  18. [Meyer 200, 354]
  19. Methodist World Peace Commission administered Civilian Public Service units at Duke University Hospital in Durham, North Carolina and Cherokee State (Psychiatric) Hospital in Cherokee, Iowa ( list of CPS Camps).
  20. Camerona, Richard M. Methodism and Society. Vol. 1-3. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1961. Print.
  21. Camerona, Richard M. Methodism and Society. Vol. 1-3. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1961. Print.
  22. Camerona, Richard M. Methodism and Society. Vol. 1-3. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1961. Print.
  23. Camerona, Richard M. Methodism and Society. Vol. 1-3. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1961. Print.
  24. Camerona, Richard M. Methodism and Society. Vol. 1-3. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1961. Print.
  25. Camerona, Richard M. Methodism and Society. Vol. 1-3. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1961. Print.
  26. Camerona, Richard M. Methodism and Society. Vol. 1-3. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1961. Print.
  27. Camerona, Richard M. Methodism and Society. Vol. 1-3. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1961. Print.
  28. Cracknell and White (2005), p. 'i' (frontmatter)
  29. Millard-Jackson, J "Who called the tune? Methodist Missionary policy in South Africa during the 19th century" in Forster, D and Bentley, W. Methodism in Southern Africa: A celebration of Wesleyan Mission. Kempton Park. AcadSA publishers (2008:31).
  30. Forster, D. "God's mission in our context, healing and transforming responses" in Forster, D and Bentley, W. Methodism in Southern Africa: A celebration of Wesleyan Mission. Kempton Park. AcadSA publishers (2008:79-80)
  31. Millard-Jackson, J "Who called the tune? Methodist Missionary policy in South Africa during the 19th century" in Forster, D and Bentley, W. Methodism in Southern Africa: A celebration of Wesleyan Mission. Kempton Park. AcadSA publishers (2008:34-37)
  32. Forster, D. "God's mission in our context, healing and transforming responses" in Forster, D and Bentley, W. Methodism in Southern Africa: A celebration of Wesleyan Mission. Kempton Park. AcadSA publishers (2008:80)
  33. Grassow, P. "William Shaw" in Forster, D and Bentley, W. Methodism in Southern Africa: A celebration of Wesleyan Mission. Kempton Park. AcadSA publishers (2008:13-25)
  34. official website of The Methodist Church of Southern Africa
  35. For a discussion of Church membership statistics in South Africa please refer to Forster, D. "God's mission in our context, healing and transforming responses" in Forster, D and Bentley, W. Methodism in Southern Africa: A celebration of Wesleyan Mission. Kempton Park. AcadSA publishers (2008:97-98)
  36. Stephen Livingstone Baldwin, Foreign Missions of the Protestant Churches, 1900
  37. The Hindu: Entertainment / Religion: In commemoration of John Wesley
  38. GBGM Feature
  39. http://www.umc.org
  40. http://www.iemelif.org
  41. http://www.uccp.ph
  42. http://www.wesleyan.org/
  43. http://cebu.freemethodistchurch.org/aboutus.html
  44. http://www.nazarene.org.ph/
  45. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9500E6DE113FE633A25755C2A9679C946596D6CF
  46. World COuncil of Churches, Methodist Church in Fiji and Rotuma.
  47. J A Clapperton, "Romance and Heroism in Early Methodism", (1901)
  48. Edgar Parkyns, "His Waiting Bride", (1996), pp169-170, ISBN 0 9526800 0 9
  49. Gwyn Davies, "A Light in the Land", (2002), p. 46, ISBN 1 85049 181 X
  50. John Wesley, Sermons on Several Occasions for further detail.
  51. J. Steven Harper, "The Way to Heaven: The Gospel According to John Wesley", (1983), ISBN 0310252601
  52. J S Banks, "The development of Doctrine - Early Middle Ages to the Reformation" in the "Books for Bible Students" series, (1901), Part 3, Ch. II and VI where the issues of determinism and the differences from Luther are discussed.
  53. "The Baptist Confession of Faith 1689", Section 3, p. 13, edited by Peter Masters, The Wakeman Trust, (1981), ISBN 1 870855 24 8


  • Cracknell, Kenneth and White, Susan J. (2005) An Introduction to World Methodism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-81849-4.


Further reading

World

  • Dowson, Jean and Hutchinson, John (2003) John Wesley: His Life, Times and Legacy [CD-ROM], Methodist Publishing House, TB214
  • Forster, DA and Bentley, W (eds.) (2008)What are we thinking? Reflections on Church and Society from Southern African Methodists. Methodist Publishing House, Cape Town. ISBN 978-91988352-6.
  • Forster, DA and Bentley, W (eds.) (2008) Methodism in Southern Africa: A celebration of Wesleyan Mission AcadSA Publishers, Kempton Park. ISBN 978-1-920212-29-2
  • Harmon, Nolan B. (ed.) (1974) The Encyclopedia of World Methodism, Nashville: Abingdon Press, ISBN 0-687-11784-4.
  • Heitzenrater, Richard P. (1994) Wesley and the People Called Methodists, Nashville: Abingdon Press, ISBN 0-687-01682-7
  • Hempton, David (2005) Methodism: Empire of the Spirit, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-10614-9
  • Hempton, David (1984) Methodism and Politics in British Society, 1750-1850, Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-80471-269-7
  • Kent, John (2002) Wesley and the Wesleyans, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-45532-4
  • Warner, Wellman J. (1930) The Wesleyan Movement in the Industrial Revolution, London: Longmans, Green, 299 p.


African Americans

  • Campbell, James T. (1995) Songs of Zion: The African Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States and South Africa, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-507892-6
  • George, Carol V.R. (1973) Segregated Sabbaths: Richard Allen and the Rise of Independent Black Churches, 1760-1840, New York: Oxford University Press, LCCN 73076908
  • Montgomery, William G. (1993) Under Their Own Vine and Fig Tree: The African-American Church in the South, 1865-1900, Louisiana State University Press, ISBN 0-80711-745-5
  • Walker, Clarence E. (1982) A Rock in a Weary Land: The African Methodist Episcopal Church During the Civil War and Reconstruction, Louisiana State University Press, ISBN 0-80710-883-9
  • Wills, David W. and Newman, Richard (eds.) (1982) Black Apostles at Home and Abroad: Afro-American and the Christian Mission from the Revolution to Reconstruction, Boston, MA: G. K. Hall, ISBN 0-81618-482-8


USA and Canada

  • Cameron, Richard M. (ed.) (1961) Methodism and Society in Historical Perspective, 4 vol., New York: Abingdon Press
  • Lyerly, Cynthia Lynn (1998) Methodism and the Southern Mind, 1770-1810, Religion in America Series, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-511429-9
  • Meyer, Donald (1988) The Protestant Search for Political Realism, 1919-1941, Wesleyan University Press, ISBN 0-81955-203-8
  • Rawlyk, G.A. (1994) The Canada Fire: Radical Evangelicalism in British North America, 1775-1812, Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, ISBN 0-7735-1221-7
  • Schmidt, Jean Miller (1999) Grace Sufficient: A History of Women in American Methodism, 1760-1939, Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press ISBN 0-687-15675-0
  • Semple, Neil (1996) The Lord's Dominion: The History of Canadian Methodism, Buffalo: McGill-Queen's University Press, ISBN 0-7735-1367-1
  • Sweet, William Warren (1954) Methodism in American History, Revision of 1953, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 472 p.
  • Wigger, John H. (1998) Taking Heaven by Storm: Methodism and the Rise of Popular Christianity in America, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-510452-8 – p. ix & 269 focus on 1770-1910


Primary sources

  • Richey, Russell E., Rowe, Kenneth E. and Schmidt, Jean Miller (eds.) (2000) The Methodist Experience in America: a sourcebook, Nashville: Abingdon Press, ISBN 0-687-24673-3 – 756 p. of original documents
  • Sweet, William Warren (ed.) (1946) Religion on the American Frontier: Vol. 4, The Methodists,1783-1840: A Collection of Source Materials, New York: H. Holt & Co., – 800 p. of documents regarding the American frontier


External links




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